Teaching Writing in Middle School Tips Tricks and Techniques

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<p>VVirlttiinig* imi IVlIicdladlJLco ^cclhicoxo)!</p> <p>Teaching</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>T c o caicclhiiini^Writing in</p> <p>IVILicdkdlte Scelbicoxo)!Tips, Tricks, amid Tcechracqpces</p> <p>Beth Means Lindy Lindner</p> <p>1998</p> <p>Teacher Ideas PressA Division of Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Englewood, Colorado</p> <p>Copyright 1998 Beth Means and Lindy Lindner All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. An exception is made for individual librarians and educators, who may make copies of activity sheets for classroom use in a single school. Other portions of the book (up to 15 pages) may be copied for in-service programs or other educational programs in a single school or library. Standard citation information should appear on each page copied pursuant to this permission.</p> <p>TEACHER IDEAS PRESS A Division of Libraries Unlimited, Inc. P.O. Box 6633 Englewood, CO 80155-6633 1-800-237-6124 www.lu.com/tip Production Editor: Kevin W. Perizzolo Copy Editor: Jason Cook Proofreader: Susie Sigman Typesetter: Kay Minnis</p> <p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Means, Beth, 1949Teaching writing in middle school: tips, tricks, and techniques / Beth Means, Lindy Lindner. xiv, 209 p. 22x28 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 199) and index. ISBN 1-56308-562-3 1. English languageComposition and exercisesStudy and teaching (Middle school)-United States. 2. Creative writing (Middle school)-United States. I. Lindner, Lindy, 1945- . II. Title. LB1631.M399 1998 808 , .04 , 0712-DC21 97-39412 CIP</p> <p>To CASEY and RON for paying the phone bills</p> <p>With special thanks to Marcia Olsen, Anne Helmholz, Bob Carey, Dr. Nancy Pokorny, and Martha Means for patient reading and testing; to Alice Greiner and Maureen Aumen for "The Paragraph Puzzle"; to Carolyn Lacey Turner, our long-suffering bird dog on sources and errors; to our students whose work appears as samples in the book; especially to our teachers, Henriette Anne Klauser for freeing the artist within and Betty Hagman for training the craftsman; and finally, to all the writers from Virgil to Gary Paulsen who wittingly or unwittingly came along for the ride.</p> <p>This page intentionally left blank</p> <p>ContentsINTRODUCTION l ^ ^ D E C I D I N G WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT Introduction The Writing Idea Triangle Part 1: Finding Your Own Starting Point Activity 1: Stop, Look, and Listen Activity 2: This Is Your Life Activity 3: Borrowing Lists Part 2: Developing Starting Points into Writing Ideas Activity 4: The Three-Minute Fastwrite Activity 5: Fiction, Nonfiction, or Poetry? Activity 6: The Genre Game Activity 7: Who, What, Why, When, Where, and How Activity 8: People, Places, and Problems Activity 9: Wacko Teacher's Notebook On Keeping a Writing Ideas Notebook On Personal, Practice, and Portfolio Assignments Notes from the Pros On Falling in Love and Burning Out 2 5Fiction Workshop</p> <p>Write a simple narrative sentence about what happens to these characters in that place. Keep it simple: "John told Mary he was mad" or "Susan and Julie did the dishes" provide plenty of action for a short scene. Assign each of your characters a mood; for example, happy, angry, patient, frustrated, frightened, or silly. You may also want a starter sentence to help you get rolling. It's always easier to write when you are not beginning with a blank page. Try "Now that [character] was here in (on, at) [the place], he (she) . . ." Just fill in the name of one of your characters and the place. For example, "Now that Joe was here on the doorstep, he . . ." or "Now that Grumpie was here at the state fair, he . . ." Cross out your starter sentence when you finish the scene. All set? Begin to weave your scene. Write what characters do (action) and say (dialogue). As you write, try to weave together the action and the dialogue: Write a little action, then a little dialogue, then a little more action, and so forth. Don't try to write perfectly. Just get it on paper, writing quickly and easily. A few minutes should be enough time to finish the scene. Write on every third line of the page to allow plenty of room for later additions.EXAMPLE Characters: Muskrat and Beaver Place: Muskrat's kitchen Starter Sentence: Now that Muskrat was here in his kitchen, he flung a glass into the dish rack. Muskrat was angry. Muskrat and Beaver did the dishes. Beaver was frustrated. Now that Muskrat was here in his kitchen, ho . . . Tho muskrat flung a glass into tho dish rack (Action is italic; the rest is dialogue.) "I will never give another dinner party for the rest of my life," Muskrat announced flatly. "You want everyone and everything to be just perfect," said Beaver. "Then you get mad and make people uncomfortable when they don't do exactly as you wish." Beaver opened the kitchen drawer, searching for a towel with which to dry the dishes that Muskrat was throwing at the rack. "Mallard put his elbows on the table and was a perfect slob," cried Muskrat. "And the rest of you were behaving like a pack of wild animals." "Well" answered Beaver, "we are wild animals. What did you expect?" Muskrat snorted. "That is no excuse for being uncivilized."