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1 Dig a Little Deeper Virtual Lab Teacher Guide

Teacher Guide Dig A Little Deeper FINAL 2 - Dig Into …in!the!Mining!Experts’!Handbook.!! About!VirtualLabs!! ... Teacher Guide_Dig A Little Deeper FINAL_2

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Page 1: Teacher Guide Dig A Little Deeper FINAL 2 - Dig Into …in!the!Mining!Experts’!Handbook.!! About!VirtualLabs!! ... Teacher Guide_Dig A Little Deeper FINAL_2

 

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Dig  a  Little  Deeper  Virtual  Lab  Teacher  Guide  

                             

                                         

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   Getting  Started    Welcome  to  Dig  a  Little  Deeper,  a  virtual  lab  that  takes  students  inside  the  world  of  copper  mining,  posing  authentic  science  problems  in  a  real-­‐world  setting.  In  Dig  a  Little  Deeper,  students  are  part  of  an  exploration  team  that  has  been  challenged  to  make  a  recommendation  for  which  of  three  potential  sites  to  build  a  copper  mine.  All  three  sites  have  advantages  and  trade-­‐offs.  In  order  to  make  their  recommendations,  students  must  conduct  several  authentic  tests  that  an  exploration  geologist,  environmental  scientist,  and  mining  engineer  do  during  the  exploration  phase  of  mining.  Once  their  tests  are  complete,  they  will  make  and  justify  a  hypothesis  about  which  site  will  be  best  to  build  a  copper  mine,  develop  an  additional  research  plan,  and  make  a  final  recommendation.      The  lab  focuses  on  the  first  step  in  the  mining  process:  exploration.  As  students  learn  in  the  introduction,  the  exploration  phase  is  followed  by  three  subsequent  phases:  operations,  distribution,  and  reclamation.      The  lab  has  been  designed  to  be  flexible,  with  students  having  the  option  of  navigating  it  individually  or  as  part  of  a  team.      Before  beginning  the  lab,  both  you  and  the  students  are  encouraged  to  read  all  information  in  the  Mining  Experts’  Handbook.    About  Virtual  Labs    

To  understand  the  science  process,  students  need  practice  with  science  investigation.  Virtual  labs  are  designed  to  give  students  the  opportunity  to  practice  designing  and  conducting  virtual  investigations.  Virtual  labs  typically  take  between  two  and  five  class  sessions  to  complete.    

The  advantage  of  a  virtual  investigation  is  that  conditions  are  more  controlled  than  during  hands-­‐on,  allowing  students  to  focus  their  attention  on  the  tests  they  are  conducting  and  the  results  of  the  investigation.  Virtual  investigations  can  be  repeated  quickly,  and  can  provide  investigative  experiences  that  are  not  available  through  hands-­‐on  due  to  constraints  of  time,  resources,  or  safety.        

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 Virtual  Labs  are  not  intended  as  totally  independent  student  activities.  Throughout  the  lab  sequence  -­‐-­‐  but  particularly  at  the  introduction,  plan,  and  evaluation  stages  -­‐-­‐  you  will  want  to  encourage  students  to  communicate  with  you  and  with  each  other.    

Virtual  labs  support  inquiry  learning  by  providing  students  practice  with  the  following  science  concepts:  

• Developing  testable  questions    • Evaluating  and  designing  a  fair  test    • Gathering  and  interpreting  data    • Developing  explanations  from  data    • Evaluating  evidence    • Communicating  science    • Using  mathematics  in  inquiry    

                                       

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 Overview  of  the  Lab    Dig  a  Little  Deeper  consists  of  five  different  sections,  some  with  multiple  steps.      

Section  1:  Problem  A  mining  company  has  identified  three  possible  sites  to  mine  for  copper  ore,  but  they  do  not  know  which  site  will  be  best.  Each  site  has  benefits  and  trade-­‐offs.  Students  learn  that  their  mission  is  to  conduct  tests  that  will  help  them  make  a  recommendation  to  the  mining  company  about  which  site  to  choose.        

Section  2:  Mission  Many  factors  go  into  choosing  a  site  to  mine  for  copper  ore.  The  site  must  have  an  abundant  supply  of  ore,  but  students  must  also  consider  a  site  where  the  mine  would  have  a  minimal  impact  on  the  natural  environment  and  where  they  can  mine  economically.  As  part  of  their  mission,  students  learn  that  they  will  take  on  the  roles  of  three  different  mining  experts  and  conduct  tests  that  they  perform  during  the  exploration  phase  of  the  mining  process.  They  may  choose  to  explore  each  of  the  three  sites  alone  or  as  part  of  a  team.  

