The North and South Diverging Societies

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The North and South:Diverging societies

Early 17th c. North, Middle & South (English transplantations) Mid 18th c. Descentralized confederation of Mid 19th c. Sectionalism states

Northeast Southwest

Northwest

Southeast Slavery

Free-labor economy

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united _states/us_terr_1800.jpg http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united _states/us_terr_1850.jpg

NORTH-Industry

1840-1860 spectacular growth - machine tools - coal Economic - rubber industry figures - sewing machine

1860s state of decline

British competitors Factory system (manufacture vs

trade)

Merchants capitalists Entrepreneurs who engaged in foreign trade, who invested their capital in banks and, sometimes, financed domestic manufacturers.-New York, Philadelphia, Boston-

-Transportation systemMoving raw materials between East and West 1840s Railroads 1850-1860 railroads tripled

Funding

Private American investors Abroad Local government (subsudies, lands, stock subscriptions)

-Cities and immigrants

From

native farming classes immigrants (Italy, England, France, Ireland, Germany)Native American Soc.

Nativism 1837

Know Nothings 1852

Increasing immigration from abroad Migration into cities Industrialization Commercial growth

-Conditions of living -Social organization -Working conditions

-Wealth Unequal distribution

-Women and cult of domesticityFamily unit of economic activity (worked together, sharing tasks, earning money)

Agricultural work more commercialized -Male workersDifferences in gender

Differences within the NorthNortheastNorthwest

-Industrial -Greater population

- Agricultural

-Great demand (enlarge area of cultivation; new agricultural techniques; new tools and farm machines)

Mid 19th c.

Growth in population Agricultural economy

Sugar, rice, tabacco, cotton

Slaves

Industries and trade developed slowly Rudimentary financial systemMarketers/Factors

Climate less suitable for industrial development Way of life: values and traditions

-Plantation society Planter aristocracyCotton magnates White people with 40 or 50 slaves 800 acres or more Determined political, economic and social life Black servants honor Small farmers depended on them

-Southern ladyHome life Nurturing mothers No public activities Relativey isolated without without access to the public world. Supervise slave work force Ornament for her husband Little access to education

-Peculiar institution: Slavery

Regulated by law (could not: hold property, leave without their masters permission, carry irearms, congregate, marry/divorce) If killed by a white person, the act was not considered a crime. Any trace of African ancestry meant being black

Blacks and whites developed a form of intimacy -blacks preferred plantations (privacy and world of their own) -responsible slaves assisted head drivers -healthyslave population (adequate diet, cheap clothing and shoes, medical care)

Slave tradeDemographic consequence development of the Southwest Transfered to a central market (train, river streamers, foot)

Grafico de barras libro pagina 338!

Slave resistance

Complex combination of adaptation and resistance

Sambo acted out the role that he recognized the white world expected Slave rebel spirit of rebelliousness

Harriet Tubman with Scaped Slaves

Powerful institutionsReligion -Not supposed to exist -Churches banned by law -Hold services in secret -Emphasis on dream of freedom and deliverance Family -Legal restrictions -Adoptions -Dependant on whites

Thank you!