The Movement Disorder Society and Movement Disorders: A Modern History

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<ul><li><p>The Movement Disorder Society and Movement Disorders:A Modern History</p><p>Christopher G. Goetz, MD1* and Anne McGhiey, CAE2</p><p>1Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA2Executive Director, Movement Disorder Society, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA</p><p>ABSTRACT: The Movement Disorder Society(MDS) developed out of a merger with two short-livedorganizations, the Movement Disorder Society, primar-ily organized to develop a journal for the subspecialty,and the International Society of Motor Disturbances,primarily organized to develop international con-gresses. The formal merger of the Movement DisorderSociety and the International Society of Motor Distur-bances into the Movement Disorder Society took placeat the 2nd International Congress of Movement Disor-ders in Munich, Germany, in June 1992. Whereas thejournal, Movement Disorders, and the annual Interna-tional Congress of Parkinsons Disease and Movement</p><p>Disorders remain the anchors of the society, the goalsnow include the development of regional symposia, re-gional sections, Web-based educational programs, andoutreach efforts to include young investigators, wideinternational membership, and inclusion of non-neurol-ogists, including basic scientists, neurosurgeons, andnonphysician health professionals. Movement Disor-ders has a continuingly growing subscribership andrising impact factor. VC 2011 Movement Disorder Society</p><p>Key Words: Movement Disorder Society; MDS; Move-ment Disorders; movement disorders; neurological history</p><p>Introduction: Movement DisordersAnd Neurological Societies Prior to</p><p>the Mid-1980s</p><p>Whereas the 19th century can be viewed historicallyas the century that established neurology as a specialtyin medicine, the 20th century, specically the secondhalf, marked the evolution of movement disorders as adistinct neurological domain. The World Federation ofNeurology (WFN), founded in 1957 under the impetusof Ludwig van Bogaert, MacDonald Critchley, Perce-vil Bailey, and other world leaders, gathered neurolo-</p><p>gists together to form an international body ofneurological focus. Even in its early years, however,the WFN fostered special interest groups, termedResearch Commissions. The rst of these bodies con-cerned Geographical Neurology, Statistics andEpidemiology (1959), and Neurochemistry (1959),but thereafter other groups formed. In this process,subspecialty groups evolved into Research Groups,including one devoted to extrapyramidal disorders,organized by Melvin Yahr in 195960, and one onHuntingtons disease, founded a few years later byAndre Barbeau. Membership to these groups involvedan application submitted to the ofcers of the exist-ing group, which voted on admission. Although thesize of these bodies was small, occasionally largersymposia were sponsored that allowed largerparticipation.1</p><p>At the American Academy of Neurology (AAN),the concept of sections was developed in 1980, andthe Section of Neuropharmacology was the secondsection to be formed.2 Organized largely under thedirectorship of Thomas Chase, this group allied clini-cians, researchers, and industry representatives withshared interests in clinical neuropharmacologicalissues largely linked to movement disorders. This</p><p>------------------------------------------------------------*Correspondence to: Dr. Christopher G. Goetz, Rush University MedicalCenter, Suite 755; 1725 W. Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA;cgoetz@rush.edu</p><p>Relevant conicts of interest/nancial disclosures: Christopher G.Goetz received a stipend from MDS as Co-Editor-in-Chief of MovementDisorders from 2004 to 2010. Anne McGhiey is a full-time employee ofExecutive Director Inc., which has the management contract with MDS.Full nancial disclosures and author roles may be found in the onlineversion of this article.</p><p>Received: 15 October 2010; Revised: 17 January 2011; Accepted: 24January 2011Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).DOI: 10.1002/mds.23689</p><p>R E V I E W</p><p>Movement Disorders, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2011 939</p></li><li><p>group was replaced by the AAN Section of Move-ment Disorders, which developed in 1995.</p><p>MODIS and ISMD</p><p>The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) developed asa merger of two short-lived organizations, the Move-ment Disorder Society (MODIS) and the InternationalMedical Society of Motor Disturbances (ISMD). In themid-1980s, Stanley Fahn suggested that a society de-velop with the primary aim of publishing a subspecialtyjournal. In a 2000 interview, he recounted these rstconsiderations that emerged out of his friendship withC. David Marsden and his teaching experiences at inter-national meetings, especially the AAN, where video ma-terial was a pivotal teaching medium3:</p><p>. . . [T]he idea came that we needed a journal. And Isuggested to C. David Marsden, if we were going to havea journal, instead of having a publisher or a publishingcompany own the journal and get all the prots, and weas editors just do all the work, we ought to found a soci-ety. And would he join me in organizing a society, sincehe was a