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THE INFLUENCE OF FOAMED BITUMEN CHARACTERISTICS ON · PDF file THE INFLUENCE OF FOAMED BITUMEN CHARACTERISTICS ON COLD-MIX ASPHALT PROPERTIES Sri Sunarjono, Ir., M.T. Thesis submitted

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  • School of Civil Engineering Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre

    THE INFLUENCE OF FOAMED BITUMEN CHARACTERISTICS ON

    COLD-MIX ASPHALT PROPERTIES

    Sri Sunarjono, Ir., M.T.

    Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    January 2008

  • ii

    To

    Allah, Rasulullah,

    Dienul Islam,

    My Mother – Hj. Niek Djadmini, In Memory of My Father – Martojo H.P.,

    My Family–Anisah, Asmaa, Afifah, Fatin, Zakiy and Farah.

  • iii

    ABSTRACT

    The increase of road infrastructure around the world and its impact on the

    environment requires that serious attention is given to building more sustainable

    pavement constructions. Foamed asphalt (FA) as an increasingly attractive cold

    asphalt mixture, is therefore becoming an important subject area for study.

    The effect of foaming water content (FWC) on foamed bitumen (FB) characteristics

    has been identified in terms of maximum expansion ratio (ERm) and half-life (HL).

    ERm is the ratio between maximum foam volume achieved and the volume of

    original bitumen, whereas HL is the time that the foam takes to collapse to half of its

    maximum volume. The value of ERm increases with increasing FWC, while the HL

    value shows the opposite trend. In general, for FB 160/220 (FB produced using

    bitumen Pen 160/220), lower bitumen temperature produces higher ERm, whereas

    for FB 50/70, this trend is reversed. For FB 70/100 the trend was inconsistent.

    FB properties (which depend on FWC) are concluded to have a moderate effect on

    FA performance. Mixing protocol and binder type are found to have a more

    dominant effect than foam properties. The effect of foam properties is only clearly

    defined in well mixed specimens, based on stiffness evaluation. The stiffness over

    various FWC values was found to be affected by a combination of ERm and apparent

    viscosity of the foam. Three zones of ERm values are proposed, namely a poor zone,

    a stable zone and an unstable zone. The poor ERm zone is between 3 and 8

    (corresponding to wet foam quality, i.e. 52%-87% gas content), the stable zone is

    between 8 and 25 (for FA using FB 50/70 at 180oC) or 8 and 33 (for FA using FB

    70/100 at 180oC), and beyond this ERm value (25 or 33) is the unstable zone. For

    FA using FB 160/200, no zone categories could be defined since no significant

    variation in stiffness was observed over the range of ERm values.

    Finally, practical guidance for producing an optimised FA mixture has been

    proposed. This guidance consists of considerations related to mixer type and usage,

    selection of binder type, bitumen temperature, minimum and maximum application

  • iv

    limits of ERm or FWC, and suggestions are made to obtain the best chance of

    optimum performance in different climatic regions.

  • v

    DECLARATION

    The research reported in this thesis was conducted at the University of Nottingham, School of Civil Engineering, Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre (NTEC), between February 2005 and January 2008. I declare that the work is my own and has not been submitted for a degree at another university.

    Sri Sunarjono Nottingham January 2008

  • vi

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    All praise and thanks are due to Allah. Almighty who sustained me throughout and enable me to pursue this study.

    The author would like to thank the Indonesian government, the Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta and the School of Civil Engineering of the University of Nottingham for financial support for the research and for giving permission to study at the University of Nottingham. Tarmac Dene Quarry who provided the crushed limestone aggregate and Mansfield Asphalt who provided RAP for this study are gratefully acknowledged.

    The author would like to express his thanks to Dr. N.H. Thom for his excellent supervision, guidance, support and encouragement throughout the course of this study. Thanks are also due to my co-supervisors Dr. S.E. Zoorob and Assoc. Prof. A. R. Dawson for their continued guidance, encouraging and advice.

