The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III

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Centre for Bhutan Studies. The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part III. The Centre for Bhutan Studies 2011. Centre for Bhutan Studies. Part III: Increasing Happiness GNH Index and Policy: concern for Unhappiness Insufficiencies by Dzongkhag Insufficiencies by region - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The 2010 Gross National Happiness Index : Part IIIThe Centre for Bhutan Studies2011

Centre for Bhutan Studies

Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

Centre for Bhutan Studies GNH Index: PurposeThe GNH Index is formulated to provide an incentive to Increase Happiness.

Civil servants, business leaders, and citizens of Bhutan may ask, how can I help to increase GNH?

The GNH Index can help them answer this question in practical ways.

Centre for Bhutan StudiesIncreasing GNH

Our nations Vision can only be fulfilled if the scope of our dreams and aspirations are matched by the reality of our commitment to nurturing our future citizens.

HM Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, the 5th King of Bhutan

Centre for Bhutan StudiesIncreasing GNHTo Increase happiness, we need to ask a new set of questions.

We have to identify people who are not yet happy.

And we have to ask, where do they lack sufficiency? What must more be done?

This analysis is of direct relevance for policy.

National GNH Index: .743 using the happiness threshold of 66%

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

59% of Bhutanese do not fulfil the threshold of being happy in 6 or more than 6 domains.

According to the GNH Index, they are not-yet-happy.

National headcount ratio:

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Of course, happiness is deeply personal. Some of these people may regard themselves as fully flourishing. That is why we need to discuss GNH widely in Bhutan.

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Of the Bhutanese who are unhappy, on average they have insufficiency in 43% of the domains (roughly equal to 4 domains)

National Breadth (Lack of sufficiency):

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

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Indicator: Consumption per capitaIndicator: Health, Education and Living StandardsIndicator: Psychological wellbeing, Health, Time use, Culture, Ecology, Community vitality, Good Governance and Living standards1,66,1241,46,9563,76,975

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First, a birds eye view of happy vs unhappy people. How do their achievements vary?

When the blue bars are higher, it means that insufficiency is higher among unhappy people.

For example, insufficiency in Life satisfaction is much higher among the unhappy.

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Across all indicators we see that there is no indicator in which orange bars are higher than blue none in which happy people have less sufficiency than unhappy.

But some are relatively close; others very different. Lets look further.

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Looking at psychological well-being, health, and time, we see that the unhappy always have higher insufficiency.

The groups are closest in sleep. Psychological Health Time Use well-being

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Education Culture GovernanceIn education, culture, and governance, the groups are least different in of Value, Language, Driglam Namzha, and Political participation.

Both have highest deprivations in education.

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Community Ecology Living StandardIn community, ecology, and living standard, the strong differences are in wildlife damage and in living standard.

Happy peoples insufficiencies in community and ecology are otherwise rather close and in urbanization, almost equal.

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Next we analyse the blue bars the insufficiencies of unhappy people and ask, how can we reduce them?

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Education is the highest contributor to unhappinessHealth is the lowest contributor to unhappiness followed by community vitality

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Contribution of Education indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Contribution of Living standard indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Contribution of Time use indicators to unhappinessContribution of Good Governance indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Cultural diversity and resilience indicators to unhappinessPsychological wellbeing indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Community vitality indicators to unhappinessEcological diversity and resilience indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Contribution of Health indicators to unhappinessPercentage of people who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency

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Psychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standards

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Psychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standardsMore than 50% of the Bhutanese are insufficient in 3 of the 4 indicators of Education.

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesKnowledge

Centre for Bhutan StudiesKnowledge (contd.)

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Psychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standardsMore than 40% of the Bhutanese are insufficient in 2 of the 4 indicators of Good Governance

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesPolitical participation

Centre for Bhutan StudiesFundamental rights

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

Percentage of not-yet-happy people by district

Higher percentage of not-yet-happy peopleLower percentage of not-yet-happy people

Centre for Bhutan Studies.

Domain contribution to unhappiness

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Psychological wellbeingHealthTime useEducationCultural diversity and resilienceGood GovernanceCommunity vitalityEcological diversity and resilienceLiving standardsPercentage of Bhutanese who are not-yet-happy and lack sufficiency in indicators.

Centre for Bhutan StudiesWhere do the unhappy people live?

