The 56th annual meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry (September 25–30, 2005; Busan, Republic of Korea)

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<ul><li><p> ISSN 1023-1935, Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 681685. MAIK Nauka /Interperiodica (Russia), 2006.Original Russian Text E.A. Nizhnikovskii, A.M. Skundin, V.A. Grinberg, A.I. Danilov, V.A. Safonov, O.A. Petrii, 2006, published in Elektrokhimiya, 2006, Vol. 42, No. 6, pp. 760765.</p><p>681</p><p>The 56th annual meeting of the International Soci-ety of Electrochemistry (ISE-56) took place on Sep-tember 2530, 2005, in the city of Busan, a seaport inSouth Korea. Its motto was Electrochemistry for theNext Generations. It is a well known fact that the ISEmeetings are most prestigious and representativeforums attended by the electrochemists. The scope ofISE-56 was immense: more than 1100 scientists from47 countries were its participants. It comprehended fiveplenary lectures on the most acute problems of the sci-ence. The twelve sections (symposiums) included morethan 1100 reports concerned with practically everydirection of fundamental and applied electrochemistry.It is worth noting that South Korea hosted such a meet-ing for the first time ever. The organizers, and first andforemost the Local Organizing Committee headed byProf. H. Kim of the Seoul National University, did theirbest to ensure its success.</p><p>The five plenary lectures demonstrated dazzlingachievements of the last few years in understanding thenature of electrochemical processes and presentedexamples of their utilization. The lecture </p><p>RecentInsights into Physical Electrochemistry and Electroca-talysis</p><p>, delivered by A. Hamnett (United Kingdom),tackled the effect of modern solid state physics and sci-ence of nanoparticles on the understanding of mecha-nisms of electrochemical processes. The lecture </p><p>Devel-opment and Evaluation of Electrocatalysts for FuelCells</p><p>, given by M. Watanabe (Japan), perused scientificproblems associated with the development of efficientelectrocatalysts for the oxidation of methanol andhydrogen and the reduction of oxygen. The lecturefocused on the so-called bifunctional oxidationmechanism of organic substances. Such a mechanismoccurs on binary and ternary alloys whose individualcomponents possess different adsorption properties.The questions of the creation of biomolecular elec-trodes, the mechanism of their functioning, and the out-look for their application in bioelectroanalysis were thesubject matter of the lecture </p><p>Electrochemistry and Pho-tochemistry of Biomolecule-Functionalized Electrodes</p><p>imparted by I. Willner (Israel). A.P. Alivisatos (UnitedStates) attracted much attention by his lecture </p><p>Electri-cal Studies of Single Nanocrystal Tetrapods.</p><p> Themethod to create the semiconducting self-organizingsingle-crystal nanostructures of this kind (the lecture</p><p>featured semiconductor CdTe as an example) is colloidchemistry synthesis. The four semiconducting limbs,which protrude at tetrahedral angles from the centralnucleus of such structures, have a controlled length(10200 nm) and a controlled diameter (210 nm).Such particles may function as artificial conjugatedmolecular systems useful for studying the transfer ofindividual electrons, observing quantum phenomena,etc. Su-Moon Park (South Korea) in his lecture </p><p>NovelApproach to a Complete Description of an Electro-chemical System</p><p> considered the questions of takinginto account the faradaic and nonfaradaic electrode pro-cesses when analyzing currentvoltage curves. Somefresh ideas and concepts contained in the plenary lec-tures attracted detailed attention in the reports made atindividual sections.</p><p>The titles of eleven out of the twelve parallel sec-tions (symposiums) that constituted the ISE-56 were:Analytical Electrochemistry, Bioelectrochemistry, Bat-teries, Fuel Cells, Electrochemical Capacitors andHybrid Power Sources, Electrochemical Technologiesfor Electronics, Corrosion and Surface Treatments,Nanostructured Materials, Electrochemical ProcessEngineering and Technology, Molecular Electrochem-istry, and Physical Electrochemistry. The last section,Young Electrochemist Session, was a novelty.</p><p>Of course it is unrealistic to try and fully encompassall the symposiums in a brief information communiqu.</p><p>Symposium 3A Batteries was the most represen-tative. Its program included 67 oral presentations(13 out of these, invited) and 109 posters. The themesof the discourses on the whole corresponded to distri-bution of interests in the field of chemical powersources: the lion share of these (60) undertook to ana-lyze various aspects of operation of lithium batteries.The ratio was about the same in the posters. The themesof reports on the lithium batteries had altered somewhatsince the ISE-55 (September 1924, 2004; Thessalon-iki, Greece). The negative electrodes based on carbon-aceous materials lost their edge. The majority of com-munications dealt with novel promising materials, inparticular, silicon and its composites with carbon andmetals. More than half the reports touched upon variousaspects of operation of the positive electrodes, just as atthe previous meeting. Traditional lithium cobaltitesoccupied little space in the presentations, the studies</p><p>The 56th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry </p><p>(September 2530, 2005; Busan, Republic of Korea)</p><p>DOI: </p><p>10.1134/S1023193506060152</p><p>CHRONICLES</p></li><li><p> 682</p><p>RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY</p><p>Vol. 42</p><p>No. 6</p><p>2006</p><p>NIZHNIKOVSKII et al.