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Degree Project in Civil and Architectural Engineering
Second Cycle, 30 Credits
Stockholm, Sweden 2019
The effect of pre-stressing location
on punching shear capacity of
concrete flat slabs
Author: Saeed Vosoughian
KTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
The effect of pre-stressing
location on punching shear
capacity of concrete flat slabs
SAEED VOSOUGHIAN
Master of Science Thesis
Stockholm, Sweden 2019
TRITA-ABE-MBT-19686. Master Thesis
2019.
KTH School of ABE
SE-100 44 Stockholm
SWEDEN
© S. Vosoughian 2019
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering
Division of Concrete Structures
i
Abstract
Implementing pre-stressing cables is a viable option aiming at controlling deformation and
cracking of concrete flat slabs in serviceability limit state. The pre-stressing cables also
contribute to punching shear capacity of the slab when they are located in vicinity of the column.
The positive influence of pre-stressing cables on punching capacity of the concrete slabs is
mainly due to the vertical component of inclined cables, compressive in-plane stresses and
counter acting bending moments near the support region. The method presented in Eurocode 2
to determine the punching capacity of the pre-stressed concrete flat slabs considers the in-plane
compressive stresses but totally neglects the effect of counter acting moments. The effect of
vertical forces introduced by inclined cables is only considered when they are within the
distance 2d from the face of the column. This area is called basic control area in the Eurocode
2.
In this master thesis nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out to study the effect of pre-
stressing cables on punching shear capacity of concrete slabs respecting the distance of cables
from the face of the column. To attain this objective, the concrete damage plasticity model is
implemented to model the concrete. The results indicate that until the distance of 6d from the
face of the column the contribution of pre-stressing cables in punching shear capacity of slabs
is significant. Furthermore, comparing the numerical results with the punching shear capacity
of slabs predicted by Eurocode 2 reveals that Eurocode tremendously underestimates the
punching shear capacity when the cables are located outside the basic control area.
Keywords: Concrete flat slabs, Concrete damage plasticity model, Eurocode 2,
Nonlinear finite element analysis, Punching capacity, Pre-stressing cables.
iii
Sammanfattning
Inläggning av spännkablar är ett möjligt alternativ som syftar till att begränsa deformation
och sprickbildning i plana, pelarunderstödda betongplattor i bruksgränstillståndet.
Spännkablarna bidrar också till stanskapaciteten hos plattan när de är belägna i närheten av
pelaren. Spännkablarnas positiva påverkan på stansningskapaciteten hos betongplattorna beror
främst på den vertikala komponenten i lutande kablar, tryckspänningar i planet och
motverkande böjmoment nära stödområdet. Den metod som finns i Eurokod 2 för att bestämma
stansningskapaciteten hos förspända betongplattor beaktar tryckspänningarna i planet men
negligerar helt effekten av motverkande moment. Effekten av vertikala krafter som ges av
lutande spännkablar beaktas endast när kablarna är placerade inom avståndet 2d från pelarens
yta. Detta område begränsas av det s.k. grundkontrollsnittet enligt Eurokod 2.
I detta examensarbete genomförs icke-linjär finitelementanalys för att studera effekten av
spännkablar på betongplattors stansförmåga med avseende på kablarnas avstånd från pelarens
yta. För att uppnå detta mål implementeras en icke-linjär plasticitetsmodell för betongens
brottstadium (CDP, concrete damage plasticity model). Resultaten indikerar att fram till
avståndet 6d från pelarens yta är bidraget från spännkablarna till betongplattans stanskapacitet
betydande. En jämförelse av de numeriska resultaten med stansningskapaciteten hos plattor
som beräknas med Eurokod 2 visar att Eurokod kraftigt underskattar stansningskapaciteten
när kablarna är belägna utanför grundkontrollsnittet.
Nyckelord: Betongplattor, betongskadplastisitetsmodell, Eurocode 2, Icke-linjär analys
av finit element, stansningskapacitet, förspänningskablar.
v
Preface
This master thesis is initiated by the department of Civil and Architectural Engineering at
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and is result of collaboration with CBI Betonginstitutet
AB.
In advance, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisors Professor Johan
Silfwerbrand at KTH and Mr. Ghassem Hassanzadeh Lic. Tech., for all their support, guidance
and valuable comments throughout my work. Their dedication and constant encouragement
were inspirational while keeping me on the right track to attain determined objectives.
Secondly, I wish to express my sincere appreciation for Adj. Prof. Mikael Hallgren. He
contributed with valuable advice and generously shared his experience and knowledge in the
field.
Furthermore, I want to thank Dr. Richard Malm for providing worthwhile comments and help
about the finite element method.
Last but not the least, I want to send tons of love and appreciation to my family for their
support throughout my entire study at KTH.
Stockholm, October 2019
Saeed Vosoughian
Contents
Abstract................................................................................................................................. i
Sammanfattning ................................................................................................................. iii
Preface ..................................................................................................................................v
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................1
1.1 Problem definition ................................................................................................1
1.2 Background ..........................................................................................................2
1.3 Aim ......................................................................................................................3
1.4 Scope and delimitations ........................................................................................3
2 Punching shear models ...............................................................................................5
2.1 Kinnuen and Nylander model ...............................................................................5
2.2 Andersson model ..................................................................................................8
2.3 Hallgren model ................................................................................................... 10
2.3.1 The model.............................................................................................. 10
2.3.2 Failure criterion ..................................................................................... 15
2.4 Menétrey model ................................................................................................. 17
2.4.1 General assumptions .............................................................................. 17
2.4.2 Concrete tensile force ............................................................................ 18
2.4.3 Dowel effect .......................................................................................... 19
2.4.4 Shear reinforcement contribution ........................................................... 19
2.4.5 Pre-stressing tendon contribution ........................................................... 21
2.4.6 Relation between punching and flexural capacity ................................... 21
2.5 Georgopoulos model .......................................................................................... 21
2.6 Bond model for concentric punching shear ......................................................... 22
2.7 Muttoni model .................................................................................................... 23
2.8 Discussion about mechanical models .................................................................. 25
3 Effect of pre-stressing on punching capacity of flat slabs ......................................... 27
3.1 Effect of pre-stressing......................................................................................... 27
3.2 Eurocode 2, approach ......................................................................................... 29
4 Methodology ............................................................................................................... 31
vii
4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 31
4.2 Concrete material behaviour ............................................................................... 33
4.2.1 Compressive behaviour .......................................................................... 33
4.2.2 Tensile behaviour .................................................................................. 34
4.2.3 Multiaxial behaviour .............................................................................. 37
4.3 Concrete model .................................................................................................. 38
4.3.1 Yield surface ......................................................................................... 38
4.3.2 Defining damage in CDP model............................................................. 42
4.3.3 Longitudinal bars and pre-stressing tendons ........................................... 43
4.4 Finite element model .......................................................................................... 46
4.5 Verification ........................................................................................................ 48
5 Result and Discussion ................................................................................................. 51
5.1 Results ............................................................................................................... 51
5.2 Discussion .......................................................................................................... 52
5.3 Future investigations .......................................................................................... 53
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 55
1.1. PROBLEM DEFINITION
1
1
Introduction
1.1 Problem definition
Concrete flat slab supported by columns is a widely used structural element in buildings and
bridges. It has the edge over the other forms of slab systems from both aesthetic and economic
points of view. This is due to flexibility of planning and elimination of beams and girders which
result in creating additional floor space for a certain height of the building. However, flat slabs
are more prone for brittle punching shear failure either next to the column or below a
concentrated force compared to beam-slab systems.
In design of flat slabs to avoid punching failure, usually huge amount of reinforcement is
required in critical zones. It goes without saying that the high amount of flexural and shear
reinforcement makes casting concrete cumbersome. Beside the need to have opening in vicinity
of columns, which especially is required when reconstructing old buildings to install new
apparatus, motivates to find an alternative method to normal reinforcement in order to increase
punching shear capacity of the flat slabs.
Previous researches have shown that the idea of pre-stressing is a suitable technique to reduce
the amount of reinforcement for flat slabs with large spans or slabs subjected to huge
concentrated forces. This is because:
i. Pre-stressing exerts in-plane compressive stresses on concrete which leads to increase
in punching shear capacity.
ii. Bending moments caused by eccentricity of the tendons counteract those of external
forces leading to smaller crack openings in failure region and thus increase of capacity
of the concrete to carry shear force.
iii. Inclined pre-stressed tendons introduce a vertical force in the punching failure surface
opposing the forces caused by external loads.
Reflecting on the formulas presented by design codes such as ACI 318 [1] and Eurocode 2 [2]
indicates that they attempt to acknowledge the effect of pre-stressing on punching shear capacity
based on empirical investigations and only account for in-plane stresses and deviation force.
Accordingly, the bending moment which is introduced due to pre-stressing eccentricity is not taken
into account [3] furthermore, despite both numerical and empirical investigations conducted in the
past, the contribution of active known pre-compression force is still not well understood.
Chapter
CHAPTER 1.
Considering these facts necessitates more detailed and accurate research in this field to attain
reliable design criteria.
