Study Guide: Appendicular Skeleton1
• The clavicle, scapula, and the manubrium of the sternum
WHERE DOES THE SHOULDER GIRDLE ARTICULATE WITH THE AXIAL
Where does the shoulder girdle articulate with the axial
• At the sternoclavicular joint
– Where the sternum connects with the clavicle
EXPLAIN HOW YOU CAN TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VERTEBRAL,
AXILLARY, AND SUPERIOR BORDERS OF THE SCAPULA?
Explain how you can tell the difference between the vertebral,
superior borders of the scapula?
• Vertebral border:
– Located along the side of the scapula that runs alongside the
• Axillary border:
– Located along the side of the scapula that is nearest to the
• Superior border:
– The top border of the scapula
TRUE OR FALSE: THE AC JOINT IS MADE UP OF THE ACROMION PROCESS AND
True or false: the ac joint is made up of the acromion process and
– AcromioClavicular joint
IS THE SCAPULAR SPINE LOCATED ON THE ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR SIDE OF
Is the scapular spine located on the anterior or posterior side of
scapula? • Posterior side
• The glenoid fossa
WHY IS THE AREA OF THE HUMERUS JUST BELOW THE TUBERCLES REFERRED TO
AS THE SURGICAL NECK?
Why is the area of the humerus just below the tubercles referred to
• This area is the most common location for fractures in the
DESCRIBE HOW YOU COULD LOCATE THE INTERTUBERCULAR GROOVE ON THE
Describe how you could locate the intertubercular groove on
• First find the greater and lesser tubercles on the proximal
portion of the epiphysis.
– The groove is the divot between these two tubercles.
WHERE IS THE DELTOID TUBEROSITY LOCATED ON THE HUMERUS?
• Along the outside portion of the diaphysis of the humerus.
– Basically a small notch
HOW COULD YOU TELL IF YOU ARE LOOKING AT THE THE LEFT HUMERUS OR
THE RIGHT HUMERUS?
How could you tell if you are looking at the the left humerus or
• Identify the head of the humerus, the olecranon fossa (posterior
side), and the medial epicondyle (largest of the two
EXPLAIN HOW THE HUMERUS IS INVOLVED WITH KEEPING YOU FROM
HYPEREXTENDING YOUR ELBOW.
Explain how the humerus is involved with keeping you from
• The olecranon fossa acts as a “catch” for the olecranon process
of the ulna. It stops the arm from over extending.
IF SOMEONE HAD A GUN TO YOUR HEAD, HOW COULD YOU QUICKLY IDENTIFY
THE TROCHLEA OF THE HUMERUS?
If someone had a gun to your head, how could you quickly identify
trochlea of the humerus?
• It is a deep groove that looks similar to a pulley on the distal
epiphysis of the humerus.
EXPLAIN HOW THE OLECRANON FOSSA, SEMILUNAR NOTCH, CAPITULUM,
TROCHLEA, AND OLECRANON PROCESS ARE INVOLVED WITH THE ELBOW.
Explain how the olecranon fossa, semilunar notch, capitulum,
trochlea, and olecranon process are involved
with the elbow #essaywarning
– Explain how each articulates with the other
THE GUY WITH THE GUN IS BACK…..HOW CAN YOU FIND THE ULNA BEFORE ITS
The guy with the gun is back…..how can you find the ulna before its
late? • The ulna is always located on the pinky side of
LIST THE DISTAL ROW OF CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB AND
MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.
List the distal row of carpal bones, starting from the thumb and
toward the pinky.
• Hamate » ***Be sure to review the bones around each bone as
could be a description on a question
LIST THE PROXIMAL ROW OF THE CARPAL BONES, STARTING FROM THE THUMB
AND MOVING TOWARD THE PINKY.
List the proximal row of the carpal bones, starting from the thumb
moving toward the pinky.
WHAT IS MISLEADING ABOUT THE BONES OF THE HAND IF YOU JUST LOOK
STRICTLY AT THE SKELETON?