 Section  3:  Exploration  

Within  the  Exploration  phase  of  the  lab,  students  will  visit  the  three  sites.  They  will  learn  basic  information  about  each  site  as  well  as  information  about  each  of  the  mining  experts:  exploration  geologist,  environmental  scientist,  and  mining  engineer.    They  then  will  take  on  the  role  of  each  of  these  mining  experts  and  conduct  the  tests  that  they  conduct  during  the  exploration  phase.  Encourage  them  to  finish  all  of  the  tests  and  surveys  conducted  by  each  expert  to  learn  about  the  benefits  and  trade-­‐offs  at  each  site.  They  will  be  able  to  record  their  research  on  a  tracking  tool  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook  and  analyze  their  findings  during  Section  5:  Evaluate.  More  detailed  information  about  the  tests  in  the  Exploration  step  is  below.    

 Section  4:  Plan  

Once  they  have  finished  all  of  the  tests,  they  will  write  a  hypothesis  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook  about  which  site  they  think  would  be  best  for  the  copper  mine.  They  then  will  create  an  additional  research  plan  to  test  their  hypothesis.  Although  they  may  not  be  able  to  carry  out  this  research  plan  due  to  limited  time  or  resources,  this  will  give  them  practice  at  creating  a  research  plan  as  a  real  scientist  would.        

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 Section  5:  Evaluate  

Finally,  students  will  evaluate  the  benefits  and  trade-­‐offs  of  each  site  based  on  their  research  and  each  expert's  perspective.  They  then  will  make  a  recommendation  to  the  mining  company  about  which  site  to  choose.  They  must  be  prepared  to  share  and  justify  their  site  selection  with  you  and  the  rest  of  the  class.        Managing  the  Lab  With  Students      Dig  a  Little  Deeper  is  designed  to  be  flexible  so  that  students  can  go  through  it  individually  or  in  pairs  or  small  teams.  They  can  also  choose  to  navigate  the  lab  by  site  (conducting  all  three  career  tests  at  one  site  before  moving  to  the  next)  or  by  career  (conducting  the  tests  for  one  career  at  all  three  sites  before  moving  to  the  next  career.)    If  they  choose  the  team  approach,  they  can  each  take  on  the  role  of  a  different  scientist  and  compare  information  or  conduct  all  tests  together.  If  they  collaborate,  it  is  up  to  you  whether  they  write  their  research  plans  and  site  justifications  separately  or  together.      If  students  navigate  the  lab  individually,  you  may  want  to  encourage  them  to  compare  information  and  results  with  peers  to  mirror  the  practice  of  real  scientists.  One  goal  of  the  virtual  lab  is  for  students  to  act  as  a  community  of  scientists  working  together  toward  the  solution  of  a  problem.  For  this  reason,  students  are  asked  to  share  their  research  plans  and  site  justifications  with  their  classmates.      All  careers  in  each  site  must  be  completed  in  order  to  continue  on  to  the  Plan  and  Evaluate  sections.      Planning  for  Multiple  Sessions    One  of  the  exciting  features  of  Dig  A  Little  Deeper  is  that  it  can  be  put  away  one  day  and  brought  out  to  work  on  another  day.  Students  are  assigned  a  session  ID  that  is  made  up  of  a  combination  of  numbers  and  letters.  That  ID  can  be  for  them  individually  or  for  their  team,  if  they  are  navigating  the  lab  as  part  of  a  team.  They  should  record  their  session  ID  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook  or  in  a  place  that  will  be  easy  to  access.  You  may  also  want  to  record  all  students’  session  ID’s  in  the  table  at  the  end  of  this  guide  in  case  any  are  misplaced.    

