Strategic participation for sustainable transportLake Sagaris, MSc., PhD (c) Planning and Community DevelopmentCiudad Viva, Santiago, Chile.Transforming Transportation, Washington 2012Overcoming the challenges of integrating urban transportation systems
The University of Life: It started with a march and...
Ciudad Viva (Living City) was born in the fight of 25 community organizations against a major urban highway concession, Chiles first, the Costanera Norte (1996-2000). We saved our neighbourhoods from destruction and voted to continue with new proposals.
...became citizen-led planning.
Citizens and government
roundtable, Santiago 2007-
experience and the reflection
and theoretical development of MSc. and PhD. studies (urban
Whats at stake?
Sustainable transport matters
Going from this
to some version of this...
New living systems require: A new equation: Citizens x (widespread understanding + articulatedemand) = political will to change.
Academic Academic knowledge: knowledge:
bridging across bridging across silossilos
Experiential Experiential knowledge: knowledge:
Recognition of Recognition of value addedvalue added
Participatory institutions for Participatory institutions for bridging: sustainable transport bridging: sustainable transport
equivalent of Chambers of equivalent of Chambers of Commerce.Commerce.
THE (FATAL) ATTRACTIONS OF AUTOMOBILITY...
100 years, billions of dollars in advertising
Main product (after mortgages) in the financial industry.
For users, cars (like cigarettes) promise freedom: door-to-door service, user-defined timing, ability to
carry cargo (especially children and groceries)
HOW CAN WE CURB THE CAR?
Cycling advocacy exploding worldwide...
Missing to date:Citizens movements and advocacy in
favour of all sustainable transport, including public transport and BRT.
We wont get more sustainable cities without them...
Practicalities = Policies
Strategic participation1. Fundamental 1: Making PARTICIPATION
strategic2. Fundamental 2: POLICY STREAMS AND
ENTREPRENEURS3. Fundamental 3: POLICY TRANSPLANTS4. Planning and implementation: starting from
people5. Putting it together, sustainable transport as
part of new systems for living
Fundamental 1: Strategic participation
Well-planned, well-integrated participation builds connections among disparate groups and players, tuning individual voices by providing them with
information and incentives to sing out, but above all connecting them, so they function with all the
power, inspiration and effectiveness of a well-trained choir.
positive negativeAttitude on the issue
Mobilizing ecologies of actors(or policy entrepreneurs)
Source: Tom Godefrooij, I-CE/Brabant
planners, The Netherlands
TIME is an issue: the one-two rule of policy innovation20- to 30-year cycle for significant policy change,
roughly four stages.
1.Small innovations, often erroneous and/or imperfect
3. Sexy city, crisis, or other catalyst
4.Exponential growth, often from one-city level to national policy
The one-two rule: maintain the movement 2/3
Experts (technical staff, academics, NGOs, operators, others)
The one-two rule: create pros, to counter the contras 3/3
CREDIBILITY DEPENDS ON
Individuals are good, organizations betterContinuity beyond government turnover
Independent monitoring and evaluation that other people value, credibility
Instant data, which can replace, supplement or complement expensive studies
Optimal conditions for successful pilots
Accumulate: Skills, knowledge, capacity, relationships, networks.
Fundamental 2: Policy streams and entrepreneurs
Policy not rational-technicalReflects framingand agendasetting(Kingdon)
Connecting PROBLEM and POLICY streamsHow can we resolve Whos asking?
Congestion, road safety City and regional governments, citizens
Air pollution Governments at all levels, especially regional (metropolitan), CSOs, health actors
Obesity/sedentarism, non-communicable diseases, social determinants of health
Governments, WHO (urban, transport and education systems highly relevant)
Inclusion: access to the citys benefits (jobs, culture, education, etc.)
International agencies, policy makers, individuals, families andneighbourhoods
Improvement to public spaces, children Cities, neighbourhoods, people, especially children (nowhere to play), public health especially US)
Social justice -- human, social, economic, environmental rights
Women, disabled, elderly, children, full inclusion -- international agencies, policymakers, citizens.
Global warming/climate change, especially heat island, transport energy
International agencies, lead cities, environmental and other citizens groups
Peak oil Public policy makers, leading edge academics and thinkers (business, media)
Loss of biodiversity International agencies, environmental groups, biologists
Water quality International agencies, policy makers, lead cities, environmental and other citizens groups
Fundamental 3: Getting the most out of policy transplants
Leverage pointsWhere change happens
Level of action Formal relations Informal practices
Constitutional level (ground rules)
Legal systems Value orientations
Policy area level (relations between governmental bodies)
Formal regulations Informal codes
Operation level (daily activities)
De Jong et al. The Theory and Practice of Institutional Transformation
Who does the leveraging? Our policy entrepreneurs (Kingdon), mavens, connectors (Gladwell and others), owners
Passive recipients vs...
A specific kind of communication needed
You have all these allies sitting out there on your buses, walking or riding alongside on their bikes, how to bring them on-board?
LARGE AND SMALL
LARGE FORMAL SPACES
SMALL GROUPS, FORMAL
AND INFORMAL SPACES
4. Planning and implementation: starting with the right people (the choir director)
Bringing people together: deliberationSmall groups and large
Ongoing and one-off
Multiple feedback mechanisms
Genuine integration: of people into processes, of walking and cycling into public transport, of different transport layers within the city, with respect for public spaces.
Dont call a vet when you need a doctor...Not communications, marketing, sociology...
We need experts in URBAN SYSTEMS (the spatial dimension) and PEOPLE. INTERACTIONS and RELATIONSHIPS. DIVERSITY. INCLUSION. EMPOWERMENT.
Wholistic, bridge-builders, strong participatory skills. Most common in NGOs and CSOs (civil society organizations), adult education, some health, urban planners (north), anthropologists, human geographers, mediation (law, womens studies).
Civil society actors KEYExtensive networking, diverse relationships (internal, external), multiple skills.Horizontal relationships: governments set rules and give orders, the private sector sells, civil society educates and invites people to change.
Low-risk experimentation, small-scale to mid- to large.
CREDIBLE, autonomous, transparent, communicate
Outsiders, effective innovators (Jane Jacobs: innovation comes from outside the system).
All over the world...
Global CSOs sowing grassroots change: bottom up, but also middle out, and reaching through the top, down. Interface for Cycling Expertise, ITDP, Embarq...
5. Putting it together...by focusing on people
Remember that sustainable transportis the answer: what if the question is how to live happier, healthier, more socially inclusive lives?
WHO - Public health: new priorities everywhere
Social determinants of health
Obesity epidemic, under- and over-nutrition
Mainstreaming health into every policy areaWORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, HEALTH NGOS AND HEALTH AUTHORITIES, EG. KENYA, CHILE,
INDIA, US, CANADA.
Obesity epidemic, under-and over-nutritionThe main challenge in public health for the 21st century, in both developed and developing countries
Associated with high-calorie, low-nutrient foods
And car-based urban (not only transport) systems.
EG. THE ACTIVE LIVING CENTER, US, FINANCING CIVIL SOCIETY AND RESEARCH, PUBLISHING URBAN DESIGN
AND OTHER MANUALS TO FIGHT THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC.
ACTIVE LIVINGRESOURCE CENTER
OVERWEIGHT & OBESE ADULTS
ACTIVE LIVINGRESOURCE CENTER
OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1989
LESS THAN 10% OBESE
MORE THAN 20% OBESE
ACTIVE LIVINGRESOURCE CENTER