The other interesting issue is that the influence of pre-stressing on punching failure of a flat
slab is taken into account by conventional design codes only if the pre-stressed cables are
stretched in a certain area around the perimeter of the column. Series of experimental
investigations have been done in the past studying this phenomenon [4,5]. However numerical
models are more flexible in dimensioning and alteration of the position of pre-stressed cables.
Thereby, with a reliable numerical analysis, a more profound comprehension of influence of
cable arrangement is achieved.
1.2 Background
It seems first Elstner and Hognestad [6] noticed the shear capacity of thin concrete slabs. They
conducted an experiment and studied the influence of concrete strength, tension and
compression reinforcement amount as well as position and amount of shear reinforcement on
capacity of reinforced concrete flat plates. They concluded that increasing tension and
compression reinforcement over the column does not affect the load bearing capacity of the
slab. In contract with longitudinal reinforcement, they observed shear reinforcement contributes
to load capacity of the slab and could enhance it up to 30%. Nevertheless, they realized that
although achieving flexural failure rather than shear failure is desirable, it is impractical by
increasing shear reinforcement. Accordingly, they proposed to have small amount of shear
reinforcement by choosing appropriate values for concrete strength, slab thickness and column
stiffness as well.
Kinnunen and Nylander [7] in 1960 developed a model for punching capacity of flat slabs. To
attain this model, they performed series of experiments and studied the concrete segment
between radial flexural cracks and conical shear crack. Based on this model, punching failure
occurs when simultaneously, radial inclined compression stress and tangential compression
strain tend to critical values.
In 1961, Johannes Moe [8] conducted a thorough experiment to investigate the effect of hole
in vicinity of column, effect of eccentric loading, effect of shear and tensile reinforcement and
some other variables on load bearing capacity of flat slabs. In this research he also shed more
light on the concept of eccentricity of shear force. His design provisions for openings in vicinity
of columns and for eccentric loading are still implemented by building codes.
Sundquist [9] in 1978 investigated the effect of dynamic loads and presented a theoretical
model for capacity of flat plates when they are subjected to impulsive loads.
Franklin & Long [10] investigated the punching behaviour of unbounded post tensioned
concrete flat plates in 1982. They presented the test results for seven specimens with internal
columns and compared it with American design recommendations. Boundary conditions and
amount of eccentricity were the main variables in their study. The positive influence of pre-
stressing on punching behaviour of flat slabs also reported by number of studies, for example
the tests carried out by Ramos et al. [11]. Furthermore, Mostafaei et al. [12] indicated that
Design Code procedures are conservative in calculating punching shear capacity of pre-stressed
slabs.
1.3. AIM
3
The size effect was studied by Tolf [13]. He concluded that the increase in specimen size leads
to considerable decrease in punching shear stress.
Hallgren in 1996 [14] conducted a comprehensive study about punching shear behaviour of
high strength concrete flat slabs. For this purpose, he did both empirical investigations and
created numerical models as well. He improved a model presented by Kinnunen and Nylander
[7] for punching shear capacity of flat slabs implementing linear fracture mechanics approach.
The model presented by Kinnuen and Nylander was improved by Broms [15] taking into
account the size effect and brittleness of the concrete. He showed that the critical value for
concrete compression strain at which the punching failure occurs is significantly less than the
generally accepted 0.0035 for one way structural elements under bending. He also prescribed a
novel reinforcement concept through which punching shear failure is avoided and slab acquires
ductile behaviour.
Muttoni [16] in 2008 implemented critical shear crack theory to describe punching shear
phenomenon. He developed a criterion for punching shear on the basis of rotation of the slab
and verified it with experimental testing. Furthermore, he came up with an interesting result
asserting that despite to the conventional belief, punching shear capacity of a flat slab is more
dependent on the length of the span rather that slab thickness.
In 1998, Hassanzadeh [4] conducted an experiment to investigate the influence of pre-
stressing cables on punching shear capacity of the concrete flat plates. His research indicated a
large discrepancy between theoretical and practical results. He asserted that theoretical methods
presented by design codes for calculating punching shear capacity of pre-stressed slabs are
strongly conservative.
1.3 Aim
The aim of this master thesis is to investigate the effect of pre-stressing on punching shear
capacity of flat slabs. Furthermore, the influence of cable arrangement is studied. What is meant
by the term cable arrangement is distance of cables from the column. In other words, the area
around a column in which pre-stressing cables contribute to enhancement of punching shear
capacity is determined.
1.4 Scope and delimitations
The outline of the thesis falls into two categories. The first section sheds more light on
punching shear phenomenon and surveys the literature. It is worth mentioning that in this part
the treatment prescribed by ACI 318 [1] and Eurocode 2 [2] to calculated punch shear capacity
and the effect of pre-stressing is discussed.
In the second part a parametric study is done to investigate the effect of pre-stressed cables on
punching shear capacity of flat slabs when they are stretched outside the control section. To
attain this purpose, numerical study is done by creating finite element model of flat slabs in
Abaqus software. It goes without saying that, internal validity of numerical models is of
paramount importance in order to have reliable result. This characteristic of the created
CHAPTER 1.
numerical model is going to be satisfied by doing a verification with outcome of the empirical
study conducted by Hassanzadeh at KTH university [4].
While creating numerical model, the nonlinear behaviour of concrete is modelled by concrete
damage plasticity (CDP) model and both reinforcement and pre-stressed cables are assumed to
be fully embedded in the concrete.
2.1. KINNUEN AND NYLANDER MODEL
5
2
Punching shear models
Over the years, researchers have attempted to explain punching shear phenomena in concrete
slabs. They implemented theoretical concepts such as fracture mechanics, conducted
experimental investigations and created numerical modes to demystify punching shear
behaviour. Some of these investigators developed theoretical models through which a more
profound comprehension of the issue is possible. In this chapter more light is going to be shed
on some of these models.
2.1 Kinnuen and Nylander model
Conducting series of experiments on polar-symmetrical concrete slabs without shear
reinforcement Kinnuen and Nylander [7] observed that the concrete segment inscribed by
conical and radial cracks rotates like a rigid body. With regard to this fact, they satisfied the
equilibrium of forces for the segmental part of the concrete bounded between two radial cracks
with the angle of Δϕ and one shear crack, see Figure 2.1. Furthermore, the root of the shear
cracks was assumed as the centre of the rotation for the considered segment. The forces
affecting the mentioned concrete segment are illustrated in Figure 2.1(b). Where 𝑃∆∅/2𝜋 is the
fraction of the external force acting on the segment, R2 and R4 are resultants from the forces in
radial reinforcement and in tangential reinforcement respectively. The ultimate load Pu for a
two-way reinforced slab without shear reinforcement is achieved considering the equation of
vertical projection
2
2)()(
1
21
1.1 dtf
B
y
B
y
d
yBPu
(2.1)
Where y is the distance between root of the shear crack and bottom surface of the slab, α is
inclination of the conical shell, B is diameter of the column, d is effective depth of the slab and
σ(t) is the stress in conical shell. Kinnuen and Nylander took into account the effect of dowel
action by introducing the factor 1.1 in Eq. (2.1). Function f (α) is defined as
2tan1
tan1tan
f (2.2)
Chapter
CHAPTER 2.
The angle α can be achieved from the following equation:
d
y
d
Bd
c
B
yK y
5.0
5.0
ln135.22
1
tan1
tan11tan
2
(2.3)
Ky is a dimensionless parameter which is expressed as
3
25.0
yd
Bc
K y
(2.4)
In the Eq. 2.4, c stands for diameter of the area above the column in which the radial bending
moment is negative.
Figure 2-1: Mechanical model by Kinnuen and Nylander [7].
2.1. KINNUEN AND NYLANDER MODEL
7
Considering the experimental results, Kinnuen and Nylander proposed an approximated value
for the stress in conical segment, σ(t). It depends on tangential strain at the horizontal radius
r = B/2 + y and is expressed as
rcTcEt ,35.2 (2.5)
The failure criterion in this model is the tangential strain at the distance of B/2 + y from centre
of the column reaching a critical value as calculated below
For B/d ≤ 2
d
ByBrcT 22.010035.02/, (2.6a)
For B/d > 2
0019.02/, yBrcT (2.6b)
It is worth mentioning that beside Eq. (2.1), the equation of moments with regard to the point
Q1 illustrated in Figure 2-1 also yields ultimate capacity of the slab
For rs ≤ c0
Bc
yd
c
crdfP ssyu
35.0
ln1.41.10
(2.7a)
For rs> c0
Bc
yd
r
crdfP
s
ssyu
35.0
ln1.41.1 (2.7b)
Where ρ is mean ratio of reinforcement and fsy is yield stress of the reinforcement.
Furthermore, rs manifests the radius of the area in which the reinforcement reaches yield stress
and c0 stands for the distance between centre of the column to the concentric shear crack. rs and
c0 are approximated to
dBc 8.15.00 (2.8)
dd
y
f
Er
sy
ss
1 (2.9)
The angle ψ indicates the rotation of the slab outside the shear crack when ultimate load is
reached and can be calculated as
ydBrcTy
)/(,
5.01 (2.10)
CHAPTER 2.
As mentioned before y is the distance between root of the shear crack and bottom surface of
the slab which is calculated by the Eq. (2.4).