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 Student/team  data  will  be  saved  between  sessions.  On  average,  the  lab  should  take  between  two  and  five  class  periods  to  complete.  Additional  time  may  be  needed,  depending  on  how  many  times  students  visit  each  site  and  the  research  plan  they  create  in  Step  4.      Here  is  one  possible  schedule:    Day  1:  Introduce  the  lab,  the  problem,  and  the  introductory  material.  Organize  students  into  teams  (if  they  choose  to  navigate  the  lab  in  a  team).  Review  the  Mining  Experts’  Handbook  and  give  students  an  opportunity  to  explore  the  lab.  Invite  students  to  complete  the  Problem  and  Mission  stages  of  the  lab.  This  will  include  a  pre-­‐assessment  about  the  three  mining  careers  they  will  explore.      Day  2:  Visit  the  Exploration  Lab,  and  invite  students  to  conduct  the  tests  for  each  career.  Ensure  that  they  record  results,  as  well  as  benefits  and  trade-­‐offs  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook.    Day  3:  Invite  students/team  to  make  their  hypotheses  and  design  their  research  plans  in  the  Plan  section  of  the  lab.  Encourage  students  to  compare  hypotheses  and  research  plans  with  other  students/teams.    Days  4  and  5:  Invite  students  to  complete  the  Evaluate  stage.  Here  they  will  submit  their  final  recommendations  and  answer  the  questions  at  the  end  of  the  lab.  Encourage  students/teams  to  justify  their  recommendations  to  the  rest  of  the  class,  using  the  benefits  and  trade-­‐offs  they  uncovered.      Possible  additional  sessions:  If  students  have  time  or  resources  to  complete  the  research  plans,  you  may  need  additional  class  periods.      Section  3:  The  Exploration  Lab    Within  Section  3:  Exploration,  students  will  visit  the  three  potential  mine  sites  and  conduct  tests  to  help  them  make  a  recommendation  about  which  site  the  mining  company  should  choose.  The  tests  are  organized  by  three  different  careers:  exploration  geologist,  environmental  scientist,  and  mining  engineer.    

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You  may  want  to  review  the  information  below  before  they  visit  the  Exploration  section.  This  information  is  also  included  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook.  They  will  also  find  worksheets  and  tools  in  the  Handbook  for  them  to  record  their  data.      Step  1:  Team  Up    Students  may  choose  to  explore  each  of  the  three  sites  either  alone  or  as  a  member  of  a  team.      Step  2:  Select  A  Site          

Site  1    

   

 Site  2  

 

 

 Site  3  

 

 

 Earlier  exploration  data  suggest  this  prospective  site  might  have  a  large  copper  deposit.  However,  there  are  some  challenges,  such  as  bad  terrain,  a  stream  flowing  right  through  the  middle  of  the  site,  and  some  endangered  animals!  Can  it  be  efficient?    

 This  prospective  site  is  every  explorer’s  dream.  It  is  uninhabited,  has  a  flat  terrain,  and  very  little  animal  life.  However,  is  it  that  simple?  Could  this  be  the  best  site  to  choose?              

 This  prospective  site  is  similar  to  Site  2.  There  are  a  few  privately-­‐owned  ranches  in  this  area.  Is  that  the  only  challenge?  Could  this  be  the  future  site  for  the  copper  mine?  

         

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 Step  3:  Select  A  Career  Students  can  explore  this  site  and  conduct  tests  in  the  role  of  an  exploration  geologist,  an  environmental  scientist,  and  a  mining  engineer.  A  description  of  each  career  is  below.          

   

 

 

 

 

 Exploration  geologists  are  the  "advance  team"  for  a  mining  company  and  are  usually  the  first  people  to  explore  a  given  area.  They  study  the  quantity,  quality,  properties,  and  value  of  mineral  resources.  In  other  words,  they  conduct  tests  to  figure  out  how  much  copper  ore  is  found  at  a  given  site.                  

 Mining  companies  want  to  be  good  stewards  of  the  earth,  creating  products  that  contribute  to  a  better  standard  of  living  while  leaving  the  world  a  better  place  for  future  generations.  Environmental  scientists  study  the  potential  environmental  impact  of  mining  at  each  site  and  the  potential  cost  of  reducing  the  impact.  Their  study  includes  the  impact  on  air  and  water  quality  and  on  any  endangered  or  threatened  birds,  animals,  and  plants  inhabiting  the  area.  

 Some  potential  mining  sites  have  physical  features  useful  for  mining  operations.  If  a  site  is  on  flat  ground  or  close  to  a  road,  those  are  considered  benefits.  If  there  is  a  stream  or  mountain  in  the  middle  of  the  site,  it  could  be  expensive  to  divert  the  stream  or  remove  the  mountain.  Mining  engineers  determine  the  depth  of  the  mine  and  whether  copper  ore  can  be  extracted  from  the  surface  without  digging  too  deep.  They  study  the  topographic  features,  such  as  terrain,  waterways,  and  manmade  features  such  as  roads,  railways,  and  power  supply  to  determine  if  the  mine  will  be  beneficial  to  the  company.    

