The Great Gatsby Overview PPT. Background to The Great Gatsby. World War I. Post WWI. Standard of living increased for most Americans abandoned small towns in exchange for urban living Economy prospered as Americans tried to forget troubles of war - frivolous spending - illegal liquor - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Great Gatsby Overview PPTBackground to The Great Gatsby
World War I
3Post WWIStandard of living increased for mostAmericans abandoned small towns in exchange for urban livingEconomy prospered as Americans tried to forget troubles of war- frivolous spending- illegal liquor- immorality4The 1920s: NicknamesThe Roaring 20sThe Jazz AgeThe Flapper EraThe Aspirin AgeThe Age of Wonderful Nonsense51920s ContextWWI made Americans question traditional ideals.Literature and art denied foundations of the past and went for the new.The philosophy of the Jazz Age was called modernism."
ModernismModernism was an artistic trend that sought to find new ways to communicateWriters stripped away descriptions of characters and setting and avoided direct statements of themes and resolutionsThis fragmented style of writing enabled the reader to choose meaning for himself, believing life had no meaning.7The Jazz Age / Roaring Twenties1918-1929: the years after the end of World War I, continuing through the Roaring Twenties and ending with the rise of the Great Depression. The age takes its name from jazz, which saw a tremendous surge in popularity among many segments of society.Jazz music set exalted standards Louis Armstrong & Duke EllingtonThis was a period of pleasure seeking & reckless exuberanceMost of Fitzgeralds stories provide a picture of youthful hedonism and the antics of the liberated young women known as flappers, affronting conventional values with short skirts, short hair and make-up.
Prohibition18th Amendment to Constitution prohibited manufacture and sale of alcoholic beveragesThousands turned to bootleggingMob activity increased to supply the demand for what was once legal9More 1920sThis period has been referred to as The Lost Generation.Hemingway, in his novel The Sun Also Rises depicts a group of expatriate Americans, wandering aimlessly through Europe, sensing that they are powerless and that life is pointless in the aftermath of the Great War.The Great Gatsby can be seen to encapsulate this perception of life without purpose, of restlessness, dissatisfaction and drifting. It was published in the middle of the decade and reveals a mindless quest for pleasure and a loss of direction in life.
Historical ConnectionsF. Scott Fitzgerald wrote and set The Great Gatsby in the United States in the 1920s. The novel chronicles an era that Fitzgerald himself dubbed the "Jazz Age." Following the shock and chaos of World War I, American society enjoyed unprecedented levels of prosperity during the "roaring" 1920s as the economy soared. At the same time, Prohibition, the ban on the sale and manufacture of alcohol made millionaires out of bootleggers and led to an increase in organized crime.Although Fitzgerald, like Nick Carraway in his novel, idolized the riches and glamor of the age, he was uncomfortable with the unrestrained materialism and the lack of morality that went with it.
Conspicuous ConsumptionThis term was originally coined to refer to the rise & power of extremely rich businessmen, who displayed their wealth in ostentatious houses & extravagant behaviour.This was invariably wasteful & implied increasing poverty among the lower classes in society.Advertising & the mass marketBy the time The Great Gatsby was published, the American population had almost doubled. solution = mass production. Led to technological development - cars, air travel and the telephone - as well as new modernist trends in social behaviour, the arts, and culture. Central developments included Art Deco design and architecture.This growth in commodities led to standardisation, where all citizens might have the right to buy items that were available to all.The early years saw a corresponding change in advertising products were given brand names as a sign of reliability. But new advertising also sought to create the desire for commodities & packaging became more important
F. Scott FitzgeraldBorn in Minnesota in 1896Started writing in school - finished his first play in 1911In 1914 he met and fell in love with a girl who rejected him because he was not rich enough.In 1917 he received a commission as an infantry second lieutenant. In 1918 he reported to Camp Sheridan in Montgomery, Alabama, where he met Zelda Sayre, who later became his wife.
