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Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

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Page 1: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Management

Page 2: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

What is a Supply Chain?

Page 3: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

What is a Supply Chain?

A supply chain is the system of organizations, people, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain activities transform raw materials and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer.

Page 4: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain

Supplier

Manufacturer

Distributor

Retailer

Customers

Page 5: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

A Supply Chain Example…

Coke

JNJ

Kellog

P&G

GA

FL

AL

TX

Kroger

Tier 1 suppliers

Super market chains

State distributors

V. Highlands

Peachtree

Ocean Drive

Ft. Laud.

Local stores

En

d cu

stomer

Publix

Page 6: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain ManagementSupply Chain Management is

the design and management of processes

across organizational boundaries with the goal of matching supply and

demand in the most cost effective way.

Supply

Demand

Mission impossible: Matching Supply and Demand

Page 7: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Why so Difficult to Match Supply and Demand?

• Uncertainty in demand and/or supply• Changing customer requirements• Decreasing product life cycles• Fragmentation of supply chain ownership• Conflicting objectives in the supply chain• Conflicting objectives even within a single firm

– Marketing/Sales wants: more FGI inventory, fast delivery, many package types, special wishes/promotions

– Production wants: bigger batch size, depots at factory, latest ship date, decrease changeovers, stable production plan

– Distribution wants: full truckload, low depot costs, low distribution costs, small # of SKUs, stable distribution plan

Page 8: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Losing Sight of the Common Objective

I'm glad that the hole is not on our side!

Page 9: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story IOn tracing the journey of a part

Source: The Resilient Enterprise

Page 10: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story II

Philips factoryin New Mexico

Nokia

Ericsson

Source: The Resilient Enterprise

On responding to a supply chain disruption

Page 11: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story II

Philips factoryin New Mexico

Nokia

Ericsson

Source: The Resilient Enterprise

On responding to a supply chain disruption

Page 12: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story III

In the mid-1990s, the Swedish car manufacturer Volvo found itself with excessive stocks of green cars. To move them along, the sales and marketing departments began offering attractive special deals, so green cars started to sell. But nobody had told the manufacturing department about the promotions. It noted the increase in sales, read it as a sign that consumers had started to like green, and ramped up production.

Source: Chain reaction, The Economist, Jan 31, 2002

On Internal communication and collaboration

Page 13: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story IVOn external communication and collaboration

Page 14: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story V

US auto man.Supplie

rs

Suppliers

Toyota “Toyota helped us dramatically improve our production system. We started by making one component, and as we improved, [Toyota] rewarded us with orders for more components. Toyota is our best customer.”

-Senior executive, supplier to Ford, GM, Chrysler, and Toyota, July 2001**

“The Big Three [US automakers] set annual cost-reduction targets [for the parts they purchase]. To realize those targets, they’ll do anything. [They’ve unleashed] a reign of terror, and it gets worse every year. You can’t trust anyone [in those companies]”

-Director, interior systems supplier to Ford, GM, and Chrysler, October 1999*

* And ** Source: Building Deep Supplier Relationships, HBR, December 2004

Arm’s Length

Partnership

On supplier management

Page 15: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story VI

Traditional Supply Chain

Dell Supply Chain

• On April 20, 2001 Dell toppled Compaq as the world’s largest PC maker*– Dell’s market share was 12.8% as opposed to Compaq’s market share 12.1%

• Compaq and HP could not get into a price war with Dell because– Dell’s profit margin was 18%– Compaq and HP’s profit margins were in single digits

*Source: Forbes.com, April 24, 2001

?

On gaining competitive advantage

Page 16: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Story VII

In the late 1970s, with about 200 stores, Wal-Mart was a relatively small retailer. At that time, Sears and Kmart dominated the retail market. Since then, Wal-Mart gained significant market share from these retailers and became the largest and most profitable retailer in the world. Today, Wal-Mart is admired for its collaboration and technology driven supply chain practices and is leading the retailing industry with its innovative supply chain practices.

On gaining competitive advantage

Page 17: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Performance Measures

� Cost� Total Supply Chain Cost is the sum of all supply chain costs for all

products processed through a supply chain during a given period� Inventory Turnover is the ratio of the cost of goods sold to the value

of average inventory.� Weeks of inventory is the ratio of average inventory to the average

weekly sales

� Customer Service� Average Response Time is the sum of delays of ordering, processing,

and transportation between the time an order is placed at a customer zone and the time the order arrives at the customer zone

Page 18: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

What do these measures mean?

