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The ccTLD Governance Project ITU ccTLD Workshop March 2003 Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law Technology Counsel, Osler, Hoskin

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  • The ccTLD Governance ProjectITU ccTLD WorkshopMarch 2003Professor Michael GeistUniversity of Ottawa, Faculty of LawTechnology Counsel, Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectBackgroundNot a CIRA projectGrowing importance of ccTLDsLocalization of the InternetAmericanization of dot-com (ACPA)Challenge of characterizing ccTLDsWork-in-progress

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectBackgroundPhase One - Governmental involvement in ccTLDsPhase Two - Clustering TLDsImplications

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase One - Governments & ccTLDsReview of 50+ ccTLDsRelevance - No single source for informationICANN - ccTLD developments -- one size fits all?; less self-regulated than commonly perceivedMethodologyTLD sitesDirect contact with TLD operators

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase One - Governments & ccTLDsKey data point - Government involvement via:LegislationRunning the TLDAgency oversightNo involvementOther data points - historical development commercial orientation of TLDICANN relationship

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase One - Governments & ccTLDsccTLDs grouped into four categories:Government run or agency (11)Private, for-profit (9) (two have formal contractual relationship with government)Non-profit (20) (25% formal relationship with government; 25% no relationship; 50% informal relationship)Academic institutions (5)Government involvement greater than expectedMajority have some relationship with governmentRarely a pure commercial enterprise

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase Two - Clustering TLDsPhase one interesting -- government involvement far heavier than generally perceivedGroupings not particularly informative -- illustrate government interest but dont give a sense of policy, governance issuesAdd information -- ascertain which domains are more government/public focused and which are commercial

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase Two - Clustering TLDsCommercial issuesRegistry model -- Competitive registrar model/sole commercial provider (2)Single non-profit with functional commercial operation (1) Non-profit/government (0)Local registration restrictions --None (2)Some local restrictions (1)Restricted to local population (0)Speed of registrationImmediate (1)Delay/paperwork or review required (0)

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase Two - Clustering TLDsGovernment/Public Interest IssuesGovernment involvementGovernment agency (3)Government legislation/contract/ultimate authority (2)Informal government involvement (1)No government involvement (0)Public Interest stated goalYes (2)Efficient functioning of DNS (1)No stated goals (0)

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase Two - Clustering TLDs

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase Two - Clustering TLDs

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectPhase Two - Clustering TLDs

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • CommercialCluster

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • CommercialCluster

    Government/Public InterestSector

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • Government/Public InterestSectorCommercialCluster

    HybridCluster

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectImplicationsCommercial vs. Government/Public InterestHybrids are a distinct minority -- most are recent creations and question marks remainSuccess stories tend to pre-date commercial success of the InternetClose matching of gTLDs and ccTLDs

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectImplicationsCommercial vs. Government/Public Interest - WHY?TLD policy choices often at oddsGrowth of the registry v. presence requirementsPublic elections v. fair representationIP interests v. speech and local interests

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectImplicationsNational level - how governments treat their ccTLDClear public interest goals may be mismatched with commercial, market led focusNeed for difficult choicesGovernment must be willing to step in to protect public interest

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectImplicationsGlobal levelGovernments increasingly engaged in ccTLDs -- more difficult for ICANN agreement?ICANN agreement - one size clearly doesnt fit all -- is it a model best suited to commercial TLDs?

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectImplicationsFuture trendsHybrids likely to experience governance problemsccTLDs push to either end (.la, .co)gTLD developments (ACPA) push toward ccTLD

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • ccTLD Governance ProjectFuture WorkRefine and expand matrixData collection centre for ccTLDsAnalysis of current policy choices

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com

  • The ccTLD Governance ProjectProfessor Michael GeistUniversity of Ottawa Law SchoolTechnology Counsel, Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt [email protected] * www.lawbytes.ca

    Professor Michael Geist University of Ottawa Law School www.lawbytes.com