The model developed by Kinnuen and Nylander was a base for later important investigations.
For instance, Andersson [17] modified this model to take into account the effect of shear
reinforcement. The model developed by Andersson is presented in the following.
2.2 Andersson model
Andersson conducted a series of experimental tests to study the punching behaviour of slabs
with shear reinforcement. He realized that adding shear reinforcement alters the behaviour of
the slab at failure load in a way that its deflection varies linearly from the column to edge of the
slab. Accordingly, he proposed a mechanical model to take into account the effect of shear
reinforcement by modifying the Kinnuen Nylander model. His model is illustrated in Figure
2-2. Going into the depth, his model assumes a bi-linear and perfectly elasto-plastic behaviour
for the concrete in tangential direction. The failure criterion in this model is that the failure
occurs when the strain at a certain distance cpl from the centre of the column reaches the limit
of plastification εpl. This distance is determined as
For B/d ≤ 2.5
dd
Bc pl
45.174.0 (2.11a)
For B/d >2.5
dd
Bc pl
05.25.0 (2.11b)
There is an upper limit for cpl depending on the type of shear reinforcement. This value for
slabs in which longitudinal bars are bent to function as shear reinforcement is from the centre
of the column to outermost part of the shear bar. While the upper limit of cpl for slabs with
stirrups is the distance between the centre of the column and 3d/4 outside the most far stirrups.
In failure stage, when εpl tends to 0.002 at the point of cpl, the stress of concrete in tangential
direction σcT and the stress in conical shell σt are approximated to
153.035.025
,cubc
cT
f [MPa] (2.12)
cTt 9.1 (2.13)
Looking at the isolated segment of the slab depicted in Figure 2.2(b) the resultant force in
tangential direction is expressed as
82ln1 1321
syv
sh
s
ssy
fA
r
crdfRRR (2.14)
2.2. ANDERSSON MODEL
9
Where, fsyv and Ash are yield stress and the cross-sectional area of shear reinforcement
intersecting the tangential flexural crack. Δϕ stands for the angle illustrated in Figure 2.2.
Furthermore, rs is determined by Eq. (2.9). However, it should be noticed that the angle of
rotation ψ for a segment of the concrete which behaves like a rigid body while failure is
occurring, in Andersson’s model is different from the value according to the Kinnuen model
and is expressed as
y
c pl
pl (2.15)
Figure 2-2 Mechanical model by Andersson [17].
In Eq. (2.15), κ1 is reduction factor taking into account the effect of reinforcement when the
slab is not polar symmetrical. κ1 is function of 2rs/c and is determined through the graph
presented in Figure 2.3.
The force R4 indicated in Figure 2.2 is the projection of the sum of the compressive stresses
in concrete beneath the neutral surface, in radial direction. The amount of this force can be
calculated as
plplpl
plcTc
c
c
B
c
BcyR
2ln
8
15.15.0
2
4 (2.16)
CHAPTER 2.
The influence of the conical shell on the rigid segment as shown in Figure 2.2 is the
compression force T which can be calculated as below
cos5.0 tyBT (2.17)
Establishing the equations of the equilibrium for the isolated rigid body yields three equations
from which three unknowns including the ultimate load Pu, distance y and angle α shown in
Figure 2.2 are acquired
2sin
cos
72.022cos
2
3214
4
u
u
PT
RRRRT
Bc
ydR
Bc
ydTP
(2.18)
Figure 2-3 Reduction factor κ [17].
2.3 Hallgren model
2.3.1 The model
Hallgren [14] conducted experimental investigations to study the punching shear capacity of
high strength concrete slabs. His research revealed, the higher the strength of the concrete, the
higher the punching shear capacity. However, he observed that the increase in punching shear
capacity is not proportional to the increase in concrete strength. He concluded that the
brittleness of the concrete which is higher for high strength concrete is the fact reducing the
boost rate of punching shear capacity. Accordingly, he modified the punching shear model
proposed by Kinnuen and Nylander [7] to take into account the size effect and concrete
brittleness. The failure criterion for both models is the same where the failure is assumed to
occur when the strain of the concrete in tangential direction reaches its limit. However, despite
2.3. HALLGREN MODEL
11
the Kinnuen and Nylander model which implements semi-empirical expressions, Hallgren used
fracture mechanics considering size effect and concrete brittleness.
Hallgren model is illustrated in Figure 2.4 in which 1.5α is the angle of shear crack and c0 is
the distance between the center of the column and the shear crack at the level of the flexural
reinforcement. The amplification factor of 1.5 which is used for α is achieved based on test
observations and finite element analysis results and c0 is determined as
5.1tan20
xdx
Bc
(2.19)
Figure 2-4 Hallgren model [14].
As shown in Figure 2.5 test results and numerical analysis unveiled the fact that strain in
tangential direction for the concrete and steel, respectively on compression side and tension
side of the slab are inversely proportional to the distance from the center of the slab.
Furthermore, the tangential compression zone x is calculated based on the state of the material
as below
If concrete and steel are elastic
dE
Ek
Ek
Ex
s
cE
cE
s
1
21
(2.20)
Where kE is a factor accounting increase of concrete stiffness under bi-axial compression and
is determined as
12
2
21
Ek (2.21)
CHAPTER 2.
In the case that steel is in the elastic state while concrete has yielded, x is determined as
dE
f
f
Ex
cTs
ccc
ccc
cTs
1
41
2 0
0
0
0
(2.22)
0
0 1cT
cc
(2.23)
Where concrete strain in tangential direction at the point c0 and at ultimate load is expressed
as
0
0
2
c
yB
cTucT
(2.24)
Where εcTu is the ultimate strain of concrete in tangential direction. Hallgren considered this
parameter as failure criterion and achieved it by fracture mechanics.
Figure 2-5 Concrete and steel strain in tangential direction [14].
For the condition in which at the point c0 concrete is in elastic state while steel has been yielded
x is given by
cEcT
sy
Ek
fdx
0
2
(2.25)
If both concrete and steel yield
2.3. HALLGREN MODEL
13
ccc
sy
f
fdx
0
(2.26)
Considering compressive stress distribution of the concrete in tangential direction which is
shown in fig. 2.6 the projection of the resultant force of concrete compressive stresses in
tangential direction RcT acting on the rigid wedge as shown in Figure 2.4 is calculated as
If concrete is in elastic state
yB
cy
BxER cTuccT ln
22
1 (2.27)
If concrete has yielded
2
24
1
22ln
2
1
4
3y
B
ry
B
r
crxfR
cc
ccccT (2.29)
rc indicates the yield radius and is given as
y
Br
cy
cTuc
2
(2.30)
Figure 2-6 Variation of stress in concrete according to Hallgren [14].
Distribution of stress in reinforcement at the state of punching failure is depicted in Figure
2.7. If the flexural bars are in elastic state, the force caused by flexural reinforcement acting on
rigid segment RsT in tangential direction is calculated as
02ln
21
c
cy
B
x
dEdR cTussT (2.31)
In the case that flexural bares are yielded
CHAPTER 2.
0
2ln1 c
r
crfdR
s
ssysT (2.32)
Where rs indicates a radius along which steel has plastic behaviour and is determined as
y
B
x
dr
sy
cTus
21
(2.33)
Figure 2-7 Steel stress distribution of flexural reinforcement in tangential direction [14].
To determine the radial force caused by reinforcement which is denoted by RsR in Figure 2.4,
the strain of steel in radial direction at the point intersecting the shear crack needs to be known.
Hallgren assumes it to be equal to the strain of steel in tangential direction and proposes the
following set of equation to determine RsR
If rs < c0
y
B
x
dEdR cTussR
212 (2.34)
If rs ≥ c0
sysR fcdR ..2 0 (2.35)
In Hallgren’s model the dowel force effect D is taking into account by implementing semi-
experimental expression presented by Hamadi and Regan [18] as
3/1
03
2
6.119.27 ccfd
cD
[N] (2.36)
2.3. HALLGREN MODEL
15
Where Φ is the diameter of the steel bars in [mm]. It worth mentioning that the dowel force
significantly decreases when the steel is yielded. Thereby and for the sake of simplicity this
force is neglected if reinforcement bars are yielded at r = c0.
Finally establishing the equilibrium equations for the rigid segment illustrated in Figure 2.4
leads to two equations presented below through which the punching capacity of the slab is
determined. This process is iterative where the angle α is iteration variable. The failure load is
achieved when the compressive strain of the concrete at distance y from the column as shown
in Figure 2.4 reaches the critical value of εcTu. This is the failure criterion in Hallgren’s model
and is explained in the following.
DRRRP cTsTsRu tan2 (2.37)
xBc
xR
xRRRx
BcDxdRR
P
cT
cTsTsR
sRsT
u
5.0
3
22
cos2
2
22
20
(2.38)
2.3.2 Failure criterion
Numerical studies done by Hallgren [14], [19] revealed that at the column-slab root the
concrete is under tri-axial compression while at r=B/2+y, and in the compression zone it is
under biaxial compression, see Figure 2.8. By increasing the external load, the stress σ111
decreases and leads to an unstable state for tri-axial compressive stress. At this moment the
shear crack propagates through the compression zone resulting in punching failure.