Thimphu and Chukha are home to the highest number of unhappy people.Note Chukha and Thimphu also house the highest number of happy people! They are big dzongkhags.

Average insufficiencies amongst the not-yet-happyHigher insufficienciesLower insufficienciesThose living in Samdrup Jongkhar, Lhuentse, Tashi Yangste, and Trongsa experience insufficiency in the most indicators at the same time.

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

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More unhappy people in rural areas!

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In Rural areas, not-yet-happy peoples average shortfall is about the same as urban shortfall.

This is good news.

It suggests less disparity in unhappiness by region.

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Urban Areas have highest insufficiency in Governance, Time use, and Culture. .

Rural Areas have highest insufficiency in Education and Living Standards. .

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

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Centre for Bhutan Studies67% of women are unhappy. About 51% of men are unhappy.

Centre for Bhutan StudiesNot-yet-happy peoples average shortfall (lack of sufficiency) is the almost same for men and women.

Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of the domains to unhappiness by genderThe contribution to unhappiness in men and women by the respective domains is similar

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

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GNH is highest among those aged 21-25

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Young people are better educated, healthier, and have relatively good living standards. Older people do better in culture, governance, community, and psychological well-being. Domain contribution to unhappiness by age group

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Percentage of the not-yet-happy in Health indicatorsPercentage of unhappy increases with age

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Percentage of the not-yet-happy in Community vitality indicatorsThe not-yet happy still have very high and stable achievements in family and safety except the very young. Community decreases with age.

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Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

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Note: results are illustrative only

Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of domains to unhappiness by marital status

Centre for Bhutan StudiesContribution of domains to unhappiness by marital status

The contrast between married, divorced, separated, and widowed is not very big.

Widowed and Divorced enjoy a little less culture.

Never married to show a different profile of deprivations

Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

Centre for Bhutan StudiesNote: The survey is not representative by occupational group, and some of the occupational categories are very small. So these results must be understood to be illustrative but not definitive. Further research would be required to verify their accuracy.

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Centre for Bhutan Studies

Percentage of the not-yet-happy in some of the Psychological wellbeing indicators- monk/anim have lowest insufficiencies.

Centre for Bhutan StudiesPart III: Increasing HappinessGNH Index and Policy: concern for UnhappinessInsufficiencies by DzongkhagInsufficiencies by regionInsufficiencies by genderInsufficiencies by age groupInsufficiencies by marital statusInsufficiencies by occupational groupPolicy recommendationsSustaining GNH

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Who can increase GNH?

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Individuals are linked out

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Communties affect others

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And so does government

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Meaningful work, services, productsMeaningful relationships, collective action, modelsSharing, relationships, authentic self-direction, shaping own happinessGNH is created when different groups work to do what they do best.

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GNH Index highlights- Education

Education is the highest contributor to unhappiness as per GNH Index

Bhutanese have more than 50% insufficiency in 3 of the 4 indicators

The highest insufficiency being in the knowledge indicator. Bhutanese experience low levels of knowledge in cultural & historical aspects of the country & in health and politics.

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Proportion having insufficiency in Education indicators Knowledge comprises of 4-sub indicators which are observed to be relatively low in the country irrespective of any demographic charactersKnowledge of local legends and folk storiesKnowledge of local tshechus Knowledge of traditional Bhutanese songs Knowledge of ConstitutionKnowledge of HIV/AIDSWeights: Schooling and literacy higher weights

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Education is the highest contributor to unhappiness

Proportion having insufficiency in Education indicators Literacy and schooling are conventional indicators for which policies are already in lined for its advancementWeights: Schooling and literacy higher weightsKnowledge of local legends and folk storiesKnowledge of local tshechus Knowledge of traditional Bhutanese songs Knowledge of ConstitutionKnowledge of HIV/AIDS

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Proportion having insufficiency in Living standard indicators RoofingToiletOvercrowdingWeights: all equal

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Proportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators Weights: Higher on services & participation

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Proportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators Weights: Higher on services & participation

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Proportion having insufficiency in Good Governance indicators Weights: Higher on services & participation

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Proportion having insufficiency in Cultural diversity and resilience indicators Weights: Higher on language and participation

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Proportion having insufficiency in Community vitality indicators Weights: Higher on donations and safety

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Proportion having insufficiency in Community vitality indicators Weights: Higher on donations and safety

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Proportion having insufficiency in Community vitality indicators Weights: Higher on donations and safety

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