The Appendicular Skeleton - .Shoulder Girdle •Only forms one joint with the axial skeleton •Clavicle

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  • The Appendicular Skeleton

  • THE UPPER EXTREMITY The Appendicular Skeleton

  • The Upper Extremity

    Bones of the shoulder girdle Clavicle and scapula

    Upper arm Humerus

    Lower arm Radius

    Ulna

    Wrist Carpal bones

    Hand Metacarpals

    Phalanges

  • Shoulder Girdle

    Only forms one joint with the axial skeleton

    Clavicle

    Sternoclavicular joint Where the sternum

    meets the clavicle

  • Shoulder Girdle

    Scapula Shoulder blade 3 borders

    Superior (top) Vertebral (by the spine) Axillary (side near the armpit)

    Spine Ridge along the posterior portion of the bone

    Acromion process Articulates with clavicle Process that is located at the end of the spine

    Coracoid process Projection on the anterior portion of the scapula Only 2 major projections

  • Shoulder Injuries

    Broken clavicle

    Separated shoulder - AC joint separation

  • Humerus

    Long bone that makes up the upper arm Upper end (epiphysis)

    Head Smooth rounded end that fits into glenoid fossa

    Anatomical neck Groove immediately inferior to the head

    Greater and lesser tubercles Greater is lateral to the head Lesser is inferior (below) the greater

    Intertubercular groove Groove b/t greater and lesser tubercles

    Surgical neck Region below the tubercles that leads to the diaphysis Common to fracture

  • Humerus

    Middle (diaphysis)

    Deltoid tuberosity Protuberance midway

    down shaft

    Deltoid attaches here

    Radial groove Groove moving inferiorly

    for radial nerve

  • Humerus End (epiphysis)

    Eipicondyles Medial and lateral projections

    Medial is larger of the two

    Capitulum Rounded head below the lateral

    epicondyle Radius attaches

    Trochlea Appears similar to a pully

    Deep depression in the epiphysis

    Articulates with the ulna

    Olecranon fossa Depression on the posterior survace

    Olecranon process forms elbow here

    Coronoid fossa Depression on the anterior portion

  • Forearm

    Radius Thumb side

    Head Proximal end

    Articulates with the capitulum

    Radial tuberosity Projection just below the

    head

    Styloid process Located on the lateral,

    distal end of the bone

  • Forearm

    Ulna Pinky side Longer than radius Olecranon process

    Elbow

    Coronoid process Opposite side of elbow

    Semilunar notch Depression that articulates

    with the trochlea

    Styloid process Distal end

    Head Distal end

  • Left Arm

  • Wrist

    8 bones 2 rows

    Proximal row Pisiform

    Triquetrum

    Lunate

    Scapate

    Distal row Hamate

    Capitate

    Trapezoid

    Trapezium

  • Hand

    Metacarpals

    Middle bones of the hand

    Distal end makes up the knuckles

    Numbered 1 5

    Phalanges

    Smaller bones that make up the fingers

    Separated into proximal, middle, and distal (finger tip)

  • THE LOWER EXTREMITY The Appendicular Skeleton

  • Hip Coxal bones (pelvis)

    Thigh femur

    Lower leg Tibia Fibula

    Foot Tarsal bones Metatarsals Phalanges

    The Lower Extremity

  • Coxal Bones

    Pelvic girdle Combination of the sacrum and the coxal bones

    bound together by ligaments

    Supports the trunk of the body and allows for leg attachment

    Coxal bones Each bone is made up of 3 fused bones

    Illium

    Ischium

    Pubis

  • Ilium

    Most superior

    Largest

    Palpable

    Ischium

    Strongest

    Most inferior

    Pubus

    Anterior to the ischium

  • Coxal Bones

    Horizontally divided into 2 parts Pelvic inlet

    a.k.a. pelvic brim

    Above the inlet False pelvis

    Runs from the tip of the ilium to the pelvic inlet

    Below the inlet True pelvis

    Boundary of the pelvic outlet

    Pubic symphysis Where the coxal bones

    meet

  • Thigh Bones

    Femur

    Upper end (epiphysis) Head

    Greater/lesser trochanter

    Middle portion (diaphysis) Linea apera

    Supracondylar ridges

  • Thigh Bones

    Distal end (epiphysis)

    Lateral/medial condyles

    Lateral/medial epicondyles

    Adductor tubercle

    Trochlea

    Intercondyloid fossa notch

  • Patella

    Largest sesamoid bone in the body

    Knee cap

    Imbedded in the tendon from your quadrceps

  • Tibia

    Shin bone Lateral/medial condyles

    Upper end of bone Concave surface to articulate w/ femur

    Intercondylar eminence Spine between condyles Attachment for ACL and PCL

    Crest Sharp ridge on the anterior Part of the shin you can feel

  • Tibia

    Tibial tuberosity

    Protuberance just below condyles

    Palpable below the knee

    Ankle

    Medial maleolus Palpable on the inside of

    the ankle

  • Fibula

    Smaller than tibia

    Deeper of the two bones Always on the outside of

    the lower leg

    Proximal end articulates with the tibia @ lateral condyle

    Creates part of the knee joint

    Distal end (other of the ankle Articulates with the tibia

    Lateral malleolus

  • Foot

    Constructed similar to the hand

    Adapted to support weight

    Two way arch construction

    Longitudinal arch Medial/lateral

    longitudinal arches

    Transverse arch Metatarsals & the distal

    row of tarsals

  • Foot Flat foot (fallen arches)

    Ligaments and muscles hold bones in place

    Keeps the arch intact

    Foot, knee, eventually back

    Very small number of individuals have a true flat foot Usually over-pronation

    High arch Charcot Marie Tooth

    disorder (CMT)

  • Foot Bones

    Tarsal Bones Talus

    Articulates w/ the tibia

    Calcaneus Heel

    Navicular

    Distal row Cuniform bones

    1-3 starting at 1st metatarsal

    Cuboid

    Metatarsals 1-5 (big toe out)

    Phalanges (1-5) Proximal Middle* Distal

    1

    2

    3

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