leading European movement disorders expert atthat time? So I decided if he knows all the European neu-rologists and I knew a lot of the American ones, maybe,together, we could jointly found this society. So we calledit the Movement Disorders Society (p. 49).3</p><p>His interview continued with further recollections:</p><p>We developed a questionnaire at the time of an inter-</p><p>national Parkinsons Symposium that was held in New</p><p>York City in 1985.. . .and I asked people if they would be</p><p>willing to join, would they be willing to pay dues. The</p><p>purpose would be to have a journal. And it was over-</p><p>whelmingpeople responded in favor of that, so we</p><p>decided for the World Congress of Neurology in Ham-</p><p>burg, Germany, to be held in September of 85, to hold a</p><p>little meeting. I invited a few besides David and</p><p>myself. . .to join us in my hotel room one evening as sort</p><p>of the founders of this new society: Joe Jankovic and Ira</p><p>Shoulson, who were the Americans, and Andrew Lees</p><p>from London and Eduardo Tolosa from Barcelona, who</p><p>were the other two Europeans.. . .Now, it turned out, Ira</p><p>couldnt come that night. And he joined subsequently. So</p><p>the ve of us were there and we decided formally to do</p><p>this. We decided to hold a little organizational meeting</p><p>the next day with people we respected. . .to discuss it and</p><p>form a steering committee; I was appointed as the presi-</p><p>dent or chairman of the steering committee. I was asked</p><p>to negotiate with the publisher and get the thing started</p><p>(p. 49; see Fig. 1).3</p><p>Simultaneously, in 1985 at the same Hamburg meet-ing, Reiner Benecke gathered several colleagues to dis-cuss the formation of a society primarily focused onthe organization of international movement disordercongresses. The formation of the International Societyof Motor Disturbances was described as follows in theISMD Newsletter No. 1, Autumn 1987:</p><p>The idea of founding ISMD sprang from the close sci-</p><p>entic collaboration between the Abteilung fur Klinische</p><p>Neurophysiologie, Gottingen and the Department of</p><p>Neurology, London. An underlying aim of the close sci-</p><p>entic cooperation between these two centers was to cre-</p><p>ate a synthesis between pathophysiological mechanisms,</p><p>which are detected primarily with neurophysiological</p><p>methods, clinical symptoms, and various therapeutic</p><p>approaches.. . .The founders of the ISMD were in agree-</p><p>ment that the main objective of the society should be to</p><p>bring together clinicians and scientists within the frame-</p><p>work of international congresses.. . .One conclusion</p><p>drawn from the rst congress was that combining a sci-</p><p>entic paper with vivid videotape presentations is</p><p>extremely effective (p. 1).4</p><p>As is clear from the reference to Department ofNeurology, London, C. David Marsden was also amember of this organizing team. In a 2006 interviewfor the Movement Disorders Archives, Mark Hallett,an early member of both new societies, recalled nd-ing yers announcing two different societies. At areception, he encountered Fahn and Marsden together:</p><p>I addressed my point to David. I said, David, what is</p><p>that about two different societies? And Stan Fahn said,</p><p>Two societies? And David said, Oh, yes Stan, I was</p><p>meaning to tell you about that (p. 1).5</p><p>The two societies carefully sculpted their missions inan overtly noncompetitive and supportive manner: theMODIS developed a society-owned video-based jour-nal, had a largely clinical research focus, and, althoughinternational, drew its largest membership from NorthAmerica; the ISMD developed international congresses,</p><p>FIG. 1. Group photo from Hamburg meeting to establish the MODIS,1985. From left: Eduardo Toloso, Stanley Fahn, Andrew Lees, JosephJankovic, C.D. Marsden. All of these leaders have served as presidentof the MDS (Table 2).</p><p>G O E T Z A N D M C G H I E Y</p><p>940 Movement Disorders, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2011</p></li><li><p>had a strong physiological anchor, and drew its primarymembership from Europe.The leadership of the two organizations recognized</p><p>an overall goal of international representation for both.The ISMDs presidents were European or North Ameri-can and served 2-year terms (Table 1). The MODIS wasrun by a steering committee composed of North Ameri-can and European leaders and chaired by Stanley Fahn.In 1988, MODIS held its rst Executive Committeemeeting with Stanley Fahn representing the MODISSteering Committee.6 The rst MODIS elections forpresident were held in 1991, and Stanley Fahn waselected to assume the post of the societys ofcial rstpresident with C. David Marsden elected simultane-ously to become the president-elect (Table 1).7</p><p>The MODIS reached its primary aim of developinga journal, and the rst issue of Movement Disordersappeared in 1986 (see below). The rst organizedISMD congress was held in Lausanne, Switzerland, inJune 1986, with a resultant published selection of keyarticles.8 With a planned format of biannual con-gresses, a second meeting in 1988 took place in Romewith a similar summary publication.9</p><p>The overlapping membership and success of boththe journal and the