By neglecting the effect of shear deformation Hallgren realized that at the point r=B/2+y, the
tangential strain εcT and the radial strain εcR are equal. Furthermore, considering the experimental
investigation conducted by Kupfer et al. [20], when a concrete specimen is under biaxial
compression, at the level of ultimate stress where the macro cracks begin to develop, the
compressive strains are equal to the transverse tensile strain. Based on these facts and with
regard to the fictitious crack model proposed by Hillerborg et al. [21] ultimate tangential strain
at the point r=B/2+y in Hallgren’s model is defined as
x
wccTu (2.39)
Where wc is critical crack width.
CHAPTER 2.
Figure 2-8 State of stress [14].
Hallgren implemented bi-linear tension-softening curve proposed by Petersson [22] to
calculate the critical crack width, see Figure 2.9, which gives
ct
Fc
f
Gw 6.3 (2.40)
Figure 2-9 Bi-linear tension-softening curve [21].
Based on previous studies the fracture energy GF is size dependent which for an element with
very large size is considered as the area under the tension-softening curve illustrated in Figure
2.9. thereby, Hallgren used the multifractal scaling law to take into account the size effect,
which gives
2/1.
1
x
dGG aF
FF
(2.41)
Where dα is the maximum size of the aggregate in concrete, αF is an empirical factor which with
regard to the empirical investigations [23] can be assumed to be equal 13.
2.4. MENÉTREY MODEL
17
Based on RILEM Draft Recommendation [24] setting α equal to 13 achieves fracture energy for
infinite size as
2/113
1
R
aR
FFd
dGG (2.42)
Where dR is the height of the beam and R
FG is the fracture energy according to RILEM.
Accordingly, considering Eqs. (2.39), (2.40), (2.41) and (2.42) the failure criterion for
Hallgren’s model is written as
2/113
1.
6.3
x
d
fx
G a
ct
FcTu (2.43)
2.4 Menétrey model
2.4.1 General assumptions
Menétrey did a comprehensive study to present an analytical model for calculating punching
shear capacity of flat slabs [23]. He took into account the effect of shear reinforcement, pre-
stressing and attempted to link the flexural capacity to the punching shear capacity with regard
to the crack inclination as well. Menétrey used the strut-and-tie model to study the punching
phenomenon and concluded that punching failure corresponds to concrete tie failure.
Furthermore, he asserts that punching crack inclination varies between 25̊ to 35̊ and α=30̊ will
be the best approximation. Thereby, he claimed that punching capacity of a concrete flat plate
is equal to the sum of concrete tensile force along the shear crack. Based on this hypothesis,
Menétrey simply added the effect of any counteracting forces crossing the shear crack to include
influence of shear reinforcement and pre-stressing. Thus the shear capacity of the slab is defined
as
pswdowctu FFFFP (2.44)
Where Fct stands for the sum of the concrete tensile stress, Fdow takes into account the effect
of flexural reinforcement, Fsw is the counteracting force due to shear reinforcement and Fp
represents the effects of pre-stressing. Figure 2.10 illustrates the effect of different components
of punching capacity of the slab in Menétrey model [24,25].
CHAPTER 2.
Figure 2-10 Representation of punching shear capacity of a general reinforced slab [23].
2.4.2 Concrete tensile force
While studying the influence of concrete on punching shear capacity Menétrey neglected the
effect of friction which arises due to aggregate interlock along the shear crack. Furthermore, he
implemented non-linear fracture mechanics to calculate tensile stress in the concrete and
assumed at ultimate limit state as depicted in Figure 2.10 an inclined crack formed at a distance
r1 and r2 which are given as
tan10
11
drr s (2.45)
tan2
drr s (2.46)
Menétrey et al. studied tensile force created in concrete while cracking by non-linear fracture
mechanics and realized that 3/2
ctct fF [26]. What is more, in the Menétrey model the effect of
longitudinal reinforcement, slab thickness and the radius of punching crack initiation on tensile
force of the concrete are taking into account by introducing parameters ξ, μ and η respectively.
So the tensile force is expressed as
3/222
1221 )9.0()( ctct fdrrrrF (2.47)
Where
02.087.0
02.0035.046.01.0 2
(2.48)
2.4. MENÉTREY MODEL
19
2/1
16.1
ad
d (2.49)
Where da is maximum aggregate size.
5.2625.0
5.25.025.15.01.0
2
h
r
h
r
h
r
h
r
s
sss
(2.50)
Where h is slab thickness and rs is radius of the column.
2.4.3 Dowel effect
The resisting force produced by longitudinal reinforcement is known as dowel effect. This
force significantly enhances the punching shear capacity of the concrete flat slabs. As the study
done by Regan and Braestrup [26] indicates, up to 34% of the punching capacity of reinforced
slabs is due to dowel force contribution. In the Menétrey model this force is calculated as
sin)1(2
1 22
isyic
bars
i
idow ffF (2.51)
Where Φi is diameter of the reinforcement crossing the shear crack and ζi is given as
sysi f/ (2.52)
Stress in the reinforcement which is denoted by σs is determined by dividing horizontal
component of the force in compressive strut, illustrated in Figure 2.10, by the total area of the
longitudinal reinforcement crossing the punching crack which gives
bar
i
si
u
s
A
P
tan (2.53)
It is worth mentioning that in Eq. (2.51) the reduction factor of 1/2 is an approximation taking
into account the fact that the reinforcement bars are orthogonal and as a consequence don’t
cross the punching crack at right angle.
2.4.4 Shear reinforcement contribution
Shear reinforcements such as stirrups and bolts are used to increase the punching capacity of
slabs. Generally speaking, there are three distinct failure mechanisms for concrete slabs with
shear reinforcement as are shed on light below and illustrated in Figure 2.11.
CHAPTER 2.
i. In the case that a punching crack occurs between the column face and the shear
reinforcement the ultimate load is calculating by Eq. (2.57) where the interaction of
punching and flexural stiffness is considered. What is more, the inclination of the crack
in this failure mode is defined as
h
rr sswi1tan (2.54)
Where, as illustrated in Figure 2.11., rswi is the distance between the shear stud and the
center of gravity of the column and s is inclined length of the punching crack which is
determined as
22
12 9.0 drrs (2.55)
ii. In the case that punching crack happens outside the shear reinforcement as depicted in
Figure 2.11 b), the punching capacity of the slab is determined as for the case without
shear reinforcement except the radius of column rs, is considered rsc, which is the radius
of the punching crack initiation and calculated by Eq. (2.45). To elucidate on, in this
case the punching capacity of the slab increases due to having a more stiff core around
the column.
iii. When the punching crack crosses through the shear reinforcement the bond properties
are decisive in the failure mechanism. So that, for the cases with poor bond strength
shear reinforcement doesn’t contribute to the punching capacity of the slab. However,
the added punching capacity due to shear reinforcement for the case with sufficient bond
strength is determined as
cswswsw FAF sin (2.55)
αc is the angle between the shear stud and the horizontal direction shown in Figure 2.11
c).
Figure 2-11 Three different punching failure mechanisms considering the location a strut and
crack initiation point.
2.5. GEORGOPOULOS MODEL
21
2.4.5 Pre-stressing tendon contribution
Menétrey takes into account the effect of pre-stressing simply by considering the vertical
component of force in tendons crossing the punching crack. It is expressed as
)sin( p
tendons
i
pp AF (2.56)
Where β is the inclination of the tendon at the place it intersects the punching crack.
Menétrey asserts that when tendons are bonded to the surrounding concrete even additional
enhancement of the punching capacity. It is due to the fact that bonded tendons in addition to
applying counter acting moment contributing to the flexural stiffness of the slab function in the
same way as longitudinal reinforcement. Accordingly, in this case while calculating ζ by Eq.
(2.48) the area of pre-stressing tendons intersecting punching cracks should be added to the area
of longitudinal reinforcement.
2.4.6 Relation between punching and flexural capacity
It goes without saying, of paramount importance is the geometry of the failure surface in
determining the failure load for a slab. This issue has been studied experimentally by Menétrey
[26]. He concluded that the inclination of the crack α is a key parameter through which flexural
and punching failure loads are linked to each other. He suggested the following expression
9030452
3sin)(
2/1
uflexufail PFPF (2.57)
Contemplating on Eq. (2.57) indicates that for α=30̊, Ffail=Pu, while for α=90̊, Ffail=Fflex. It is
worth mentioning that, for design purpose, Pflex can be computed by yield-line theory.
2.5 Georgopoulos model
Georgopoulos [27] developed a method to predict the inclination of the punching crack and
the punching capacity of flat slabs without shear reinforcement. In his model the mechanical
reinforcement ratio and the tensile strength of the concrete are the main variables. In this model
the inclination of the crack is determined as
3.0056.0
tan
(2.58)
Where ω is mechanical reinforcement ration and is defined as
cubck
yk
f
f
,
(2.59)
CHAPTER 2.
