The Bufonidae Bunch

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The Bufonidae Bunch. What You Should Know. Worldwide Except for Australia Not found in extreme, cold, dry, or island environments About 550 species and 34 Genera (according to Amphibian Web) 14 known species in the Northwest Parotid glands distinguish them from other families - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of The Bufonidae Bunch

The Bufonidae Bunch (Family)

The Bufonidae Bunch

What You Should KnowWorldwideExcept for AustraliaNot found in extreme, cold, dry, or island environmentsAbout 550 species and 34 Genera (according to Amphibian Web)14 known species in the NorthwestParotid glands distinguish them from other familiesWhite sticky poisonCan kill or paralyze predators, not toxic to humansSkin can be used as a recreational drugContinuedKnown as True ToadsBody StructureShortened LimbsHind limbs used for walking or hoppingDry Warty SkinParotid glands on the head located behind eyesReproductionLay eggsAquatic larvaeTerrestrial direct developmentViviparous

ContinuedCharacteristics shared within the familyBidders organ presentTeeth absent from upper and lower jawConstrictor posterior muscle absentDepressor mandible muscle originating solely from the squamosalInguinal fatSkull highly ossifiedMales develop nuptial pads

http://www.californiaherps.com/noncal/northwest/nwfrogs/images/bbboreasfl406nuptialpad.jpgBufo boreausNorthwest speciesLargest Western ToadHabitatFound in arid, brush, low landsNocturnalSecretion has hallucinogenic properties

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/1111_1111/2222/0032.jpeg

Bufo nelsoniNorthwest speciesDiurnal in spring and nocturnal in summerConservative actions kept this species from extinctionDefined whitish dorsal stripe

http://www.fws.gov/nevada/nv_species/images/amargosa_toad_large.jpg

Bufo canorusNorthwest speciesKnown as Yosemite ToadHigh mountain, meadows, and forestSeeks shelters in burrowsDiurnal

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/1111_1111/2222/0106.jpegBufo exsulNorthwest speciesKnown as Black ToadFound only in marshesHighly aquaticDirunal

http://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/0000_0000/0306/0113.jpeg

Bufo woodhousiiNorthwest speciesKnown as Woodhouses ToadVariety of habitatsWhitish dorsal stripeProminent cranial cresthttp://calphotos.berkeley.edu/imgs/512x768/1111_1111/1111/8989.jpeg

Bufo brauniTanzaniaKnown as Dead-leaf ToadEndangered speciesRecognized by reddish tinthttp://www.easternarc.org/posters/AmphPost/AmphPost/6.jpg

Bufo debilisSouthern United States and Northern MexicoKnown as Green ToadEndangered species because of habitat lossNocturnal

http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Bufo+debilis

Bufo surdusFound in IranKnown as the Iranian ToadUsed for pest exterminatorNocturnalBreeds during monsoon seasonhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bufo_surdus01.jpg

Bufo olivaceusFound in Pakistan and IranKnown as Olive ToadNo cranial crestTadpoles feed on algae vegetationGray dorsum with darkish spotting on limbshttp://calphotos.berkeley.edu/browse_imgs/amphibian_sci_20.html

Bufo lemurFound in Puerto Rico and Virgin IslandsKnown as Puerto Rican Crested ToadReproduction is sporadicHighly depends on rainfallGold marbled eyesNocturnal

http://www.coquipr.com/anf/sp.php

BibliographyAmphibian Species of the Worldhttp://research.amnh.org/vz/herpetology/amphibia/Amphibia Webhttp://amphibiaweb.org/Stebbins, R. (2003). Western reptiles and amphibians. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.