Struggling Adolescent Readers: How to support your student with a Learning Disability. Presentation by Kristin Blain 8 th Grade Resource Teacher Lakeshore Middle School. www.adlit.org. teachersites.schoolworld.com. Today we will discuss:. Learning Disabilities Reading Decoding - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Struggling Adolescent Readers
Struggling Adolescent Readers:How to support your student with a Learning DisabilityPresentation by Kristin Blain 8th Grade Resource TeacherLakeshore Middle School
www.adlit.orgToday we will discuss:Learning Disabilities
www.pearse-trust.ieWhat is a Learning Disability?LD affects the brains ability to receive, process, store, respond to, and communicate information
NOT an intellectual disability
Average to above average intelligence
Struggling to acquire new skills impacts school performance
No apparent cause for LD
(National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2013)
KinaLearn.com: How a Dyslexic Brain Works- A simple Demonstration
Common Types of Learning DisabilitiesDyslexiaDifficulty readingProblems reading, writing, spelling, speakingDyscalculiaDifficulty with mathProblems doing math problems, understanding time, using moneyDysgraphiaDifficulty with writingProblems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideasDyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder)Difficulty with fine motor skillsProblems with handeye coordination, balance, manual dexterityDysphasia/AphasiaDifficulty with languageProblems understanding spoken language, poor reading comprehensionAuditory Processing DisorderDifficulty hearing differences between soundsProblems with reading, comprehension, languageVisual Processing DisorderDifficulty interpreting visual informationProblems with reading, math, maps, charts, symbols, picturesStartling StatisticsSecondary students with a Learning Disability (LD) experience significant deficits in reading when compared to other students in their grade level
Dropout rate for students with LD was estimated at 31.6 % as compared to 9.4 % for students with no disabilities (U. S. Dept. of Education, 2007c)
Only 11% of students with LD, as compared to 53% of students in the general education population, have attended a four-year postsecondary program within two years of leaving high school (National Longitudinal Study II, 2003)
blog.zucklaw.comThe Vicious Cycle (Moats, 2002)The Reality:A wealth of evidence shows that intensive, high-quality literacy instruction can help students who are struggling build the skills they need to succeed in high school and beyond (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004).
www.goodfinancialcents.comHow You Can HelpStudents with learning disabilities can be very successful in school
It is up to parents, guardians, and teachers to work together to develop a system that will work for the student
Implement simple but helpful strategies with your student at home
Key Literacy Component: DecodingDecoding (word identification), refers to the ability to correctly decipher a particular word out of a group of letters.
Two skills involved in decoding:
Phonemic awarenessis the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual units of sound. These units of sound are called phonemes (i.e. /k/,/a/, and/t/, form the word cat).
Phonicsis the understanding of the relationship between the letters in written words and the sounds of these words when spoken.Students use this understanding as the basis for learning to read (recognize familiar words and pronounce new words) and write.(National Institute for Literacy, 2008) Key Literacy Component: Decoding Cont.If decoding is not fully developed by adolescence, students experience difficulty when they encounter new words
Research supports instruction in decoding, word recognition, and spelling helps improve phonemic awareness for studentswho have difficulty understanding how to blend sounds to articulate unfamiliar words
(National Institute for Literacy, 2008)
blogs.ksbe.eduAbout Decoding StrategiesAdolescents with decoding difficulties need more intensive practice to develop their reading skills more thoroughly both in and out of school
Both phonics and phonemic awareness instruction should occur using the language used in educational settings Focus on only one or two strategies at a time
www.spelloutloud.com(National Institute for Literacy, 2008)
Decoding Strategies to TryResearch-based recommendations (with each strategy, you model and have your student repeat):
When looking at new vocabulary words, articulate each syllable slowly (i.e.,e-co-sys-tem), pausing slightly between the syllables.Repeat this articulation several times.
Point out patterns in the pronunciation and spelling of prefixes, suffixes, and vowels in selected words (i.e.,rac-ism,sex-ism,age-ism, etc.).
Point out similarities and differences among words that belong to "word families" (e.g.,define,definitely,definition).
(National Institute for Literacy, 2008)
*Please refer to your parent activity handoutAppleby, Ph.D., J., Brinkley, Ph.D., A., Broussard, Ph.D., A. S., McPherson, Ph.D., J. M., & Ritchie, D. A. (2009). Social reform. InAmericana journey: Early years(p. 418). Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.
Teach your student to begin their homework by looking at the section vocabularyRememberAdolescent readers who struggle with decoding need extra time to decode each word AND to apply their higher order thinking skills to fully comprehend the text that they read (National Institute for Literacy, 2008)
Encourage your student to self-advocate for the extra time that they will need for reading in and out of the classroom
Practicing these decoding strategies at home will help your student feel more confident and comfortable using them at school
theredranch.blogspot.comThe Moral of the StoryWith research-based strategies, encouragement, and persistence, your student can and will achieve great things!MedicalNewsOnline: Overcoming Learning Disabilities
ReferencesAppleby, Ph.D., J., Brinkley, Ph.D., A., Broussard, Ph.D., A. S., McPherson, Ph.D., J. M., & Ritchie, D. A. (2009). Social reform. InAmericana journey: Early years(p. 418). Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill
Manzo, C. (Actor). McGraw, P., & McGraw, J. (Producer).(2012).OvercomingLearningDisabilities[Online video]. Hollywood: CBS Television Distribution. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=AzqbCUnRs2Q
Moats, L. (2002). When older students can't read. InLD Online. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/When_Older_Students_Can%27t_Read
National Institute for Literacy. (2008). Key literacy component: Decoding. Inall about Adolescent Literacy. Retrieved February 7, 2013, from http://www.adlit.org/article/27875/
National Joint Committee onLearningDisabilities. (2008, June). Adolescent literacy and older students with learning disabilities: A report from the national joint committee on learning disabilities. InLD Online. Retrieved February 10, 2013
NCLD Editorial Team. (2013). What are learning disabilities?. InNational Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.ncld.org/types-learning-disabilities/what-is-ld/what-are-learning-disabilities
QuestGarden, Inc. (2011). Prefixes and suffixes. InQuestGarden. Retrieved April 7, 2013, from http://questgarden.com/106/93/3/100719150625/files/Prefix.pdf
Vogel, D. (Narrator). (2011).How a dyslexic brain works[Online video]. KinaLearn.com. Retrieved February 25, 2013, from http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xgvs28_kinalearn-com-how-a-dyslexic-brain-works-a-simple-demo_people#.UWIQsZPviSo