The model presented by Georgopoulos is illustrated in Figure 2.12 where the punching
capacity of the slab is approximated to
cot35.020.0
2cot13.4 2
d
ddP s
u (2.60)
Where ds is diameter of the column, and σ is maximum principle tensile stress of the concrete
in the punching crack which is determined by the following expression
3/2
,17.0 cubckf (2.61)
Figure 2-12 Load bearing model of flat slab developed by Georgopoulos [27].
2.6 Bond model for concentric punching shear
Alexander and Simonds [28] developed a mechanical model relying on radial arch action and
critical shear stress for beams. They assumed that punching capacity of the slab is mainly
yielded from the resistance of four strips branching out of the column and extended parallel to
the reinforcement direction as shown in Figure 2.13. The length of the strips in this model,
denoted by lw, is from the edge of the column to the point where shear force is zero. These
stirrups are assumed as cantilever beams having the bending capacity of Ms. Assuming q, as the
shear force that can be transferred by the quadrant of the slab adjacent to the cantilever strip,
Ms is determined by implementing equilibrium as
2
2 2
ws
qlM (2.62)
On the other hand, by isolating a single strip and writing the equilibrium equations the axial
force created in column due to the effect of one strip, P1 is determined as
wqlP 21 (2.63)
Considering Eqs. (2.62) and (2.63) and with regard to the fact that the column is affected by
four strips, the maximum axial load in the column is achieved
2.7. MUTTONI MODEL
23
qMP su 8 (2.64)
Looking at Eq. (2.64) indicates that by determining q, which is the maximum shear force that
the strips can bear, the punching capacity of the slab is calculated. Alexander and Simonds
claim that using one-way shear capacity which is known as inclined crack load to determine the
q leads to satisfactory results. Accordingly, they propose
cfdq 1667.0 [kN/m] (2.65)
Where fc is in MPa and d is in mm.
Figure 2-13 layout of radial strips in bond model [28].
2.7 Muttoni model
Muttoni applied critical shear crack theory to determine the punching failure capacity of
concrete slabs [29]. As illustrated in Figure 2.14, the inclined crack propagates through the slab
into the compression strut transferring the force to the column and disturbs its performance. As
the crack becomes wider the capacity of inclined concrete strut decreases which eventually
leads to punching failure. In other words, based on critical shear crack theory, for concrete
elements without shear reinforcement the roughness and width of the inclined crack developing
through the concrete compressive strut govern the shear strength.
Figure2-14 Influence of inclined crack on performance of compressive concrete strut [29].
CHAPTER 2.
Walraven et al. [30] indicated that roughness of the crack can be taken into consideration by
dividing the width of the inclined crack by the quantity (dg+16). Where dg and dg0 are maximum
aggregate size and the reference size of 16 mm, respectively. On the other hand, Muttoni and
Schwarts [31] showed that the width of the critical shear crack is proportional to product of slab
rotation ψ and effective height d as illustrated in Figure 2.14. Accordingly, Muttoni suggests
the punching failure criterion for flat slabs without shear reinforcement as
0
0 151
4/3
gg
c
u
dd
dfdb
P
[MPa, mm] (2.66)
Where b0 is the perimeter of the control area which is at the distance d/2 from the face of the
column. Furthermore, Muttoni by analytical approach indicated that the relationship between
load and rotation in flat slabs is expressed as
2/3
25.1
flexs
y
V
V
E
f
d
B (2.67)
Where Vflex is the flexural capacity of the slab and V is the acting shear force. By implementing
yield-line theory flexural capacity of uniformly reinforced slab loaded as Figure 2.15 is
determined as
cB
ccBB
cr
mV
q
rflex
4
8sin
8cos
4
22
(2.68)
Where mr is the moment capacity. In Muttoni model to calculated the punching shear capacity,
failure criterion expressed by Eq. (2.66) and load-rotation relationship presented by Eq. (2.67)
should be solved simultaneously, see Figure 2.16.
Figure 2-15 Loading setup and associated yield lines [29].
2.8. DISCUSSION ABOUT MECHANICAL MODELS
25
Figure 2-16 Load-rotation curve and failure criterion [29].
2.8 Discussion about mechanical models
Mechanical models which have been developed in history by studying the punching behaviour
of flat slabs are based on equilibrium and compatibility concepts. Each model has its own
limitations and best fits for special cases. Some don’t take into account the effect of
reinforcement and pre-stressing while some attempt to consider these factors. Furthermore,
failure criteria implemented in different models are of significant importance which sometimes
vary dramatically. In the author’s opinion it could be an interesting field of research to improve
existing mechanical models based on modifying the failure criterion. Alongside with that, the
role of concrete tensile strength is not acknowledged by all mechanical models. Generally
speaking, how mechanical models are taking into account the role of concrete tensile strength
in punching capacity of slabs fall into two categories as illustrated in Figure 2.17. Some models
neglect this effect while some models attempt to take it into account. However, implementing
nonlinear fracture mechanics and creating numerical models provide an opportunity through
which more comprehension of this issue could be grasped.
Figure 2-17 Two basic models for punching [27].
CHAPTER 2.
3.1. EFFECT OF PRE-STRESSING
27
3
Effect of pre-stressing on punching
capacity of flat slabs
3.1 Effect of pre-stressing
Concrete is a material with relatively high compressive capacity and low tensile strength.
Alongside with that, concrete has very low deformability and cracks in the case that shrinkage
is prevented. Accordingly, devising methods to tackle such drawbacks are quite natural.
Engineers came up with two solutions. They suggest either implementing pre-stressing
technique or reinforcing the concrete.
Generally speaking, pre-stressing in flat slabs leads to reduction of cracking and deformation
under serviceability loading. Furthermore, it gives an opportunity to reduce dead weight of the
slab having slender section which results in an economic design. However, in such slabs usually
punching failure is dominant in the ultimate limit state due to the limited thickness of the slab.
On the other hand, although punching failure is a local damage, it can yield in progressive
damage by overloading adjacent columns. These facts necessitate a deep and more detailed
reflection on the issue.
As mentioned in chapter one, both experimental and numerical studies have been conducted
over the years intending to unveil the influence of pre-stressing punching behaviour of slabs.
They stress some potential beneficial effects as
i. In vicinity of the column, implementing inclined tendons results in vertical forces
assisting punching resistance.
ii. Pre-stressing leads to increase of the compressive stress in the concrete which has been
reported to enhance the punching capacity.
iii. The counter acting moments produced by eccentricity of the tendons also have been
reported to boost punching capacity.
In 2012, Clément et al. [3] attempted to have a thorough look at the issue by applying the
critical shear crack theory. They considered the failure criterion proposed by Muttoni, presented
by Eq. (2.66) and tried to investigate the influence of pre-stressing. They assert that the vertical
component of the pre-stressed tendon reduces the shear force transferred by the concrete in
vicinity of the column so that
Chapter
CHAPTER 3.
PEPc VVVdAqRV (3.1)
Where q is the external load exerted on the punching cone, R is the reaction force, VE is thw
acting shear force and VP is the vertical component of the pre-stressing force at the place where
tendons intersect the punching crack, see Figure 3.1. Considering Eq. (2.66) punching failure
is reached when PU=Vc=VE-VP. It is all transparent that in this situation part of the load is carried
by the pre-stressing tendons resulting in achieving higher punching capacity.
Figure 3-1 Reduction of shear force due to tendon inclination [3].
Alongside with that, Clément et al. shed more light on the influence of pre-stressing on general
behaviour of the slab which is expressed by rotation of the slab, ψ. They concluded that pre-
stressing contributes to the amount of slab rotation through two distinct mechanisms. First one
is due to the effect of the normal compressive stresses and the second effect is caused by tendons
eccentricity. To elucidate on, as illustrated in Figure 3.2, normal compressive stresses increase
the rotational stiffness of the slab which leads to less ultimate rotation and higher punching
capacity.
Figure 3-2 Influence of in-plane force caused by pre-stressing on punching capacity [3].
As mentioned above the other phenomenon affecting the load-rotation of the slab is counter
acting moments resulted due to the eccentricity of the pre-stressing tendons. The effect of
moments opposing external loads is illustrated in Figure 3.3 where they postpone cracking of
the concrete and as a consequence based of critical shear crack theory, enhance the punching
capacity of the slab. However, looking at design codes indicates that the positive influence of
the pre-stressing on punching capacity of concrete slabs by altering its behaviour is usually
3.2. EUROCODE 2, APPROACH
29
neglected. While they only take into account the contribution of vertical components of pre-
stressing tendons. In the following the design approach proposed by Eurocode 1992 is
presented.
Figure 3-3 Influence of bending moment caused by pre-stressing on punching capacity [3].
3.2 Eurocode 2, approach
While determining the punching capacity of concrete flat slabs, Eurocode 2 [2] acknowledges
only the vertical components of tendons Vp,EC, stretching within the area at distance of 2d from
edge of the column, see Figure 3.4. and neglects the effect of eccentricity and in-plane
compressive stresses. The criterion presented by Eurocode 2, considering punching failure of
pre-stressed flat slabs is expressed as
dbfkVVV ECccECRECpE 1.010018.03/1
,, (3.2)
Where bEC as shown in Figure 3.4 is perimeter of the control area, k and ρ are size effect factor
and reinforcement ration, respectively, which are expressed as
2200
1 d
k (3.3)
02.0 lylx (3.4)
Figure 3-4 Control area for punching shear in Eurocode 2.