What is misleading about the bones of the hand if you just look
strictly at the
skeleton? • Looking at the skeleton it appears as though
the carpal bones make up the palm of the hand. This is not the case
as the metacarpals make up the majority of the palm of the
HOW MANY MIDDLE PHALANGES ARE ON THE HAND?
• The thumb is only made up of a proximal and distal phalanx.
WHAT BONES MAKE UP THE PELVIC GIRDLE?
WHAT BONES ARE FUSED TOGETHER AS A PART OF THIS?
What bones are fused together as a part of this?
WHAT PORTIONS OF THE COXAL BONES CAN BE EASILY PALPATED?
What portions of the coxal bones can be easily palpated?
• Iliac crest
Explain the relationship between the true and false pelvis
• Be able to describe the invisible border where the false pelvis
ends and the true begins.
• Why are the two shaped differently in males and females.
• Explain what organs are located in each area.
WHAT IS IMPORTANT ABOUT THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS FOR FEMALES?
What is important about the pubic symphysis for females?
• Since it is made of cartilage, it allows for the pelvis to
expand, allowing the birth canal to widen enough for a baby to fit
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR MARKINGS OF THE PROXIMAL PORTION OF THE
What are the major markings of the proximal portion of the
Describe the diaphysis of the femur.
• On the posterior side, the linea aspera begins proximally and
eventually divides into the supracondylar lines
HOW CAN YOU TELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONDYLES AND
EPICONDYLES ON THE FEMUR?
How can you tell the difference between the condyles and
on the femur? • The epicondyles will be located superficially
on the bone. They will be bony protuberances on the distal portion
of the femur. Conversely, the condyles are covered with cartilage
and articulate with the lower leg bones.
WHAT IS THE LARGEST SESAMOID BONE IN THE HUMAN BODY?
What is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body?
WHAT ARE THE SPINES ON THE TIBIA WHERE THE ACL AND PCL ATTACH
What are the spines on the tibia where the acl and pcl attach
• Intercondylar emminance
• Crest of the tibia
• Medial malleolus
YOU JUST CAN’T GET RID OF THIS WILD GUNMAN….HOW CAN YOU QUICKLY
TELL THE TIBIA AND FIBULA APART?
You just can’t get rid of this wild gunman….how can you quickly
tibia and fibula apart?
• The fibula is smaller than the tibia, lateral to the tibia, and
located deeper in the lower leg.
WHY IS THE FOOT CONSTRUCTED OF TWO ARCHES?
Why is the foot constructed of two arches?
• Arches are the most stable and sturdy architectural shape to
support large amounts of weight.
WHAT ARE THE TWO ARCHES CALLED?
• Longitudinal arch
• Transverse arch
What happens to individuals suffering from “flat Feet”?
• The ligaments holding the tarsal bones together weaken and the
natural arches fall
• Pain in the foot and heel
• Pain radiating to the knee and eventually to the spine
WHAT ABOUT “HIGH ARCHES”, OR “CLAW FOOT”?
• Charcot Marie Tooth disorder (CMT)
• The arches are “over – arched” causing instability in the
• Common for individuals suffering from muscular dystrophy
WHAT IS ACTUALLY HAPPENING TO MOST PEOPLE THAT BELIEVE THEY HAVE
What is actually happening to most people that believe they have
• They are overweight, and are over pronating their feet as they
walk. This movement causes undue stress on the ligaments supporting
the arches and causing pain.
WHAT ANKLE BONE ARTICULATES WITH THE TIBIA?
LIST THE PROXIMAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY
List the proximal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky
LIST THE DISTAL TARSAL BONES FROM THE GREAT TOE TO THE PINKY
List the distal tarsal bones from the great toe to the pinky
• 1-3 cuneiform bones
• Describe the injury
• Describe the recovery period
HOW CAN SOMEONE WHO IS PSYCHOLOGICALLY HINDERED BY THEIR HEIGHT
PERMANENTLY MAKE THEMSELVES TALLER?
height permanently make themselves taller #essaywarning
• Describe the limb lengthening process
• What bones are broken
• How are they lengthened