THE MUSIC IN THE
CONTENTSMusical context. Chronology.CharacteristicsIntroductionInstruments of BaroqueInstrumental formsThe Baroque operaOther vocal formsComposers
IntroductionCONTEXTIt was known as the age of enlightenmentThe power of reason was as important (or more) as faithThe influence of middle class rose, and helped lay the groundwork for the American and French RevolutionsIt was the time of absolute monarchies, with Louis XIV: the king and the aristocracy marked the artistic patron, not the churchThe scientific method came into being: Newton (gravity), Harvey (circulation of blood), Kepler ( the elliptical motion of planets)
ARTSThe term Baroque was derived from a portuguese word meaning a pearl of irregular shapeIt was used to imply strangeness, abnormality and extravagances applying more to art than musicArchitecture: featured by movement, chiaroscuro, and the grandeur. Borromini, Bernini.Sculpture: eagerness by the movement, exalted expression and gesture and theatricality. Bernini.Painting: predilection by the naturalism, dynamism, optic effects and a strong expressivity; dramatic intensity and especial use of the lights and shadows. Velzquez, Rubens, Murillo, Rembrandt.
Some examples of baroque art:
II) MUSICAL CONTEXTThe technical, compositional and organizational demands on music directors for the royal courts were quite high, and it was necessary for influential musical figures to curry the favour of the courtMusic directors in churches also had the juggle organizational and educational demands on his time with the need to constantly promote new musicThe demands of performance settings were quite high, and possibly as a result, some of the highest quality compositions ever created came from this period
Chronology: 1. Early Baroque (1600-1640): homophonic and polyphonic textures2. Middle Baroque (1640-1680): spread from Italy throughout Europe; mayor and minor scales in compositions3. Late Baroque (1680-1750): instrumental compositions became just as important as vocal compositions
III) CHARACTERISTICSGENERALSBass continuo: a keyboard and a bass instrument help to convey the harmonic support of chords under the melodyMajor/Minoir tonalitiesFunctional harmony: melodic and harmonic sequences, free use of disonanceDoctrine of affectionsMetric beats are very strict in tempo/ senza batuta tempoContrast of dynamic, texture, rhythm, colour and number of voices and instrumentsTerraced dynamicsUse of imitative polyphony and homophonic textureRich counterpoint and a highly decorated melodic lineImprovisation and virtuosity
III) CHARACTERISTICSINSTRUMENTAL MUSICIncrease of its importance Use of absolute musicUse of monothematic compositions, thematic variations and sequencingsInclination to contrast large sounds against small sounds (concerto grosso)The orchestra and forms such as concert, suite, sonata appear Some ancient instrument disapperar and other news appear
VOCAL MUSICEnsemble size is usually quite small (chois of 12 25 not uncommon)Camerata instigated monody, recitatie and opera, against Renaissance polyphony1631: professional female singers appear on the stageThe opera was conceived with its homophonic style to focus the listeners concentraon on the poetic melody of the singerCantata, oratorio and pasion were conceived too
IV) INSTRUMENTS OF BAROQUEKEYBOARDSOrganHarpsichordClavichord, virginal, espinetaSTRINGViolin, viola, cello double-bassGuitar, lute, vihuelaWINDWoodwind: bassoon, flute, oboeBrasswind: horn, trumpet, trombonPERCUSSION- Timpani
V) INSTRUMENTAL FORMSCONCERTO GROSSO: a solo instrument or a small group of soloists contrasts with an orchestral ensemble; presents a contrast in texture between the group (tutti) and the soloists (ripieno). Composers: Corelli, Torelli, Haendel. Bach and Vivaldi used the type of ripieno and solo concerto too, with three movements with the quick ones in ritornello form.
SUITE: collection of small pieces based on dances, grouped togheter into a set with the same key but differing in tempo, meter and character; their structure of each one was binary (section A, ending to the dominant and returning to tonic during B). Composers: Bach, Haendel, Couperin, Froberger
V) INSTRUMENTAL FORMSSONATA: multimovement work composed for an unaccompanied solo sonata (one instrument), accompanied solo sonata (one instrument with basso continuo) and trio sonata (two instruments and basso continuo). Their movements contrast in tempo and texture. They can be Church Sonata, played in parts of a church with organ in the continuo parts, or Chamber Sonata, with dance movements and harpsichord in the continuo parts.