• Inventory Turnover: how often the company replenishes inventory. High value of inventory turnover means that the inventory was not sitting around a long time.

• Weeks of Supply: how many weeks worth of inventory does the company have on hand. High value of weeks of supply means that the firm has a lot of inventory sitting around.

Page 19: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Inventory Turns

Kmart 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Inventory $6.367B $6.536B $6.350B $5.796B $4.825B

Tot.Revenue $33.674B $35.925B $37.028B $36.151B $30.762B

COGS $26.319B $28.161B $29.732B $29.853B $26.258B

Net Income $0.518B $0.364B ($0.268B) ($2.446B) ($3.219B)

Wal-Mart 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Inventory $16.497B $17.076B $19.793B $21.644B $22.749B

Tot.Revenue $117.958B $137.634B $165.013B $191.329B $217.799B

COGS $93.438B $108.725B $129.664B $150.255B $171.562B

Net Income $3.526B $4.430B $5.377B $6.295B $6.671B

Source: Matching Supply with Demand: An Introduction to Operations Management, Cachon and Terwiesch

Excerpts from financial statements of Kmart and Wal-Mart

Page 20: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Inventory Turns

Inventory Turns=

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Kmart 4.15 4.34 4.68 5.14 5.45

Wal-Mart 5.70 6.40 6.63 7.01 7.60

Inventory Turns for Kmart and Wal-Mart

• Inventory Turns is a common benchmark in retailing

• Inventory Turns≈10 for grocery retailers (Safeway, Kroger), ≈1.5 for jewelry (Tiffany), ≈ 4 department stores (JCPenny)

COGS

Inventory

Page 21: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Inventory Productivity

What is the flow rate? COGS

Little’s Law: L=λW

Inventory

Flow Rate

Flow Time

= x

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Kmart 88 days 84 days 78 days 71 days 67 days

Wal-Mart 64 days 57 days 55 days 52 days 48 days

How long does it takes you to transform a dollar invested in inventory into sales (hopefully profitably)

Flow Times for Kmart and Wal-Mart

Page 22: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Wal-Mart’s Phenomenal Success

At IPO: $1000 of Wal-Mart shares

Became worth $2M + dividends paid in 1993

Wal-Mart: 256 B sales in 2004 =IBM+HP+Dell+Microsoft+Cisco+2 B

86 88 90 92 94 96 98

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

WalmartS&P 500

Walmart's Growth in Shareholders' Equity vs S&P 500 Growth1987-1997

Page 23: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Wal-Mart: Efficient Supply Chain

Procurement

Distribution

Product Assortment

Pricing

Page 24: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Efficient S. Chain: Procurement

• In 90s, Wal-Mart began to bypass wholesalers

• Expanded private label business (used unbranded suppliers)

• Build partnerships with many suppliers• Retail Link: suppliers could access POS

and inventory– What are the benefits?

• Example: Wal-Mart and P&G partnership (JIT II)

Page 25: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Wal-Mart and P&G Partnership

Consumer-Products Giant Helps Huge Retailer Make Specialty Items Mainstream, Jan 31, 2005 Early on, P&G employees, who relocated to Fayetteville to be close to Wal-Mart, called their adopted home Fayette-nam, and often griped about Wal-Mart's demands. Still, P&G and Wal-Mart came up with specific goals. In their first collaboration, Wal-Mart complained that Pampers diapers sat for too long in its warehouses, costing it money. Wal-Mart buyers were shipping diapers from the factory every two weeks. After gaining access to Wal-Mart's sales data, P&G assigned one manager to monitor the data and order just enough Pampers to meet sales but not too much so that the diapers sat in the warehouse.

Page 26: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Efficient S. Chain: Distribution

• At the end of 2003: 84 Wal-Mart DCs• DC’s functioned as the hubs in a hub-and-spoke

network• Distribution costs accounted for 2-3% of Wal-

Mart’s revenues compared to 4-5% for other retailers

• Wal-Mart mastered large scale “Cross Docking”• Automation of distribution: RFID technology • Inventory turns were a key measure of the

overall performance of the supply chain

Page 27: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Efficient S. Chain: Product Assortment

• Stocked mix of nationally branded and private label products– What are the pros and cons of nationally branded

and private label products?

• Product assortment managed by store ⇒ more variety– What are the pros and cons of offering more

variety?– Pro: More variety than competitors ⇒ customer

satisfaction– Con: More variety than competitors ⇒ higher costs

Page 28: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Pricing Strategy: EDLP

• Wal-Mart: every day low price (EDLP) retailer – What are the advantages of EDLP?