</p> <p>Part 1: The Scene ^ ^</p> <p>135</p> <p>Action and dialogue go together. Too much action is confusing, whereas too much dialogue is boring. You can also think of action and dialogue as working together to paint the foreground of the scenethe part of the scene closest to the reader. Introspection and description, fill in the background. You need both foreground and background to show the full picture, so the next step is to weave the background into your scene. Go through the scene and add a little description and introspection, here and there. This paints in the background, the description showing how things look, the introspection showing what the characters think. Add more action and dialogue if you need it. There are a couple of tricks to writing description and introspection that may help you. Good description is detailed. You don't need to describe everything; just pick out two or three details and describe them accurately. Good description is also specific: "The sky was pink" is more interesting than "The sky was beautiful" because it is more specific. Use "German shepherd" or "springer spaniel" instead of "dog," and "daisy" or "lily" instead of "flower," for the same reason. When you weave in the introspection, write the thoughts of just one of the characters in the scene. You can write thoughts for each character, but it is easier to stay with just one character's thoughts.</p> <p>EXAMPLE(Description is italic; introspection is bold; the rest is action and dialogue.) Muskrat flung a glass into the dish rack. "I will never give another dinner party for the rest of my life," he announced flatly. "You want everyone and everything to be just perfect" said Beaver. He had enjoyed the party. Muskrat got so fussed up about such minor problems. "Then you get mad and make people uncomfortable when they don't do exactly as you wish." Beaver opened the kitchen drawer searching for a towel with which to dry the dishes that Muskrat was throwing at the rack. Each drawer was a tidy reflection of its owner. The knives gleamed from careful rows, and the tins of vegetables and fruits were arranged by category. The kitchen towels were folded neatly in the bottom drawer, each embroidered with a saying. Beaver selected "Home Is Where the Heart Is." Perhaps Otter could have been more careful not to spill his grape juice on the carpet. But why have guests if they can't enjoy themselves? "Mallard put his elbows on the table and was a perfect slob," cried Muskrat. "And the rest of you were behaving like a pack of wild animals." "Well," answered Beaver, "we are wild animals. What did you expect?" Muskrat snorted. "That is no excuse for being uncivilized."</p> <p>If you made a big mess adding in the introspection and description, recopy your scene, putting things in the proper order and making any improvements you wish. Read your scene to a friend. The introspection and the description fill out the scene and, suddenly, it sounds professional, just like the scenes you read in books. Of course, you don't need to stop here. Weave in more bits of action, dialogue, description, and introspection until you think it sounds just right.</p> <p>136 ^ ^ 5Fiction Workshop Additional N o t e s to Teachers Have students write a scene weaving together all four techniques in the first draft. Have students write description and introspection first, and add the action and dialogue in the second pass. Have students write at least one scene in which the characters are animals. For some reason, practice with animal characters teaches young writers how to write scenes that portray vivid, interesting human characters. Have students study the scenes in published fiction for ideas. Once your students feel comfortable weaving single scenes, tackle an entire story. Get them started by writing an outline using simple narrative sentences.</p> <p>EXAMPLEThe animals have a dinner party at Muskrat's: 1. 2. 3. 4. Muskrat and Beaver do the dishes. Muskrat decides to sponsor an etiquette class. The class is a disaster. Muskrat invites the animals to dinner, telling them to go ahead and behave badly. He has given up his crusade. But now, the animals prefer to follow the rules of etiquette.</p> <p>Have students weave a scene for each sentence and then hook together the scenes.