The Art About Statements Chapter 8 “Say what you mean and mean what you say”

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The Art About Statements Chapter 8 Say what you mean and mean what you say. By Alexandra Swindell Class Four Philosophical Questions. What is a statement?. A speech which signifies something true or false. It signifies that something is or is not so. Statement: I went to the store. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>The Art About Statements Chapter 8 Say what you mean and mean what you say</p> <p>The Art About Statements Chapter 8Say what you mean and mean what you sayBy Alexandra SwindellClass FourPhilosophical QuestionsWhat is a statement?A speech which signifies something true or false.It signifies that something is or is not so. Statement:I went to the store.Not a Statement:Go to the Store. True or False?This depends on whether or not a statement signifies something that agrees with reality. Statements about future events are neither true or false. </p> <p>Truth is the conformance of the mind with reality.Kinds of StatementsSimple: one thing is affirmed or denied of another. Compound: composed of simple statements 3 TypesAnd: I ran to the store and bought ice cream.If then {Hypothetical}: (If a man is a saint) antecedent, (then he will go to Heaven) consequent. Either-Or: A number is either odd or even.Dividing Simple StatementsSeparate the noun and verb (they are both kinds of words or names.) A noun is a word which signifies without time.A verb is a word which signifies with time, and which is a sign of something said of a subject. </p> <p>Kinds of Simple StatementsAffirmative: Trees are plantsNegative: Trees are not plants.Universal: All trees are plants.Particular: Some trees are plants.</p> <p>Contradictions A statements is contradictory to another statement with the same subject and predicate when both statements cannot be true or false at the same time.A statement can also be contrary to another statement with the same subject and predicate when both statements cannot be true at the same time, but can be false at the same time.True and False in Compound StatementsWhen we are stating whether it is true or false we must look at the entire statements and follow the rules of contradiction. Modal StatementIndicating explicitly in the statement itself, the manner, or mode, of connection which the subject has with the predicate is a modal statement. It is necessary that the sun will rise tomorrow. When comparing the kinds of oppositions which may exist between modal statements, a modal statement which expresses necessity is equivalent to a universal affirmative statement since something which is necessarily connected is connected in every case. Per Se StatementsSometimes a statement can only be known to be true with certitude when it is the conclusion of some argument, that is prove the statement is true. There must be some statements which can be known to be true through themselves, without a proof. These are called self evident statementsContinuedPer se through itself is when the subject itself is the cause of the predicate belonging to the subject.When the predicate is in the definition of the subject. When the subject is the definition of the predicate. When the predicate belongs to the subject as to its cause. EL Fin Per se statements are the anchors which guarantee certitude to all other statements which are concluded from them by way of an argument, so they are the most certain and fundamental truths which we can know. </p>

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