</p><p>concentrated mainly on various spinels, including man-ganese spinels. However, the specialists' disposition istowards metal phosphates, rather than spinels. Employ-ing phosphates raises the electrodes' capacity by30</p><p>50%. Noteworthy is an increase in the number ofstudies concerned with lithiumpolymer batteries. Themajor stumbling block here is the absence of an electro-conducting polymer electrolyte with optimum stability.The gelpolymer electrolytes presumably hold mostpromise. In specialists' view, such batteries are mostpromising, together with the lithium-ion batteries. By acomplex of technical characteristics, these surpass allthe known electrochemical systems. Informationappeared about the beginning of production of minutelithiumpolymer batteries. A mere two or three com-munications in this section explored the processes innickelcadmium and nickelmetal hydride batteries.Thus, the popularity of these is on the wane, probablybecause the ultimate offered by such systems had beenachieved.</p><p>Of substantial interest were communications </p><p>Ther-modynamics of Lithium Intercalation into Carbon-aceous Materials </p><p>of R. Yazami (CNRS/CalTech Inter-national Lab) and </p><p>Development of Nanostructured Si/CComposite Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries</p><p> of H. Kim(Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology). Accord-ing to Yazami, the degree of graphitization, which sub-stantially affects the intercalation properties of materi-als, to a high accuracy follows from the data on theentropy of lithium intercalation into partially graphi-tized materials. Kim reviewed latest data on the com-posite negative electrodes and reported on advances inmodification of siliconcarbon composites with respectto both cycle life and capacity.</p><p>Other noteworthy communications include </p><p>GasDevelopment on Electrode/Electrolyte Interface inLithium-Ion Batteries</p><p>, by P. Novak (Paul Scherrer Insti-tute, Switzerland), which quantitatively examines gasevolution in lithium-ion batteries; </p><p>Lithium Batteries forElectric and Hybrid-electric Vehicles</p><p>, by J.R. Selman(Illinois Institute of Technology, United States), aboutthe application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehi-cles of various types; </p><p>Self-Healing Approach for AlloyAnodes in Lithium Secondary Batteries</p><p>, by K.T. Lee(Seoul National University, South Korea), about self-healing negative electrodes of gallium; </p><p>Spinel StructureManganese Materials for LIB: Oxygen Deficiency andOxygen Stoichiometry</p><p>, by M. Yoshio (Saga University,Japan), about a link between the intercalation behaviorof manganese spinels and their nonstoichiometry byoxygen. Sadly enough, some Russian scientists wereincapable of attending this symposium, albeit the Rus-sian delegation in Busan looked very impressive. Theonly presentations at the symposium included the lec-ture </p><p>Evolution of Nanostructured</p><p> (Sn,Ti)O</p><p>2</p><p>at ItsCycling</p><p> delivered by A.M. Skundin (Frumkin Instituteof Electrochemistry, Russia) and posters entitled </p><p>Lith-ium Intercalation into Thin Films of Amorphous Sili-con</p><p>, of T.L. Kulova (Frumkin Institute of Electrochem-</p><p>istry) and </p><p>Kinetics of Lithium Intercalation into Graph-ite: Comparison of Various ElectrochemicalTechniques</p><p>, of E.A. Nizhnikovskii (Frumkin Instituteof Electrochemistry).</p><p>The second place as to the number of communica-tions went to Symposium 3B Fuel Cells, which tack-led fuel cells with a power ranging from a few watts tohundreds of kilowatts. This symposium included 56oral discourses (15 out of these, invited) and 94 posters.Communications concerning the creation of miniaturefuel cells intended for portable devices were all but sen-sational. These cells utilize oxygen of air as the oxidantand methanol, stored in small cartridges, as the fuel;they have already attracted attention of electronicsdesigners. This symposium commenced with report</p><p>What Is the Right Fuel of the Right Fuel Cell for theRight Application</p><p> of C. Lamy and co-workers (Univer-sity of Poitiers, France). The report, which consideredbasic types of fuel cells, focused on direct fuel cellswith such organic fuels as alcohols, ethers, polyethers,and hydrocarbons. A large series of presentations dis-cussed problems associated with search for acceptable(right, in Lamys terminology) electrocatalysts forfuel cells and their optimization. In connection withthis, of interest was the report by M.R. Tarasevich(Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry) about thedevelopment of platinum-free catalysts for fuel cells.The reports that were presented by Tarasevich and co-workers, specifically, an oral communication deliveredby A.D. Modestov and a series of posters ofM.R. Tarasevich, V.A. Bogdanovskaya, and others con-sidered some catalysts in more detail. The problem ofproduction and electrocatalytic activity of metaloxidecompositions mixed on a nanolevel was considered byO.A. Petrii (Moscow State University, Russia). Thereport presented by U. Stimming (Germany) wasdevoted to catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.Other problems discussed at this symposium includedthe optimization of polymer electrolytes for fuel cells.Search for and optimization of catalysts and electro-lytes are conducted at present with the aid of novelcombinatorial approaches.