The Authorship of Flamenca

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  • The Authorship of FlamencaAuthor(s): K. PietschSource: Modern Language Notes, Vol. 10, No. 7 (Nov., 1895), pp. 201-202Published by: The Johns Hopkins University PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2919147 .Accessed: 15/05/2014 17:11

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  • 40I Novemiiber, I895. MODERN LANG UAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 7. 402

    side,) is preferable to the arrangement, 'had olnly given us one for dinner.'

    FRED N. SCOTT. Untiver-sily of Michigan.

    THE A UTHORSHIP OF FLAMENCA.* AN aplproximate date cani be given of only two of Peire Rogier's poems. The one " Senh'en Raymbaut, per uezer . . . ," addressed to Raimbaut d'Aurenga, must have been written before II73, the year of Raimbaut's death.' The other is " Per far esbaudir mos uezis . . ." "e uenc s'en," says the Provengal biography of Peire Rogier,2 "a Narbona en la cort de ma dompna n'Esmengarda . . . lonc temps estet ab ella en cort e si fon crezut q'el agues ioi d'amnor d'ella, don ella en fo blasmada per las gens. e det li comiat e-l partit de si. et el s'en anet a n Raembaut d'Aurenga ... lonc temps estet ab en Raembaut d'Aurenga. (e puois s'en partic de lui) . . ."

    As Raimbaut died in II73, we may put Peire Rogier's arrival at his court about II70 and his arrival at Narbonni-e several years earlier. Further, the poem " Per far esbau- dir mos uezis ...," being the first of Peire Rogier's songs to Esmengarda,3 must have been written before II70.

    The second tornada of this poenm reads as follows:

    Iastart, tu siay e portamin lay

    mon sonet a mon 'Tort-n'auetz; e di-m a n'Aimeric lo tos membretlh dont es e sia pros.4

    Aimeric was born the son of Manriqtue de Lara and Ermessinda, sister of Esmengarda.5 He would scarcely have been mentionled in a poenm to Esmeigarda, unless he was at this time at the court of Esmelngarda. From II67 on, Aimeric's namne appears by the side of that of Esmengarda in documents.6 But might hie not have come earlier to Narbonne ?

    * Cf. MOD. LANG. NOTES, MIay I895.

    i Appel, Das Leben uozd die Lieder des Trobadors Peire

    lio,ier, Berlin I882, p. II.

    2 Ibid., p . 34.

    3 Ibid., p. 8, note.

    4 Ibid., p. 47.

    ) Appel, p. iI,

    6, 7, 8 Ibid., p. I2. Appel only remarks that the marriage of Manrique anid Ermessincla was blessed with maniy chil- dren.

    Very likely not earlier than II64, the year in which his father died7 and when Esmenigarda, to relieve his mother,8 may have invited him to come to her court. Thus we have II64 as the lerminus a quo of the poem. Now, as the poem is the first in a series of songs to the praise of Esmengarda, imiost of which were composed before Peire Rogier left Esmen- garda's court (about II70), wve shall not go wrong in putting the date of " Per far es- baudir mos uezis . . .," as well as that of Peire Rogier's arrival at Narbonnie, not later than I I65.

    This conjecture is supported by the last two lines of the tornada with regard to whicl Appel observes :9

    " Die ausdrtickliche Bezeichnunig lo tos "der juLige," wie die Erniahnung scheinien atif grosse Jugend des Prinzen zu deuten. Das Jaahr seiner Geburt ist tins niclht tiberliefert da aber die nur kurze Ehe der Elltern (Maanri- que starb II64) reich ani K'indern xvar, dtirfen wir die Geburt Aimeric's als des altesten in den Anfanig der ffinfziger Jahre legen."

    As to Peire Rogier's earlier life, I quote the Provencal biography :io

    "Peire Rotgiers si fo d'Aluergne; e fo canorges de Clarmon,II e fo genitils l1om e bels et auinens e sauis de letras e de sen natural e cantaua e trobaua ben, e laisset la canorga e fetz se ioglars. et aniet per cortz e foroni grazit li sieu chantar. e uecic s'en a Narbona . . ."

    It is almost certain that Peire Rogier was born before, or at least not later, than 145.I2

    This assumptioni is strengthened by con- sidering thlat Peire Rogier, calling Aimeric a " tos " anid proffering to hiim paternal advice, was without doubt conisiderably older than Aimeric.

    9 lbid., p. I2.

    io Ibid., p. 34.

    iI With the material at my disposal I am uiniable to de- terminie at how early an age it wNas possible, in the latter half of the twvelfth cenittury, to become a canon. Cf. Herzog- Plitt, 2d ed., v. vii, pp. 506-x6 anld Wetzer-Welte, 2d ed., v. ii, I823-42.

    I2 Peire Rogier [ii6o-8o]. Thuls reads the heading of the poets biography in Diez (L W d T., 2d ed., p. 79) and MIr. Henckels hastily concltudes: " Diez says that Peire Rogier was bornl about Ii6o-8o." Had Mlr. H. onliy read the first two pages of the biography, he would have seen that the dates are meant for the time dtring which the poet flouLrished.

