The Federal Bureaucracy. What is a bureaucracy?  Organization by which things get done in government  Bureaucracies: Have a hierarchical authority structure.

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<ul><li><p>The Federal Bureaucracy</p></li><li><p>What is a bureaucracy?Organization by which things get done in governmentBureaucracies: Have a hierarchical authority structureUse task specializationDevelop extensive rulesOperate on the merit of the peopleBehave with impersonality</p></li><li><p>Myths and RealitiesAmericans hate B. (Myth)They grow bigger each year (Half n Half)Most work in D.C. (Myth)Ineffective, inefficient, and mired in red tape (Half n Half)</p></li><li><p>Who They Are and How They Got TherePatronageHiring and promotion based upon knowing the right peopleIts not what you know, its who you know-Haymans momPendleton Civil Service ActCreated the federal civil serviceSystem based on merit and desire to create a non-partisan govt service</p></li><li><p>MoreMerit PrincipalUses entrance exams and promotional ratings to reward qualified applicantsHatch ActProhibits civil service employees from active participation in partisan politics while on duty</p></li><li><p>OPMOffice of Personnel ManagementIn charge of hiring for most federal agenciesEach civil service job is assigned a GS (General Schedule) ratingVery top of the c.s. is the Senior Executive Service</p></li><li><p>Plum BookLists top federal jobs available for direct presidential appointment</p></li><li><p>Organization of B.Cabinet Departments (Manage specific policy areas)Independent Regulatory Commissions(Federal Reserve Board, Federal Communications Commission, Social Security Admin.)Each I.R.C. is responsible for some sector of the economyInterest groups are closely involved with I.R.C.s</p></li><li><p>More OrganizationGovernment Corporations(Amtrak, Post Office, T.V.A.)Provide a service that could be provided by the private sectorCharge for a service</p></li><li><p>Still More OrganizationIndependent Executive Agencies(NASA, General Service Admin., National Science Foundation)Make up the rest</p></li><li><p>B.s as ImplementersPolicy implementationStage of policymaking between establishment of policy and its consequences</p></li><li><p>Some policies fail. Why?Program DesignSome tasks are impossibleLack of ClarityCongress states broad goals while leaving the specifics up to the B.sLack of ResourcesLack of body armor in IraqEPA has low staff and cannot enforce laws</p></li><li><p>Making it FairSOPs help make b.s everyday decisionsMay become red tape and obstacles to action</p></li><li><p>PrivatizationPrivate contractors used to do the work of the govtFourth Branch of the GovtLeads to less scrutiny</p></li><li><p>RegulationUse of govt authority to control or change some practice in the private sectorFDA, CPSC, OSHAGovt tells businesses how to reach certain goals, checks on progress, and punishes offenders</p></li><li><p>Trend Towards DeregulationRegulation:Raises pricesHurts Americas competitive position abroad Doesnt always work well</p></li><li><p>Understanding B.sPresidents try to control B.sAppoint heads of agenciesIssue executive ordersAlter agencys budgetReorganize the agency</p></li><li><p>More understandingCongress tries to control B.sInfluence appointmentsAlter budgetsHold hearingsRewrite legislation for more detail and clarity</p></li><li><p>The Iron TriangleIron Triangles and Issue NetworksIron Triangles: a mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommitteesExist independently of each otherThey are tough, but not impossible, to get rid ofSome argue they are being replaced by wider issue networks that focus on more than one policy.</p></li><li><p>Understanding Bureaucracies</p><p>Figure 15.5</p></li><li><p>SummaryBureaucrats shape policy as administrators, implementers, and regulators.Bureaucracys primary responsibility is the implementation of public policy.Federal bureaucracy has not grown but has in fact shrunk of late.</p></li></ul>


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