4.1. INTRODUCTION
31
4
Methodology
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter the process of creating numerical model of a pre-stressed concrete flat slab is
presented and the theoretical concept behind each step is discussed. Furthermore, validity of
the created numerical model is going to be controlled by experimental investigation conducted
by Hassanzadeh [4].
From economical point of view pre-stressed flat slabs made of normal strength concrete are
suitable for medium spans where the advantage of implementing pre-stressing tendons
overweighs the self-weight of the slab. Accordingly, in this investigation diameter of the slab,
c, corresponding to the area around the column in which the radial bending moment is negative
is assumed to be 2.5 m which makes sense for medium length spans of about 10 m, see Figure
4-1. Going into the depth, in order to study the punching shear capacity of the slab resting on
group pf columns, only a circular part of the slab a long circumference of which the bending
moment is zero may be modelled. Alongside with this idealization, an appropriate boundary
condition should be assigned for the isolated circular part of the slab in vicinity of the column.
The slab can be considered to have simply supported boundary condition by accepting the
simplifying assumption that the vertical displacement of the slab would be zero at the same
place where negative radial bending moment vanishes. This assumption has been implemented
in this investigation.
Figure 4-1 Diameter of the modeled slab in relation to bending moment diagram [14].
Chapter
CHAPTER 4.
As presented in Table 4-1 properties of the concrete and reinforcement steel in the model is
assumed to be identical to concrete class C30/37and steel B500B based on Eurocode 2 [2].
Furthermore, pre-stressing cables consist of 7 wire strands of type Y1670S7 based on prEN
10138 [32]. Figure 4-2 illustrates the geometry of the slab which is going to be studied in this
investigation.
Table 4-1 Material properties
Density
(kg/m3
)
E
(GPa)
fcm
(MPa)
fctm
(Mpa)
fy
(MPa)
fu
(MPa)
εcu
(%)
εc1 (‰)
concrete 2400 33 38 2.9 - - 0.35 2.2
reinforcement 7850 200 - - 500 540 5 -
cable 7850 195 - - 1640 1860 2.5 -
Figure 4-2 Reinforcement and dimensions of the slab.
To study the punching behaviour of the slab a numerical model is created in Abaqus /CAE
software [33].
4.2. CONCRETE MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR
33
4.2 Concrete material behaviour
In this part, first the mechanical properties of the concrete is presented and then the
mathematical model implemented to define concrete in numerical analysis is discussed.
4.2.1 Compressive behaviour
Concrete has completely distinct response when it is subjected to compressive or tensile force.
Accordingly, two different stress-strain curves should be introduced to represent compressive
and tensile behaviour of the concrete.
Concrete shows highly non-linear behaviour while applying uniaxial compressive load so that
only up to around 40% of the ultimate compressive strength, fcm, the stress-strain curve remains
linear. At this point micro cracks appear and propagate due to increasing the load. This
phenomenon which results in gradual decrease of modulus of elasticity continues
approximately up to 70% of ultimate compressive strength. After this stage, bond cracks form
between cement paste and aggregates due to increasing the external load which leads to
dramatic reduction of the modulus of elasticity. Then, gradually the number of these bond
cracks increases and matrix cracking begins. This process is continued until the maximum
compressive strength is achieved. Finally, the softening stage initiates where stress-strain curve
descends and failure occurs at ultimate strain. Eurocode 1992 [2] presents an empirical formula
to determine nonlinear stress-strain curve of concrete when it is subjected to uniaxial
compressive force. Figure 4.3 illustrates the idealized uniaxial compressive behaviour of the
concrete introduced by Eurocode [2].
Figure 4-3 Uniaxial compressive of concrete [2].
21
2
k
k
f cm
c
(4.1)
Where
CHAPTER 4.
1c
c
(4.2)
cm
ccm
fEk 105.1
(4.3)
It is worth mentioning that Abaqus software assumes the stress at last point of the stress-strain
curve is maintained for strains higher than εcu1, which means neglecting the crushing of concrete.
Therefore, to have more realistic behaviour one point is added to stress-strain curve where stress
is equal to zero1. Figure 4-4 depicts the stress-strain curve for concrete C30/37 which is assumed
while creating numerical model.
Figure 4-4 Stress-strain curve for concrete C30/37.
4.2.2 Tensile behaviour
Concrete has brittle behaviour while subjected to tensile force. As illustrated in Figure 4-5 the
response of the concrete remains linear up to just below the tensile strength which is denoted
by point b. At this stage increasing the external load leads to formation of micro cracks resulting
in reduction of modulus of elasticity and as a consequence nonlinear behaviour. This continues
until point c which represents the tensile strength of the concrete. Before reaching the tensile
strength crack propagation is ceased if the external load remains constant. However, after this
point cracks becomes unstable meaning that the released strain energy is adequate to cause
crack propagation without increasing the external load. Accordingly, after point c, in order to
have stable crack growth the external load has to be decreased. Descending part of the stress-
1 While modeling nonlinear material abaqus software does not allow to introduce a point with zero stress after
yield point. Thus the stress at last point is considered around 1% of compressive strength.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004
Stre
ssM
pa
strain
uniaxial compressiveresponse of concreteC30/37introduced plastic curvein abaqus software fornonlinear analysis
4.2. CONCRETE MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR
35
strain curve confirms this fact. During this stage, micro cracks which are accumulated in limited
areas named fracture process zone are merged together forming macro cracks. This results in
softening behaviour of the concrete in tension [33].
Figure 4-5 Behaviour of concrete under uniaxial tensile loading [33].
In numerical analysis, to have a more realistic tensile behaviour of concrete especially in
descending part of uniaxial tensile response, introducing stress-strain is not an appropriate
format. This is due to the fact that in this stage total displacement of the concrete consists of
sum of elastic strain in un-cracked part of the concrete and displacement caused by increasing
of crack’s width. Accordingly, as illustrated in Figure 4-6, it is proper to divide the tensile curve
into two parts; un-cracked part and cracked part. the response of the un-cracked concrete is
elastic and defined by stress-strain curve while crack opening stage in which the width of the
crack starts to increase is more suitable to be defined in terms of stress-displacement (σ-w) [34].
This is because displacement resulted by crack opening is independent of specimen size and
rather is related to fracture energy which is a material property.
Figure 4-6 Crack propagation in concrete at uniaxial tensile loading [34].
It is worth mentioning that fracture energy which is equal to the area under stress-displacement
curve represents the amount of energy required to establish a stress free crack. As given in Eq.
(4.4) International concrete design standard model code 2010 [35] presents a formula in which
fracture energy of the concrete is only function of compressive strength.
18.073 cmf fG (4.4)
Where Gf stands for fracture energy in Nm/m2 and fcm should be taken into account in MPa.
CHAPTER 4.
There are several crack opening curves defining the uniaxial nonlinear tensile behaviour of
the concrete while crack propagation among which linear, bi-linear and exponential curves are
common, see Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-7 three common crack opening curves [36].
Deciding about which curve to be used in numerical analysis depends on the required
accuracy. As depicted in Figure 4.7 implementing linear curve overestimates the stiffness and
tensile capacity of the concrete. In other words, exponential and bi-linear curves result in
quicker depletion of strain energy just after crack initiation. At the same time Figure 4-7
indicates that the higher tensile strength results in more ductile behaviour. This can be realized
in Figure 4.7 by observing steeper response in unloading stage for concrete samples with higher
tensile strength.
Figure 4-8 Crack opening law and tensile strength effect on tensile response of concrete
[37].
In this study the exponential curve is chosen to define crack opening behaviour of the concrete.
Cornellissen et al. [38] suggested the formula given below to define the exponential curve
c
ct
wfw
wwf
f
(4.5)
4.2. CONCRETE MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR
37
Where
cc w
wc
w
wcwf 2
3
1 exp1 (4.6)
wc is amount of displacement which is required to occur in a crack to be considered as stress-
free and is approximated to
t
f
cf
Gw 14.5 (4.7)
Where Gf is fracture energy and is calculated by Eq. (4.4).
In Eq. (4.6) c1 and c2 are material constants and are considered equal to 3.0 and 6.93,
respectively.
Figure 4.9 depicts the crack opening curve which is introduced in Abaqus software for
concrete material in this investigation.
Figure 4-9 Crack opening curve for concrete material.
4.2.3 Multiaxial behaviour
While creating a numerical the method multiaxial behaviour of the concrete should not be
neglected. Concrete indicates more ductile behaviour when it is subjected to multiaxial
compression compered to uniaxial loading. In other words, the ability of the material for energy
consumption is increased. Furthermore, in the condition of multiaxial compression the
compressive strength of the concrete is increased. This is due to the phenomenon called
confinement. Figure 4-10 indicates the biaxial behaviour of the concrete.