The Great GatsbyAfter the birth of their child, the Fitzgeralds moved to Great Neck, Long Island in October 1922, appropriating Great Neck as the setting for The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald's neighbours included newly wealthy New Yorkers. Great Neck, on the shores of Long Island Sound, sat across a bay from Manhasset Neck or Cow Neck Peninsula, and was home to many of New York's wealthiest established families. In his novel, Great Neck became the new-money peninsula of "West Egg" and Manhasset Neck the old-money peninsula of "East Egg.F. Scott Fitzgerald His death in 1940, was not unlike Gatsbys. Despite having once been the golden boy of the Jazz Age, upon his death, many of his obituaries were condescending, capitalizing on his personal hardships. Not one of his books remained in print and every indication suggested he was on his way into obscurity. However, after World War II, interest in his work began to grow and by the 1960s, he had begun to secure a place among the great twentieth century American authors.His works provide a valuable voice for exploring themes of ambition, justice, equity, and the American dreamthemes that are still currentaffording him with a well-deserved place in the American literary canon
Characters of The Great GatsbyJay Gatsby- The self-made wealthy man who lives next door to Nick Carraway and loves Daisy Buchanan
Characters of The Great GatsbyNick Carraway- the narrator, Daisys cousin, Gatsbys neighbor
Characters in The Great GatsbyDaisy Buchanan- married to Tom, Gatsbys love interest before the war, socialite
Characters in The Great GatsbyTom Buchanan- Daisys husband, has an affair with MyrtleMyrtle Wilson- Toms woman in the city, married to GeorgeGeorge Wilson- owns the gas stationJordan Baker- Daisys friend, professional golfer Old Money Vs. New MoneyNew Money:Someone who has achieved the American DreamNot as respected in the 1920s
Old MoneyMoney from family wealthBorn richNot earned through work done by yourselfRespected above all in the 1920s
Settings in The Great GatsbyWest Egg- where Nick and Gatsby live, represents new moneyEast Egg- where Daisy lives, the more fashionable area, represents old money
Settings in The Great GatsbyThe City- New York City, where the characters escape to for work and play The Valley of Ashes- between the City and West Egg, where Wilsons gas station is Located
Symbols in The Great GatsbyGreen Light- at the end of Daisys dock and visible from Gatsbys mansion. Represents Gatsby's hopes and dreams about Daisy.
Symbols in The Great GatsbyThe Valley of Ashes- the area between West Egg and New York City. It is a desolate area filled with industrial waste. It represents the social and moral decay of society during the 1920s. It also shows the negative effects of greed.Symbols in The Great GatsbyThe Eyes of Dr. T. J. Ekleburg- A decaying billboard in the Valley of Ashes with eyes advertising an optometrist. There are multiple proposed meanings, including the representation of Gods moral judgment on society.
Important QuotesI hope shell be a fool- thats the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool.Daisys description of her daughterSo we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past. the last line of the novelImportant Quotes"They were careless people, Tom and Daisy- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made." Nicks description of Tom and DaisyThe American DreamGatsby is the ideal image of one who has achieved the American Dream.What is the American Dream and who has achieved it in our time?
American Dream Cont.
Critical Overview of the NovelHow has the reception changed over the decades?
The 1920sWhile fellow writers praised Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby, critics offered less favorable reviews. Newspaper ReviewsThe Baltimore Evening Sun called the plot no more than a glorified anecdote and the characters mere marionettes. The New York Times called the book neither profound nor durable. The London Times saw it as undoubtedly a work of great promise but criticized its unpleasant characters.The 1930sFitzgeralds reputation reached its lowest point during the Depression, when he was viewed as a Jazz Age writer whose time has come and gone. The Great Gatsby went out of print in 1939. When Fitzgerald died a year later, Time magazine didnt even mention The Great Gatsby.The 1940s Interest in Fitzgerald was revived with the posthumous book, The Last Tycoon. A literary critic was the first to point out that Gatsby, despite its Jazz Age setting, focused on timeless, universal concerns.
The 1950sFitzgeralds reputation soared with a new biography entitled The Far Side of Paradise. The London Times affirmed that Gatsby is one of the best-if not the best-American novels of the past fifty years.
What is the reputation today?The Great Gatsbys place as a major novel is now assured.Most high schools teach this novelIts time for you to decide,Old Sport
ThemesJazz Age / Roaring TwentiesLong Island and USAThe American DreamPosition of womenThe AutomobileProhibition & organized crimeSuccess & failureHope & sense of purposeRole of timeConflict betw. Illusion & realityHonesty vs lies
SymbolsEyesThe East & the WestDust & ashMoney & wealth (old vs new)Significance of colours