    Special thanks are also given to all the NTEC academic staff, namely Prof. A.C. Collop, Prof. S.F. Brown, Prof. Gordon Airey, Assoc. Prof Tony Parry, Dr. Lloyd Bennett and Dr. James Grenfell, as well as my supervisors. Here, I would like to accord particular thanks to Assoc. Prof Tony Parry for his enthusiasm and constructive criticism of my thesis, and with whom I had many useful discussions.

    Thanks are also due to the technical and secretarial staff of the Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, namely Barry Brodrick, Christopher Fox, Jonathan Watson, Michael Winfield, Richard Blakemore, Lawrence Pont, Neil Parkes, Martyn Barrett, Nancy Hodge, Michael Pepper, Richard Meehan, Angela Gilbert, Sheila Provost and Carole Yates for their valuable assistance regarding laboratory experimental works and office administration matters.

    I would also like to thank my research friends, Dr. M.A. Wahab Yusof, Dr. Musarrat Halima Mohammed, Dr. Joel Olivera, Dr. Hasan Taherkhani, Dr. Cho Ching Joe Kwan, Dr. York Lee, Riccardo Isola, Dr. Min-Chih Liao (Ted), Muslich Hartadi Sutanto, Poranic Jitareekul (Pic), Phillip Boothroyd, Junwei Wu, Jiantao Wu (Jed), Xiaoyi Shi, Viet Hung Nguyen, Muhammad Mubaraki, Rawid Khan, Naveed Ahmad, Mustafa Kamal, Md. Yusoff Nur Izzi, Nazmi Abdul Rahman, Seyi Oke, Lelio Brito, Pierpaolo Viola, Elisa Salighini, Mohd. Jakarni Fauzan and Buhari Rosnawati with whom I have shared many valuable times.

    Finally, the author is extremely grateful to his wife, Dra. Anisah Suryani Husain, my children, Asmaa Askarotillah Syafiisab, Afifah Amaly Syahidah, Tsurayya Fatin Hijriyah, Muhammad Zakiy Askarulloh and Ratifsa Farah Zafira, my mother and my mother-in-law for their unconditional, patient and continued support throughout the research period.

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................ iii DECLARATION …………...……………………………………………………. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………..... vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………... vii LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………..... xi LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………xviii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS …………………………………………………… xx LIST OF SYMBOLS ……………………………………………………………xxiii

    1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1 1.1 Background ...................................................................................................2

    1.1.1 What is foamed bitumen? .....................................................................2 1.1.2 How is foamed bitumen used in road construction? .............................3 1.1.3 A brief history of foamed asphalt technology.......................................5 1.1.4 Considerations in using foamed asphalt technology.............................8

    1.2 Problem Statement ........................................................................................9 1.2.1 Executive summary of literature review ...............................................9 1.2.2 Research Need.....................................................................................11

    1.3 Research Objectives ....................................................................................11 1.4 Scope of Work ............................................................................................12 1.5 Structure of the Report ................................................................................13

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................... 14 2.1 Introduction................................................................................................ 14 2.2 Road Pavement Materials .......................................................................... 14

    2.2.1 Pavement layers ................................................................................. 14 2.2.2 Failure mechanism............................................................................. 17 2.2.3 Fracture mechanism in binder-aggregate mixture ............................. 18 2.2.4 Types of road materials...................................................................... 21

    2.3 Fundamental Properties of Bituminous Materials ..................................... 26 2.3.1 Stiffness Modulus .............................................................................. 26 2.3.2 Resistance to Permanent Deformation............................................... 34 2.3.3 Resistance to Fatigue ......................................................................... 36

    2.4 Foamed Asphalt Material........................................................................... 40 2.4.1 Foamed bitumen characteristics......................................................... 40 2.4.2 Foamed asphalt mixture properties .................................................... 51

    2.5 Laboratory Mixture Design for Foamed Asphalt....................................... 58 2.5.1 Mixture design considerations ........................................................... 5

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