FUGUE: a composition (or technique) in which a theme is developed by imitative counterpoint. It stars with the exposition of the subject (main theme in the tonic); while the 2nd voice enters with the answer (subject in the dominant) the 1st proceed with the countersubject. This procedure is repeated until all the voices have entered. Then, the entries of the subject are separated by episodes. The middle entries can be in other keys, treating the theme in stretto or other variations. The final entry of the subject is in the tonic key. Its performed by keyboards.
V) INSTRUMENTAL FORMSImprovisatory forms, such as prelude, fantasia, toccata. Without specific rules, they share some common items: contrapuntual texture, rapid scales, sustained chords and figuration. They are usually performed by keyboards.
Chorale prelude: Played in church music, a cantus firmus has longer note values in any part of the piece, e.x. in the pedals, while at other times each phrase of the chorale would appear in imitative counterpoint. Its performed by organ.
Variation forms: such as canzona, cantus firmus, dance suites. They are also called passacaglia and chaconne. Theyre performed mainly by keyboards.
Overture: its an orchestral piece introducing an opera or other longer work. French overture has two movements (slow-fast) and Italian overture has three movements (fast-slow-fast)
VI) THE BAROQUE OPERAORIGIN: It began in Italy, in the early 1600s, inspired by Greek mythology and ancient history, to flatter a identified aristocracy with this subjects and themes. Its composed of music, orchestra, libretto, performers, costuming and stage design.
STRUCTURAL PARTS:- Solo vocal lines:. Recitative, that follows the rhythms and intonations of speech and will serve to tell the story and to carry the action. Aria, that are more expressive and melodious, serves to reflect upon the eventes and to express feelings - Orchestral parts:. Overture, that opens the opera. Two types: French (2 sections slow-fast) Neapolitan (3 sections fast-slow-fast). Instrumental interludes
VI) THE BAROQUE OPERAEVOLUTIONITALIAN OPERA- Florence: The Camerata Florentine brought back ancient Greek tragedy and created the new style. Early operas collected recitatives and occasional orchestral interludes. Monteverdi (Orfeo and Eudidice 1607) Peri, Caccini. Music was subservient to the words. - Rome: (1620s) The separation between recitative and aria was more marked; music started became more important and it was more focus on religious subjects. - Venice: The opera was more popular, the fist commercial opera house was opened (San casiano, 1637). It used recitatives, arias, duets, historical subjects, elaborate stage machinery and complex and improbable plots. Composers: Monteverdi, Cesti, Cavalli.- Naples: It became more artificial and formalized, it used aria da capo (ABA) but less recitative. The castrati, the superstars, improvised with their vocal technique and virtuosity.
EVOLUTION OF ITALIAN OPERA1. FLORENCE: The Camerata Florentinebrought back ancient Greek tragedy creating the new style. Early operas collected recitatives and occasional orchestral interludes. Monteverdi (Orfeo and Eudidice 1607) Peri, Caccini. Music was subservient to the words.2. ROME: (1620s) The separation between recitative and aria was more marked; music started became more important and it was more focus on religious subjects. 4. NAPLES: It became more artificial and formalized, it used aria da capo (ABA) but less recitative. The castrati, the superstars, improvised with their vocal technique and virtuosity. 3. VENICE: The opera was more popular, the first commercial opera house was opened (San casiano Theatre, 1637). It used recitatives, arias, duets, historical subjects, elaborate stage machinery and complex and improbable plots. Composers: Monteverdi, Cesti, Cavalli.
FRENCH OPERAInspired by popular french dramas and court balletsWith Lully, ballets were entered into operas, creating its tragedies-lyriquesUse of Greek myths, clear texts, importante of the drama, recitatives and arias merged into one anotherFrench overtureBallets were the major partRameau used sophisticated orchestral effectsENGLISH OPERA- Italian operas were tipically performed in London. They were more involved in theatre music forms: a masque and incidental and entracte musicHaendels operas in England, in italian style. He used arias da capo in a strictly way, form that abandoned Xerxes by strophic ones.Henry Purcell composed one important opera, based in mythology, Dido and Eneas
GENRES OF BAROQUE OPERASERIOUS OPERAReform of Zeno and Metastasio Librettos divested of comic scenes and supernatural or implausible elementsTexts that exalt virtues, such as loyalty, patriotismArias and recitatives sharply separatedAria gained importance, while chorus declinedCastratiCOMIC OPERAWith vigour, exuberance, spontaneity and charming fluency; parody of serious opera, satire and humourPlots and characters more down-to-earth and lightAria ca capo