</p> <p>PART 2: A CATALOG OF FICTION TECHNIQUESTeaching the Techniques To create a classroom activity based on a technique, use the explanation together with the activity "Follow the Leader" (Chapter 3, Activity 8) to introduce the technique, and then ask students to write a scene or section using the technique. Work one scene at a time. (By the way, don't ask that students use any particular technique in a complete story. The technique may not apply and they might wind up with all sorts of unexpected problems for themselves trying to use it in the story.) Keep in mind that the distinction between fiction and nonfiction begins to break down at the level of technique. Almost all the so-called fiction techniques are used routinely in nonfiction, and most of the nonfiction techniques are used occasionally in fiction. Usually, we introduce fiction techniques by teaching students how to write a scene (see Activity 1). Then we introduce nonfiction techniques by teaching students how to write a section. Although description, action, and narrative are all used in nonfiction, it is usually easier for students to learn about them in the context of fiction.</p> <p>Part 2: A Catalog of Fiction Techniques ^ ^ ^ 137</p> <p>A few tips on teaching technique: Cover a range of techniques quickly, rather than covering any one in depth. Slip in a technique here and there among other practice exercises, and keep your presentations quick and light. Beginning writers usually overdo a new technique; it's a natural part of learning. Knowing a little about a range of techniques helps students more than knowing a great deal about any one. Use the "Tricks of the Trade" as helpful points for follow-up discussions or for quick reference when students have editing questions. Action Explanation Action is what the characters do in a scene, as opposed to dialogue, which is what characters say. Action can include big actions (e.g., "Alex jumped from the shed roof to the garden walk and ran to the front of the house") or little actions, sometimes called "business" (e.g., "Alex set his glass on the counter"). Too much action is hard to follow, so action is almost always woven together with dialogue, introspection, description, or narrative.EXAMPLES (Action is italic [our addition].) "You will go." The milk-eyes looked through him to these, to the snow, to the line of blue that was the sky. "You will go now." And there was such strength in his voice that Russel knew he must go. He took the handlebar in one hand and pulled the hook, and the dogs surged away and Russel let them run without looking back. Gary Paulsen, Dogsong "Hullo," he said, beaming. "Where did you spring from? Come and have a warmer up at the Angel." / nodded and walked beside him, shuffling on the thawing remains of the previous week's snow.</p> <p>Dick Francis, Flying Finish</p> <p>Tricks of the Trade Your reader must be able to picture who is coming into and going out of the scene, and what the characters are doing. A little bit of business adds color and makes for an authentic scene. You don't need to write every move your characters make because readers have good imaginations. Beginners often try to add zip by adding adverbs. For example: "He walked quickly and quietly from the room." Be aware, though, that adverbs slow down the action. If you want to slow it down, fine. If you want to speed up the action, use a good, strong verb. For example: "He tiptoed from the room." Below is a starter list of strong verbs.</p> <p>138 ^=^ 5Fiction Workshop Walked Quickly blasted bolted bounced careened darted dashed escaped fled flitted gallivanted hastened hopped hurried jaunted jogged jumped loped raced ran roared rushed scampered scrambled scurried skipped skittered speeded tore Walked Slowly ambled crawled dawdled drifted hiked hobbled inched limped meandered minced moseyed prowled rambled roamed roved sauntered shuffled staggered straggled strolled teetered toddled toured traversed trekked wandered wound wobbled</p> <p>If the strong verbs don't seem strong enough, try an unusual verb. For example: "He whispered away." "She screamed into the driveway." The word suddenly. What to do with all those suddenly's? Because it's an adverb, suddenly slows down the action just at the point it should speed up the action. Try deleting it. Or, try to foreshadow the sudden event.EXAMPLE Without Foreshadowing Richard spread the newspaper on the dining room table. Suddenly, the tarantula pounced. With Foreshadowing Richard flushed away the crumbled tissue and the spider. Big spider, he chuckled. Maria wouldn't know a big spider. Some people were really funny about spiders. Now in Nam, those were big spiders. He spread the newspaper on the dining room table and settled down to check the stock prices. Not that he owned stocks anymore. It was a habit he couldn't break, something from childhood, like making the bed or cleaning the table after dinner. The day seemed off-color without it. He glimpsed a furry leg before he saw the tarantula. Later, all he could remember were two intense spider eyes perched on top of two huge fangs.</p> <p>Part 2: A Catalog of Fiction Techniques ^^^</p> <p>139</p> <p>Description Explanation You want your reader to be able to picture the story you have written. Just writing what your characters say and do isn't enough. For example: " 'Don't ju...</p>