    201

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  • 403 November, 1895. MODERN LANGUA GE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 7. 404

    To speak finally of the Romiian de Flamenzca, the lermiius a quo as well as the probable date of its composition are the vears 1234-5.13 Peire Rogier would have been at this time ninety years old. I have nothing further to add, althouglh other reasons are not wanting why, even if he had been alive, hle would not have been the author of Flamneizca.

    The striking similarity between Peire Rogier (Bartsch, C. pr., 4tlh ed., 84, 3) and the dialogue of Guillem and Flamenca'4 has to be ex- plained as "imitation"15 of Peire Rogier by the author of Flainenca.

    K. PIETSCH. The Nezwberry Libr-ary, COicago.

    THI-E ELL ANVD YARD.

    THERE lhas been some discussion itn the last few years over the origin of the expression " de ell an' yard " (the sword and belt of Orion), which occurs several times in the writ- isgS of Joel Chandler Harris.

    Until recently this discussion seems to have been confined to our own country; now, from across the ocean comes a breath of interest and curiosity.

    The March number of The Observatory, an Astronomical n-magazine published at Green- wich, refers to it as of interest to those who care to collect astronomical allusionis and references in cotntemporary literature.

    It refers to a Christtmas story by " Q " in the Pall Mall Budge!, in whiclh a plantation song is introduced, and says that the author claims that the expression " de los' ell ani' yard " is genuine negro for Orion's sword and belt.

    The refrain of Joel Chandler Harris' corn shuckiing song is as follows;

    " Fer de los' ell an yard is a huntin' fer de mornin' En she'll ketch tip widdus fo' we ever git dis corni in."

    From a later edition of his works I (quote also:.

    " It wuz dark, but the stars wuz a shinniii', an' JolIiiny could tell by the eli-aIj-yard (tlhe

    13 RevillonLt, Rdlr., v. viii, p. i6; Meyer, RooeZaa, v. v, p. 123; Stimming, Grober's Grundr., v. 2, ii, p. iO.

    14 The discovery has been made already by Appel, p. 14, note 3.

    I5 C'f. Appel, p. i5, note 2; Diez, Pd T., 2d ed., p. 21.

    constellation of Orion) that it was niglh mid- night."

    Dr. Thomas P. Harrison, takes this latter quotation an(l works out a very ingeniouis theory regarding the origini of the expression, wlhich he has published in MOD. LANG. NOTES for April, I893. He gives hiis article the title of "The Elnyard, " anid begins by saying that he was first led to believe that the expresslon "the ell and yard " referred to the pleiacles, and gives his reasons. Later he says:

    "The idea evolved in elnyard is made evi- dent by the Ancient Swedish ternm for the Belt of Orion (cf. Jamison) that is Friggerock 'Freye's Distaff', wlhiclh after the introduction of Christianity became Marirock, Marv's Dis- taff in Scotlanid (cf. Century Diclionar-y) Our Lady's Ellwand. Thuis it seems that the three stars in the belt of Orion appeared to these people as projecting a linie an ell in length."

    " MWr. Harris "' he says, " is evidently wrong in writing ell-an-yard the in is onily the middle Englislh endinig as it appears in Elm (cf. Gen;- luriy Diclioina;y) for ell."

    ILet us try to supplement Dr. Harrison's work by Astroniomical inivestigation.

    First, taking an astronomy published side by side, as it were, with the Observatory, where the expression is quoted as " geniuine negro," we find a very initerestinig description of Orion, that beginis to throw some light on the subject.

    In Smytlh's Cycle of Ce/estial Objecis, pub- lished in England ini I844, OrioIn is men1tioIned as the most beautiful cand brilliant of all the constellationis and the most noted among the Ancients.

    In describing the stars in the belt and sword, many of the popular names for them are given; first the old Arabiani onies, meaninlg the

    Gianit's belt " andcl the ' Gold grainis or span- gles."

    Then we h.ave "Jacob's Staff, perhaps from the traditionial idea nmenitioned by Eusehius that Israel was anl Astrologer."

    Some of the other namiies mentionied are: "T hle Golden Yard of Seameni, the Three

    Kings of Sootlhsayers, the el/ and yard of tradesnmeni, the Rake of Hushandmen anid Our Lady's wand of the Papists."

    Coming back to ouLr owvn1 couIntry, wlhere the expressioni is still in common use, we findl in Tue U'ot(/ecrs of t/e Heavens, by Dunican

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    Article Contentsp. 201p. 202

    Issue Table of ContentsModern Language Notes, Vol. 10, No. 7 (Nov., 1895), pp. 193-224Educational English [pp. 193-194]Two Spanish Manuscript Cancioneros [pp. 195-196]The Misplacement of Only [pp. 196-201]The Authorship of Flamenca [pp. 201-202]The Ell and Yard [pp. 202-203]French Theatre [pp. 203-211]Old English [pp. 211-215]History of the Novel [pp. 215-218]French Texts [pp. 218-220]Review: untitled [pp. 220-221]Heine in France [pp. 221-222]CorrespondenceCheval de Fond [pp. 222]Gothic haiti [pp. 222]Was Paradise Lost Suggested by the Mystery Plays? [pp. 223]

    Brief Mention [pp. 223]Journal Notices [pp. 224]