international meetings rapidly ledto the consideration of a merger of the two societies.As a test of the concept, the rst initiative was ajointly sponsored meeting that took place in 1990 inWashington, DC, as the First International Congressof Movement Disorders. Within the congress setting, acombined ISMD/MODIS business meeting occurredwhere members discussed a proposal to merge.10 Asecond jointly sponsored congress followed in 1992 asfurther merger discussions continued. Finally, on Feb-ruary 8, 1992, in a 12-hour meeting, the two mergergroups met in London. The session was chaired by C.David Marsden, with Stanley Fahn, Joseph Jankovic,</p><p>Anthony Lang, and Andrew Lees ofcially represent-ing MODIS and Alfredo Berardelli, Reiner Benecke,Bastian Conrad, and Mark Hallett ofcially represent-ing ISMD. Mark Hallett recalled the meeting:</p><p>Everyone believed that he [C. David Marsden] had his</p><p>heart in the right place in terms of putting the two soci-</p><p>eties together, so he was the chair of it, and then others</p><p>of us were there representing one or the other society in</p><p>this regard.. . .Thinking about who was there, its hard to</p><p>remember who was on what side, because there was a</p><p>lot of overlap in terms of membership (p. 7).5</p><p>The group came to an agreement and drafted a re-vised constitution and bylaws for approval by both theISMD and MODIS memberships. For MODIS, 493members (69%) responded to the vote, and 491 were infavor of accepting the proposed constitutional amend-ments that would permit a merger to go forward.Within the ISMD, 113 members (51%) responded, and110 were in favor of accepting the proposed merger.11</p><p>Financial equality helped the merger, as the twosocieties came to the negotiations with relatively equalbank accounts (ISMD $112,896 and MODIS$167,221).10 One of the knotty points concerned thename of the new society. Hallett recalled:</p><p>So a lot of discussion transpired about what the name</p><p>of the society should be. Stan Fahn, who was. . .the foun-</p><p>der of MODIS, advocated very strongly to maintain the</p><p>name Movement Disorder Society, and it was really a</p><p>sensible thing to do. However, there was a lot of objec-</p><p>tion to that from the ISMD side, because it sounded like</p><p>it might seem like the old society was continuing. And so</p><p>thats where the abbreviation changed, so to make it</p><p>clear that this was not the same Movement Disorder So-</p><p>ciety as the old one. It was considered inappropriate to</p><p>TABLE 1. Leadership of the MODIS and ISMD prior to their merger and the formation of the MDS</p><p>MODIS ISMD president Congress</p><p>1985 Steering committee chaired by Stanley Fahn C. David Marsden1986 C. David Marsden Lausanne, Switzerland (ISMD), June 1921, 19861987 Mario Manfredi1988 Mario Manfredi Rome, Italy (ISMD), June 24, 19881989 Mark Hallett1990 Mark Hallett Washington, DC, USA (MODIS/ISMD)1st International</p><p>Congress of Movement Disorders, April 2527, 19901991 Stanley Fahn: rst MODIS president starting</p><p>Aug. 1991Bastian Conrad</p><p>1992 Merger to MDS: leadership shifted to MDS(see Table 2)</p><p>Bastian Conrad See Table 2 for MDS Congresses1993 C.W. Olanow1994 C.W. Olanow: nal details of merger</p><p>concluded and full leadership shiftedto MDS</p><p>With the merger of MODIS and ISMD in 1992 to form MDS, overall leadership shifted to MDS (see Table 2). The ISMD remained as a scal entity until 1994,with B. Conrad serving as president in 1992 and C.W. Olanow serving as the nal ISMD president in 199394 and rst treasurer of MDS to coordinate thecomplicated scal issues of bringing one tax-free organizations into a single entity.</p><p>H I S T O R Y O F M D S A N D M O V E M E N T D I S O R D E R S</p><p>Movement Disorders, Vol. 26, No. 6, 2011 941</p></li><li><p>continue to call it MODIS, and it should be called MDS</p><p>instead (p. 8).5</p><p>The MODIS had never had a logo, so one additionalnegotiation involved the ofcial adoption of the ISMDlogo as the new MDS logo, thereby allowing a visualsymbol of continuity for the ISMD to balance theMovement Disorder Society retention for the MODIS.The logo was an original artistic contribution by Mrs.Reiner Benecke.5</p><p>The Movement Disorder Society asa Merged International Organization</p><p>The formal merger of the MODIS and ISMD intothe Movement Disorder Society (MDS) took place atthe 2nd International Congress of Movement Disor-ders in Munich, Germany in June, 1992.11 The rstpresident of the combined society was C. David Mars-den, and the rst treasurer, in charge of resolving thecomplicated nances of the merger, was C.W. Olanow(see Table 2).12 The 1st Congress of the MovementDisorder Society as a single body took place in Or-lando, Florida, in November 1994. At the end of thatyear, with the nal nancial details of the mergerresolved, the ISMD dissolved as a separate body.One of the many long-lasting contributions of C.</p><p>David Marsden was his leadership in developing thebylaws and constitution of the MDS and ensuringclear denitions of the leadership responsibilities. Thisframework served as the architectural foundation of</p><p>the society. The MDS ofcers include seven leaders:president, secretary, treasurer,...</p></li></ul>

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