• Store managers allowed to match or beat the lowest competing price

• What is really allowing Wal-Mart to have lowest prices?

How Wal-Mart Got Ready Early, Nov 28, 2005Another aggressive move: Wal-Mart announced early last week that it would match competitors' prices on promoted items -- even the after-rebate price -- provided Wal-Mart had the identical item in stock. While this isn't a new policy for Wal-Mart, it was the first time the company repeatedly advertised it. "By reminding people we match prices, shoppers will know they don't have to run around." said Mr. [Sonny Littlefield], the Arlington store manager.

Page 29: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Wal-Mart: Market Position

• First: Small town rural strategy– Only 55% compete directly with Kmart and

23% with Target– Have displaced small local merchants– Only competition is the Wal-Mart in the next

town

• Second: Clearly defined competitive position: emphasis on nationally branded products and EDLP– Reinforce EDLP by posting competitors’

prices weekly

Page 30: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Design

WHOLESALER

AMAZON.COM

CUSTOMER

INFORMATION

INFORMATION PRODUCT

PRODUCT

Traditional vertically disintegrated channel

Page 31: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Meet Spun.com

Cheap tricks*

•Start-up capital: $825,000

•200,000 CD titles available for immediate shipment

•No inventory

*Forbes, February 21, 2000, 116

Other Retailers: Proflowers.com, Zappos.com, Outpost.com, …

Other Wholesalers: Baker & Taylor, Ingram, etc.

Page 32: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Supply Chain Design

WHOLESALER

AMAZON.COM

CUSTOMER

INFORMATION

INFORMATION PRODUCT

PRODUCT

Traditional vertically disintegrated channel

Alliance Entertainment Inc.

SPUN.COM

CUSTOMER

INFORMATION

INFORMATION

PRODUCT

Drop-shipping channel

Page 33: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Drop-Shipping in a Click World*

Primary way company fulfills online orders

Type of retailer

Internet-only Multi-channel (on-line plus brick)

From company facility that existed 13.9% 61.5%

From company facility that was developed 30.6% 10.3%

Drop-shipped 30.6% 5.1%

Outsourced 8.3% 17.9%

From facility operated by a partner 8.3% 2.6%

Electronic fulfillment (software) 5.6% 0%

Other 2.7% 2.6%

*The state of eRetailing 2000. Supplement to “eRetailing World” March 2000.

Page 34: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Marketing expenditure of the Internet Retailer

Marketing budget as % of sales

40.5%

21.4%

Brick-and-mortar

Multi-channel

Pure Internet

5%

Where does the money go?

Customer acquisition Brand

awareness

Customer retention

Page 35: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Manufacturer

Customer

Retailer

Manufacturer

Customer

Retailer

Distributor

AmazonBN.com

Varsity Books Amazon resellers Barnes & NobleBordersSmall Bookstores

Dover

Supply Chain Alternatives

Manufacturer

Customer

Retailer

Manufacturer

Customer

Retailer

Distributor

Manufacturer

Customer

Supply chain cost

Manufacturer’s margin

Retailer’s marginDistributor’s margin

Customer acquisition cost

Page 36: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Outsourcing

Supplier Question: When should the firm outsource activities?

Outsourcing: moving some of the firms internal activities and decisions to outside providers

Firm

Page 37: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Outsourcing

A firm may outsource some of its activities…

… or the whole of it!

Page 38: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Examples of outsourcing

• Toshiba has outsourced manufacturing to Solectron

• GM has outsourced its interior design to Delphi

• Many firms outsource problem solving to McKinsey & Co.

• Advertising is often outsourced completely.

• Many companies outsource logistics and transportation.

Page 39: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Why do firms outsource?

• Organizational reasons

- Focus on service

- Focus on core capabilities

- Transform the organization

- Increase flexibility

• Operational reasons

- Improve performance (quality, productivity, etc.)

- Obtain expertise, skill, and technology

- Risk management

Page 40: Supply Chain Management What is a Supply Chain?

Why do firms outsource?

• Financial reasons

- Transfer assets to the outsourcing partner.

- Free up resources for investment in other purposes.

• Cost driven reasons

- Transform fixed costs into variable costs.

- Reduce costs through outsourcing partner efficiencies.

• Revenue driven reasons

- Expand and grow with the help of another organization.

- Obtain access to outsourcing partner’s network.