The other feature of biaxial response of concrete which can be inferred by reflecting on Figure
4-10 is that applying tensile and compressive stress simultaneously, decreases the capacity of
the sample. Based on what alluded to above, about the multiaxial behaviour of concrete it is of
great importance to define appropriate material model in order to achieve a realistic behaviour
0.00E+00
5.00E-01
1.00E+00
1.50E+00
2.00E+00
2.50E+00
3.00E+00
3.50E+00
0 0.00005 0.0001 0.00015 0.0002 0.00025
stre
ss (
Mp
a)
displacement (m)
CHAPTER 4.
in numerical analysis. Conventionally, Von Mises theorem is used to define the behaviour of
elasto-plastic materials when they indicate analogous behaviour under tensile and compressive
stress which is not the case for concrete material the behaviour of which dramatically is distinct
under compression and tension. Accordingly, in this study concrete damage plasticity (CDP)
model is implemented to define behaviour of the concrete. In CDP model modified Drucker-
Prager strength hypothesis is taken into account to define yield surface of the material.
Figure 4-10 Failure envelope under biaxial loading [36].
4.3 Concrete model
4.3.1 Yield surface
As mentioned above CDP is used to define concrete behaviour. This model is a continuum
plasticity based damage mode for concrete. the main assumption in this model is that the
concrete fails either due to compressive crushing or tensile cracking. In this model the yield
function which was defined by Lubliner et al. [39] and later modified by Lee and Fenves [40]
is determined as
pl
cc
plpqF
~~31
1maxmax
(4.8)
Where max
is maximum eigenvalue of stress tensor and pl
c~ is compressive plastic strain.
1/2
1/
00
00
cb
cb
(4.9)
σb0, σc0 are compressive biaxial strength and uniaxial compressive strength, respectively, and
4.3. CONCRETE MODEL
39
the amount of σb0/σc0 is suggested to be considered equal to 1.16 [41].
is Macauley bracket, defined as
xxx 2
1 (4.10)
)1(1~
~~
pl
tt
pl
ccpl (4.11)
In Eq. (4.8) p indicates hydrostatic pressure and q stands for Von Mises equivalent stress
which are determined as
σ(3
1trp ) (4.12)
23Jq (4.13)
Where σ is stress tensor and J2 second invariant of deviatoric stress which is calculated as
SSj :2
12 (4.14)
The function (:) stands for doubly contracted product and S indicates deviatoric stress which
is defined as
IpS
I is identity tensor.
γ is an empirical parameter which is determined by conducting triaxial test and is equal to
12
)1(3
c
c
K
K (4.15)
Kc is interpreted as the ratio of distance between hydrostatic axis and respectively compression
meridian and tension meridian in the deviatoric cross section. However, in lack of experimental
data parameter Kc is suggested to be assumed as 2/3 in CDP model [41]. By calculating γ which
is function of Kc the shape of the yield surface presented in Eq. (4.8) is determined. As
illustrated in Figure 4.11 considering Kc=1 results in circular deviatoric cross section of yield
surface which corresponds to Drucker-Prager criterion. Also in Figure 4.11 the yield surface
for Kc=2/3 which is the case in CDP model is depicted [42]. Furthermore, Figure 4.12 illustrates
the yield surface of concrete achieved by implementing Eq. (4.8) and considering Kc=2/3 and
the yield surface in linear Drucker-Prager model. After forming failure surface the failure
criterion may be defined in meridian plane (the plane containing hydrostatic axis) and by the
equivalent stress, q .
CHAPTER 4.
Figure 4-13 illustrates failure curve in meridian plane for CDP model. Reflecting on figure
4-12 confirms the shape of the failure curve presented in Figure 4-13. With regard to Figure
4.13 in CDP model dilation angle ψ and eccentricity needs to be de determined to define failure
curve. The physical interpretation of dilation angle is concrete internal friction which is
recommended to be considered 4030 [41]. In CDP model as discussed before, yield
surface assumes the shape of hyperbola. Mathematically speaking, the eccentricity which needs
to be introduced in CDP for defining yield surface is distance between vertex of hyperbola with
its asymptote. Eccentricity can be defined as ratio of tensile strength to compressive strength
[42]. To have better sense about the physical interpretation of eccentricity the concept of flow
rate in CDP model is explained beforehand.
It is all transparent that the behaviour of material after yield point is of great importance in
nonlinear analysis. Variation of deviatoric cross section (the section resulted by intersection of
deviatoric plane which is a plane the normal vector of which is hydrostatic axis, with yield
surface) explains behaviour of material after yield point which is pointed out as flow rate, see
figure 4.14. Mathematically, flow rate is formulated as
gdd pl (4.16)
Where λ is plastic multiplier and is determined experimentally and g is plastic potential which
in CDP model is defined as
tantan 22pqg to (4.17)
Where ε is eccentricity parameter introduced above.
With regard to what explained above it can be concluded that ε indicates that at which rate
yield surface approaches linear flow rate. CDP model assumes non-associated flow rule which
means plastic potential as shown in E.q (4.17) is not only function of yield stress. It is worth
mentioning that for materials the plastic potential of which only depends on yield stress the
flow rule will be associated. Mathematically speaking, the difference between materials with
associated flow rule and non-associated flow rule is that in former, the vector of plastic strain
increment is normal to yield surface. See Figure 4.15.
Figure 4-11 Deviatoric cross section of yield surface in CDP model [42].
4.3. CONCRETE MODEL
41
Figure 4-12 Yield surface in CDP model and Linear Drucker-Prager model [41,42].
Figure 4-13 Failure curve in meridian plane [42].
Figure 4-14 Yielding curve in same deviatoric plane [41].
CHAPTER 4.
Figure 4-15 Plastic strain increment vector, on yield surface considering associated and non-
associated flow rule.
4.3.2 Defining damage in CDP model
In CDP model, damage index is introduced to assess the and quantify the amount of damage
occurred in concrete material. As illustrated in Figure 4-16 total strain in concrete, t , contains
two terms which are inelastic strain, in and initial elastic strain, 0 . In this method pl , is
defined as reference point beyond which the damage occurs in concrete and as a consequence
damage index has the value higher than zero. It goes without saying that the maximum amount
of damage is equal to 1 and it is reached when concrete is fully cracked under tension or fully
crushed under compression. However, in this investigation pl for compression is considered
equal to 1c see Table 4-1, and cracking displacement is assumed equal to wc, see Eq. (4.7).
Figure 4-16 Stress-strain curve for uniaxial tension and compression curve and associated
damage index.
4.3. CONCRETE MODEL
43
By defining pl , damage index, is calculated as
01)1(
c
c
cinc
d
d
(4.18)
0)1(
t
t
tincr w
d
dww
(4.19)
Where dc and dt are compressive and tensile damage index, respectively.
Finally, with regard to the theoretical concept of CDP model explained in this section the
parameters required to define concrete material model is given in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2 CDP model parameters
Parameter
Name
Dilation
angle
Eccentricity α K εpl wcr
(m)
Value 36̊ 0.1 1.16 0.667 0.0022 2.12×10-4
4.3.3 Longitudinal bars and pre-stressing tendons
As illustrated in Figure 4.2 bars with diameter of 10 mm at distance of 20 cm are used for
longitudinal reinforcement in two perpendicular directions. Properties of reinforcement bars are
presented in Table 4.2. Eurocode 2 asserts that in lack of test data a bilinear stress-strain curve
can be assumed [2]. However, in Abaqus software stresses and strains for steel should be
introduced in terms of Cauchy stress (true stress) and logarithmic strain. It is worth mentioning
that actual stresses and strains are determined by considering the actual cross-section and length
of the element while loading. Nominal stress, σnom, is converted to true stress as follows
)1( nomnomtrue (4.20)
Logarithmic plastic, pl
ln strain is calculated as
E
truenom
pl )1ln(ln
(4.21)
Figure 4-17 and Figure 4-18 show the uniaxial stress-strain curve for implemented
reinforcement bars and pre-stressing cables respectively. Since steel has the same tensile and
compressive yield strength Abaqus software considers Von Mises criterion for nonlinear
behaviour of steel materials. However, in this investigation cables and reinforcement bars are
modeled as truss elements and as a consequence they response only when they are subjected to
axial forces. The reason for this assumption is that the flexural stiffness of reinforcement bars
and pre-stressing cables compared to their axial stiffness is negligible.
CHAPTER 4.
The influence of cable arrangement on punching capacity of the flat slabs is the main objective
of this study. Accordingly, 7 alternatives are considered for cable locations, see Figure 4-19.
Figure 4-17 Stress-strain curve of reinforcement bars.
Figure 4-18 Stress-strain curve of pre-stressing cables.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Stre
ss (
Mp
a)
Strain
nominal
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
Stre
ss (
Mp
a)
Strain
nominal
true-log
inelastic
4.3. CONCRETE MODEL
45
Figure 4-19 Alternative cable arrangements.
Tendons are placed in parabolic shape, which is common arrangement of pre-stressing cables
in continuous slabs and beams where the eccentricity of the tendons must be opposite in middle
of the span and over the support. Furthermore, implementing inclined cables results in cross-
sectional forces in vertical direction counteracting the shear forces. Figure 4-20 depicts the
parabolic shape of the cables.
Figure 4-20 Parabolic shape of pre-stressing cables.
Pre-stressing force, P, is determined based on Eurocode 1992 [2] as
kNP
Mpa
fkfk kppkp
2051467139
147616409.0;18608.0min
;min
max
1.021max,
(4.22)
So P is considered equal to 200 kN.
