I t has been pointed out above that the admission of such Churches would make the World Council membership in South Africa more representative of the total Christian situation and bring it in more direct contact with Bantu and Coloured Christians,
g ) that everything possible be done to strengthen the missionary Churches in South Africa.
As pointed out above, the process of disintegration of Bantu society presents a very great challenge to the Christian Churches. And though the South African Churches are making a very great missionary effort, there is need for all the outside help that can possibly be given. It should, however, be added that this help should be given in the form of strengthening the existing mission Churches and not of the starting of new Churches.
It will be noticed that none of these recommendations refers to the sending of an ecumenical delegation to South Africa, such as was proposed by the Central Committee of the World Council in 1950. The reason for this omission is not merely that it is at the present time practically impossible to send the only kind of delegation which the World Council, according to its very nature, can send, namely a multi-racial delegation. There is this further reason. Such a delegation would inevitably have an official and formal character. And, even though it would be emphasised that it came for the purpose of fraternal conversation, it would in the present circumstances almost certainly be considered as a mission of enquiry and might, therefore, well create misunderstanding rather than understanding. In the relationships between the South African Churches and the World Council we are at a point where we need the maximum of fraternal contact and conversation, but this can best be achieved through less formal and official approaches and, above all, by visits of individuals.
W. A. VISSERT HOOFT.
THE HISTORY OF THE ECUMENICAL MOVEMENT
The History of the Ecumenical Movement is nearly complete. The revised text of three chapters has not yet been received, and some other chapters await that fifth, sixth or seventh revision which is needed finally to groom them for the press. But chapters will begin to cross from Geneva to London in January, the work of composition should begin in March, and, as at present advised, the publisher (S. P. C. K. of London) hopes to deliver the first bound copies before the end of 1953, at a price of thirty shillings, a miracle of cheapness in view of the present cost of paper and printing. Arrangements for an American edition are being made, and it is hoped that German and French translations will follow in due course.
If this programme can be followed, seven years of intensive labour will reach their appointed term. It is well known that to get a book produced by two people takes four times as much work as to get it written by one.
The Editorial Staff of the History is convinced that to keep an international team of sixteen scholars moving requires at least 256 times as much labour as to keep one author up to his job. But without the formation of such a team, the history would have lost much of its genuinely ecumenical character. The authors are drawn from America, from Britain and from the continent of Europe. Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, Reformed, Baptists, Congrega- tionalists and others have worked together. Behind the authors stands an uncounted company of those who have transmitted memoranda, answered questions, looked up facts and references, read and criticised drafts and made suggestions. These helpers are to be found in every continent, and in every confession, from Roman Catholics to Disciples and Friends. What the History owes, in fulness and accuracy, to their labours can hardly be adequate- ly expressed.
One of the greatest difficulties that the committee has had to face has been that of length. As the work has gone forward, more and more ecumen- ical activity has been disclosed. It has become apparent that in every period the unity of Christs Church has been a leading concern of at least some groups within the Churches. An astonishing range of characters appears in the pages of the History - rulers like Peter the Great of Russia and James I of England, philosophers like Leibnitz, the great classical scholar Casaubon, bishops and cardinals, professors, politicians, pilgrims, laymen in the service of the Church like W. H. Ludolf and Lord Halifax. Every chapter in its first draft has been much too long ; every author has pleaded for more space than had been originally assigned to him. To increase the length would have meant an increase in price such as might put the book beyond the reach of many who would like to have it. The record must be reasonably complete ; yet to include everything would reduce the narrative to a barren catalogue of facts and names. And over and over again the committee has insisted that the book must be clear and readable, a panorama and not a jungle, not a dry manual for the expert, but a narrative which the plain man interested in ecumenica1 affairs can read undisheartened to the end. At times the editorial staff has felt that squaring the circle would be childs play compared with the reconciliation of these conflicting claims.
The editorial work has been exacting. The aim has been to produce a History and not a collection of essays. This has involved an endless work of co-ordination, to avoid overlapping and to maintain proportion, which has had to extend to such minor details as the spelling of names and the manner of citing authorities. With 800 pages, and about fifty facts and dates to a page, it is almost too much to hope that perfect accuracy has been attained.
And when it is done, what comes out of it all ? Can any conclusions be drawn from this mass of material ? One thing stands out quite clearly ; the
formation of the World Council in 1948 is one of the few events in Church History of which it can confidently be affirmed that it is without precedent. In earlier years, ecumenical thought and activity had been the concern of individuals or groups, or, in the nineteenth century, of the great voluntary societies. In 1948 the Churches themselves officially pledged themselves to the ecumenical ideal and the ecumenical task. This was a new thing. The twentieth century stands out as the great century of Church Union. Earlier unions have been mainly between Churches of the same confession. In this century great experiments in transconfessional union, such as the United Church of Canada and the Church of South India, have been made, and have challenged the existing confessional structure of the Churches.
And now, what is the reader to d o ? 1. Order your own copy in good time. Later in the year order forms
will be made available in the Review and in the Ecumenical Press Service. The price has been fixed so low in the expectation of rapid sales.
2. See that good notice of the History is given in any religious or ecclesiast- ical periodical with which you are connected. This article may be reproduced in whole or in part without further permission.
3. Try to make sure that your Church supplies all its theological students with the History at a price they are able to afford.
And now here is an elementary test paper on Ecumenism, by which you can judge the extent of your own knowledge:
1. What was the Consensus of Sendomir? 2. When and by whom was the phrase in essentials, unity; in non-
essentials, liberty ; in all things, charity invented ? 3. Assess the ecumenical contribution of: (i) the Saumur Theology;
(ii) the Mercersburg Theology. 4. How many Younger Church leaders spoke at the Edinburgh Missionary
Conference 19 10 ? Give their names. 5 . What was the surname of Archbishop Germanos of Thyateira? 6 . Where is Tranquebar, and for what is it famous ? 7. What events do you associate with Ratisbon, Oud Wassenaar, Novi-
Sad ? 8. Which was the first Federation of Churches to be formed ? 9. How many Presbyterian Churches were there in Scotland (i) in 1840,
(ii) in 1940 ? 10. When and by whom was the title World Council of Churches first
used ? Answers to be found in the forthcoming History of the Ecumenical Move-
ment. Those who can answer all these questions without hesitation are exempted from buying the History.