   

 

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 Step  4:  Perform  Tests  for  Each  Career      For  each  of  the  career  roles,  students  will  perform  the  following  tests  and  record  data  using  the  tracking  tool  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook.  

 Exploration  Geologist  

 Environmental  Scientist  

 

 Mining  Engineer  

 1:  Create  a  10  x10  grid  to  collect  samples  for  testing.    2:  Collect  the  following  samples:    

• Soil    • Rock  Chips  

 3:  Collect  water  samples  along  the  stream  at  500  feet  intervals.    4:  Send  the  samples  to  the  lab.    5:  Analyze  the  lab  results.    6:  Review  results  from  drilling  operations.    

 1:  Survey  the  area  for  animal  and  plant  species  and  record  the  results.    2:  Check  these  species  against  the  Red  List  to  see  if  they  are  endangered.      3:  Check  the  quality  of  ground  and  surface  water.    4:  Check  the  air  for  particulate  matter.    5:  Record  your  observations  from  the  survey.    

 1:  Determine  the  depth  of  the  encounter*.    2:  Study  the  topographical  features.    3:  Check  for  access  to  roadways  and  railways.    4:  Determine  if  it  is  beneficial  to  develop  a  copper  mine  at  this  site.    *  Measuring  the  length  of  the  drill  sample  from  the  surface  to  the  first  indication  of  an  elevated  copper  grade  will  define  the  depth  of  the  encounter.    

 Step  5:  Capture  Data    As  they  conduct  each  test,  they  can  record  and  capture  their  data  using  the  Mining  Expert  Tracking  Tool,  found  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook.        

   

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Mine  Comparison  Sheet  Below  is  a  mine  comparison  sheet  that  you  can  use  to  check  the  data  that  students  are  collecting  and  recording  in  their  Mining  Experts’  Handbook.  

    Site  1   Site  2   Site  3  

Type  of  Mine     Open  Pit     Open  Pit     Open  Pit  Topography     There  are  many  steep  canyons  

and/or  mountains.      There  is  also  a  stream  running  through  this  site.  

Most  area  in  this  site  is  a  flat  land.      

This  site  is  relatively  flat.      There  are  a  couple  of  mountains  at  the  edge  of  this  site.      There  is  a  small  stream  that  runs  through  the  edge  of  this  site.  

Location     This  site  is  far  away  from  roadway.      

This  site  is  close  to  roadway  and  railway.      

There  is  an  existing  roadway  leading  to  site.      

Plants     Cliff-­‐rose    Wait-­‐A-­‐Minute  bush    Redberry  juniper  

Catclaw  Acacia    Mexican  Crucillo  

Arizona  rosewood    Desert  lavender  

Animals     Bats    New  Mexican  ridge-­‐nosed  rattlesnake    Deer    Bighorned  sheep    Woodrats  

Owl    Bighorned  sheep    Woodrats    White-­‐footed  mice      Voles  

Bighorned  sheep      

Fish         Loach  Minnow    Spinedace  

Groundwater  Quality    

Good   Good   Good  

Particulate  Matter    

Acceptable  Level   Acceptable  Level   Acceptable  Level  

Sociological  Impact    

There  is  a  community  that  lives  downstream  which  depends  on  the  water  from  this  stream.  

Uninhabited     There  are  a  couple  of  privately  owned  ranches,  which  need  to  be  bought  out.  Ranch  owners  are  willing.    

Economic  Impact  

   Cost  of   $75,000,000  

 Cost  of  buying   $3,200,000  

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Cost  of  mitigation  of  stream:      

$250,000,000      (underground  tunnel  @$50MM  per  mile,  for  a  5  mile  stream  reach)    

Cost  of  rehabilitating  bats    

$3,250,000    (6500  acres  x  $5000)  

Cost  of  building  habitat  for  New  Mexican  ridge-­‐nosed  rattlesnake    

$3,250,000    (6500  acres  x  $5000)  

Relocating  a  patch  of  Cliff-­‐rose,  Arizona  (Endangered)    

$2,500,000  

 

mitigating  surface  water  runoff    Cost  of  creating  a  new  owl  habitat  

$120,000      ($60000  per  acre  x  2  acre)  

   

the  ranch      $8000  per  acre  x  400  acre  

Cost  of  implementing  stream  protection  measures  

$25,000,000    (5MM  x  5  miles)    