CHAPTER 4.
4.4 Finite element model
Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical and approximate solution for partial differential
equations by which physical phenomena are described. It has been used to solve differential
equations governing structural analysis in recent decades. The main idea in FEM is discretizing
the domain and implementing appropriate shape functions for each discrete part (structural
element). Abaqus software has the element library providing an opportunity through which the
structure is discretized. In this investigation truss elements are assigned for reinforcement bars
and pre-stressing cables. This is due to the fact that their flexural stiffness is negligible and thus
is not taken into account while creating numerical model. It is all transparent that concrete, in
punching failure is in multiaxial tress situation which necessitates implementing the continuum
(brick) elements for discretizing the slab.
The other important issue which needs to be considered in numerical modelling is interaction
between materials with different properties or different assigned element types. It is assumed
here that the reinforcement bars and pre-stressing cables are embedded in the concrete which is
an idealization for bonded pre-stressed cables. This assumption yields in tied degrees of
freedom for cables and bars with concrete at points where they contact with each other. This
concept is illustrated in Figure 4-21.
With regard to the symmetric condition, only one-fourth of the slab needs to be modelled.
However, appropriate boundary conditions should be assigned in symmetry plane. Figure 4-22
indicates the created model and the assigned boundary conditions as well.
Figure 4-21 Tying condition between truss and brick element.
4.4. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
47
Figure 4-22 Boundary conditions.
After creating the model, non-linear static analysis is implemented to analyse the structure. In
this method the equilibrium equation governing the problem which is presented below is solved
uKP . (4.23)
Where P is load vector, K is stiffness matrix and u is displacement vector.
The equation above for nonlinear structures which is the case here cannot be solved directly.
This is because the constitutive matrix, the matrix containing properties of the material, which
is included in K matrix in Eq. (4.23) due to material nonlinearity is not constant. Accordingly,
it needs to be solved in an iterative process. The iteration is required in two stages; local iteration
and global iteration. Here each step is explained separately:
Local iteration: In finite element method the local stiffness matrix, k, of each element is given
as
dVBEBkt
(4.24)
Where the elements of matrix B is independent of material properties and contains derivations
of shape functions and E is constitutive matrix the elements of which is function of Poisson’s
ratio and modulus of elasticity. On the other hand, as explained before CDP model assumes
non-associative flow rule and the growth of yield surface after yielding is not linear. With regard
to this fact, determining modulus of elasticity for generating constitutive matrix requires an
iterative process, see Figure 4-23.
CHAPTER 4.
Figure 4-23 Local iterative process to capture the correct constitutive matrix.
Global Iteration: the global stiffness matrix can be generated by assembling local stiffness
matrices. To elucidate on, assembling process takes into account the geometry of the problem
by determining how elements are connected to each other. Assembling local stiffness matrices
each of which is achieved by assuming non-linear stress-strain relations results in forming
global stiffness matrix which itself is in nonlinear relation with the applied force on the structure
in global coordinate. Accordingly, it can be concluded that, the other iterative process is
required to solve Eq. (4.23). Figure 4-24 schematically illustrates two steps of iterative process
for solving equilibrium equation where Abaqus software implements mathematical methods
such as Newton-Raphson to minimize the residual force at each step. In this figure epA, epB and
epC are residual forces.
Figure 4-24 Newton Raphson iteration process.
4.5 Verification
Hassanzadeh conducted an experimental investigation at KTH university in 1998 to
investigate the effect of location of pre-stressing cables on punching capacity of flat slabs [4].
During his investigation he tested slabs with distinct mechanical characteristics and cable
arrangements among which the sample A1 is selected for verification of the numerical model
4.5. VERIFICATION
49
created in this thesis. As illustrated in Figure 4-25 the behaviour of the slab while calculating
punching capacity in both numerical analysis and experimental data follows the same path. The
final displacement for both experimental test and numerical analysis are close enough.
However, the numerical model has more stiff response compared to experimental sample. This
can be due to the fact that material properties such as stress-strain curve and fracture energy in
numerical model have been taken into account by approximate equations. The other important
factor which may affected the results is that the numerical model considers fully bonded
boundary conditions for pre-stressing cables while in experimental investigation the cables are
un-bonded.
Figure 4-25 force displacement curve for numerical analysis and experimental text.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
-2 3 8 13 18
forc
e (M
pa)
displacement (mm)
experimental
Mesh size: 20mm
mesh size 15mm
5.1. RESULTS
51
5
Result and Discussion
5.1 Results
In this chapter first the results are presented and then in order to shed more light on the issue
they are going to be discussed thoroughly.
In Table 5.1 the punching shear capacity of the created models by both implementing
numerical analysis and the Eurocode procedure is presented. Figure 5.1 illustrates the force-
displacement curves achieved by conducting FEM. Figure 5.2 depicts the punching shear
capacity of the slab models with respect to location of pre-stressing cables.
Table 5.1 Punching shear capacity of the slab models.
Case Distance
from
face of
the
column
ρ (σc)ave
Mpa
Vp,EC
(each cable)
kN
Eurocode Numerical Numerical
Eurocode
V
V
VR,EC
kN
VR,EC
kN
Without
Cable
- 2.27×10-3 - - 182 218 1.2
A 0.5d 2.27×10-3 3.95 42 496 594 1.2
B 1.5d 2.27×10-3 3.78 42 460 570 1.24
C 2.5d 2.27×10-3 3.12 - 306 527 1.72
D 3.5d 2.27×10-3 2.70 - 288 501 1.74
E 5d 2.27×10-3 1.52 - 242 419 1.73
F 6d 2.27×10-3 0.33 - 195 288 1.47
G 7d 2.27×10-3 0.12 - 187 240 1.28
Chapter
Figure 5.1 Force-displacement curve for slab models.
Figure 5.2 Effect of location of pre-stressing cables on punching shear capacity of slab
models.
5.2 Discussion
As already explained, in the vicinity of the column implementing inclined pre-stressing cables
results in vertical forces assisting the punching shear resistance of the slab. Furthermore, pre-
stressing increases the compressive stress around the column which also leads to increase of
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Pu
nch
ing
cap
acit
yM
Pa
deformation mm
0.5d 1.5d 2.5d 3.5d 5d 6d 7d without cable
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Pu
nch
ing
shea
r ca
pac
ity
MP
a
distance
punching shear capacity of slab without pre-stressing cables, Eurocode 2
punching shear capacity of slab without pre-stressing cables, Numerical analysis
punching shear capacity of pre-stressed slabs, Eurocode 2
punching shear capacity of pre-stressed slabs, Numerical analysis
xd xd
5.3. FUTURE INVESTIGATIONS
53
the punching shear capacity. The other positive effect of pre-stressing is the counter acting
moments introduced via eccentricity of the tendons. Conducting numerical analysis takes into
account all of these positive influences of pre-stressing cables. Reflecting on Figure 5.1 reveals
that the effect of implementing pre-stressing cables until the distance of 6d (where d is thickness
of the slab) from the face of the column is considerable. Table 5.2 presents the percent of boost
in punching shear capacity respecting the location of pre-stressing cables from the face of the
column.
Table 5.2 amount of increase in punching capacity regarding the location of cables.
Distance of cable
from face of the
column
0.5d 1.5d 2.5 d 3.5 d 5d 6d 7d
Punching shear
capacity
enhancement
172% 161% 141% 130% 92% 33% 10%
Reflecting on the procedure presented by Eurocode 2 in order to determine the punching shear
capacity of concrete slabs equipped with pre-stressing cables indicates that the effect of counter
acting moment due to the eccentricity of pre-stressing is completely neglected and the vertical
components of pre-stressing cables is considered only when they are located in the area within
distance 2d from the face of the column. This area is called basic control area in Eurocode 2.
Comparing the numerical results with the amount of punching capacity predicted by Eurocode
2 which is presented in Table 5.1 reveals that inside the control area the predicted value for
punching capacity by Eurocode has almost acceptable accuracy (the difference with numerical
results is about 20 percent). However, outside the basic control area where Eurocode 2 only
takes into account the positive effect of compressive stresses introduced by pre-stressing the
difference between numerical results and Eurocode procedure are very high. In other words, in
the distance of 2d until 6d from face of the column where the effect of pre-stressing cables on
increase of punching capacity of the slab is still significant Eurocode 2 noticeably
underestimates the punching shear capacity of the slab, see Figure 5.2.
5.3 Future investigations
Further steps can be taken in continuation of current master thesis considering the suggestions
presented below:
1. In this thesis thickness of the slab is constant. So it is recommended to carry out the
investigation considering various thickness for the slab in order to study the size effect.
Eurocode1992 takes into account the size effect through the factor k while calculating
punching capacity of the slab.
2. Studying the effect of opening in vicinity of the column on punching capacity of pre-
stressed concrete flat slabs is of great interest.
3. Further investigations can be carried out to propose an analytical method which is able
to predict the punching shear capacity of the concrete flat slabs when the pre-stressing
cables are located outside the basic control area
55
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TRITA-ABE-MBT-19686. Master Thesis 2019.