</p><p>Symposium 3C Electrochemical Capacitors andHybrid Power Sources considered questions concern-ing the creation of supercapacitors. These are ana-logues of electrotechnical capacitors, but with a capac-ity to discharge and charge exceedingly fast. Theircapacity amounts to a few farads, but their specificenergy density is markedly poorer than that of batteries.The charge preservation is worse as well, althoughthere were claims that constructions with very low leak-age currents are possible. At the same time, due to thepossibility of fast discharge and charge, supercapaci-tors have a niche of their own and are sought after byelectronics designers.</p><p>Practically no reports on primary chemical powersources (galvanic cells) were presented at the confer-ence. The conclusion that suggests itself is that these</p></li><li><p> RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF ELECTROCHEMISTRY</p><p>Vol. 42</p><p>No. 6</p><p>2006</p><p>THE 56th ANNUAL MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY 683</p><p>power sources practically exhausted the possibilities oftheir modification.</p><p>In Symposium 4A </p><p>Electrochemical Technologiesfor Electronics</p><p> of much interest was the report byT. Osaka (Japan) devoted to the use of self-organizingmonolayers for the surface modification and the cre-ation of diffusion barrier layers on silicon dioxide sub-strates. An alloy deposition theory based on the Markovchain theory was proposed by W. Plieth (Germany),who demonstrated its validity on a number of exam-ples. The participants of this symposium also heard thereport of T.L. Arzhanova (Russia) on the effect an elec-trochemical pretreatment of glassy carbon exerts on thecopper nucleation.</p><p>The majority of more than 40 oral reports (11invited lectures among them) and about 50 posters,which constituted Symposium 4B Corrosion and Sur-face Treatments, dealt with the application of electro-chemical approaches to studying corrosion and corro-sion-related processes and developing methods for cor-rosion protection of metals. For example, the lecturegiven by T. Tsuru (Tokyo Institute of Technology,Japan) was devoted to the simulation of atmosphericcorrosion. Tsuru proposed a very sophisticated methodfor monitoring the concentration of hydrogen dissolvedin carbon steels and zinc-plated steels. The hydrogen inquestion forms in the corrosion process that occurs inmetals in contact with atmosphere. Questions of themonitoring of the rate of a corrosion process with usemade of an impedance method were considered in thecommunication delivered by A. Nishikata of the samescientific group. A favorable impression was created bythe lecture of D. Landolt (Swiss Federal Institute ofTechnology), who presented results of a study of corro-sion and passivation processes with the aid of methodsdesigned by him in the last few years. These includedthe rotating disk electrode and the rotating ringdiskelectrode, which are simultaneously electrodes for aquartz crystal microbalance, as well as a flow-throughcell for microweighing. A very interesting result con-cerning a comparison of friction coefficients onTa(100), which was first passivated and then stored inair, and a similar specimen in conditions of anodicpolarization was demonstrated in the lecture by M. Seo(Hokkaido University, Japan). Using nanoscrapingwith a diamond needle, the author established that rapidrepassivation of a specimen in contact with solutionleads to a rapid reduction of the oxide film and, conse-quently, to a considerable increase in the friction coef-ficient on it, as compared with the specimen in contactwith atmosphere.</p><p>It should be noted that in the last few years theresearchers pay much attention to the use of conductingpolymer films and self-organized monolayers of someorganic and inorganic substances for metal protection.These questions were the subject matter of a consider-able number of oral reports and posters presented byresearchers from Japan, South Korea, Germany,</p><p>France, and other countries. For example, T. Otsuka(Hokkaido University) comprehensively exploredpolypyrrole films modified with phosphorus molyb-dates as efficient coatings. The promise of polypyrrolefilms modified with inorganic nanoparticles (in particu-lar, iron oxides) was discussed in the report of someGerman researchers. The protection mechanism, theachievements, and the potential of practical use of con-ducting polymers for solving corrosion problems wereconsidered in the lecture presented on behalf of a col-lective of Vietnamese, Canadian, Belgian, and Frenchresearchers by C. Deslouis (P. &amp; M. Cur...</p></li></ul>

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