Cost  of  repairing  the  habitat  for    Loach  Minnow  and    Spinedace,    

$500,  000    ($100,000  per  mile  of  stream  x  5  mile)  

 

Tons  of  ore  at  site:      

Very  High    Tons  of  ore  at  site:      1.5  billion  tons  of  ore  @  1.5%  copper    

Moderate      Tons  of  ore  at  site:      500  million  tons  of  ore  @  0.4%  copper  

High    Tons  of  ore  at  site:      700  million  tons  of  ore  @  0.6%  copper  

 

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Student  Worksheet:  Red  List  of  Endangered  Species    Arizona Cliffrose    Ambersnail, Kanab - Oxyloma haydeni kanabensis    Bat, lesser long-nosed - Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae    Bear, grizzly - Ursus arctos horribilis    Bobwhite, masked (quail) - Colinus virginianus ridgwayi    Catfish, Yaqui - Ictalurus pricei    Chub, bonytail - Gila elegans    Chub, Gila - Gila intermedia    Chub, humpback - Gila cypha    Chub, Sonora - Gila ditaenia    Chub, Virgin River - Gila seminuda (robusta)    Chub, Yaqui - Gila purpurea    Condor, California - Gymnogyps californianus    Curlew, Eskimo - Numenius borealis    Falcon, northern aplomado - Falco femoralis septentrionalis    Ferret, black-footed - Mustela nigripes    Flycatcher, southwestern willow - Empidonax traillii extimus    Frog, Chiricahua leopard - Rana chiricahuensis    Jaguar - Panthera onca    Jaguarundi, Sinaloan - Herpailurus (Felis) yagouaroundi tolteca    Minnow, loach - Tiaroga cobitis    

Ocelot - Leopardus (Felis) pardalis    Owl, Mexican spotted - Strix occidentalis lucida    Pronghorn, Sonoran - Antilocapra americana sonoriensis    Pupfish, desert - Cyprinodon macularius    Rail, Yuma clapper - Rallus longirostris yumanensis    Rattlesnake, New Mexican ridge-nosed - Crotalus willardi obscurus    Salamander, Sonora tiger - Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi    Shiner, beautiful - Cyprinella Formosa    Spikedace - Meda fulgida    Spinedace, Little Colorado - Lepidomeda vittata    Squirrel, Mount Graham red - Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis    Sucker, razorback - Xyrauchen texanus    Topminnow, Gila - Poeciliopsis occidentalis    Trout, Apache - Oncorhynchus apache    Trout, Gila - Oncorhynchus gilae    Vole, Hualapai Mexican - Microtus mexicanus hualpaiensis    Wolf, gray - Canis lupus    Loach Minnow  Spinedace, Little Colorado Entire    

     

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Student  Worksheet:  Cost  Sheet    Item   Rate   Remark  

Cost  of  clearing  surface  water  runoff   $75,000,000   Standard  rate  of  $75000  for  100  acres  for  this  mine  type.  

Cost  of  diverting  a  stream   $250,000,000   Underground  tunnel  costing  $50MM  per  mile  

5  mile  stream  reach.  

Cost  of  rehabilitating  Bats   $3,250,000   Cost  is  $5000  per  acres  

6500  acres  of  mine  area  affected  

Cost  of  building  habitat  for  New  Mexican  ridge-­‐nosed  rattlesnake  

$3,250,000   Cost  is  $5000  per  acres  

6500  acres  of  mine  area  affected  

Relocating  a  patch  of  Arizona  Cliffrose   $2,500,000   Cost  per  acre  of  Arizona  Cliffrose  

Cost  of  creating  a  new  owl  habitat   $120,000   Cost  is  $60000  per  acre.  

2  acre  of  owl  habitat  needs  to  be  created  

Cost  of  buying  a  ranch   $3,200,000   Cost  is  $8000  per  acre  

400  acre  of  land  is  private  ranch  property  

Cost  of  implementing  stream  protection  measures  for  the  stream  

$25,000,000   Cost  is  $  5MM  per  mile  

Stream  has  a  reach  of  5  miles.  

Cost  of  repairing  the  habitat  for  

Loach  Minnow  

Spinedace  

$500,000   Cost  is  $100,000  per  mile  of  stream  

Stream  has  a  reach  of  5  miles.  

 

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 Student  Session  ID  Tracking  Tool    

Student/Team Name   Session ID