Strategic participation for sustainable transport

  • View
    212

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Lake Sagaris, MSc., PhD (c) Planning and Community Development Ciudad Viva, Santiago, Chile. Transforming Transportation, Washington 2012. Overcoming the challenges of integrating urban transportation systems

Text of Strategic participation for sustainable transport

  • Strategic participation for sustainable transportLake Sagaris, MSc., PhD (c) Planning and Community DevelopmentCiudad Viva, Santiago, Chile.Transforming Transportation, Washington 2012Overcoming the challenges of integrating urban transportation systems

  • The University of Life: It started with a march and...

    Ciudad Viva (Living City) was born in the fight of 25 community organizations against a major urban highway concession, Chiles first, the Costanera Norte (1996-2000). We saved our neighbourhoods from destruction and voted to continue with new proposals.

  • ...became citizen-led planning.

    Citizens and government

    celebrating pro-cycling

    roundtable, Santiago 2007-

    2010.

    Practical, real-world

    experience and the reflection

    and theoretical development of MSc. and PhD. studies (urban

    planning)

  • Whats at stake?

  • Sustainable transport matters

  • Going from this

  • to some version of this...

  • New living systems require: A new equation: Citizens x (widespread understanding + articulatedemand) = political will to change.

    Academic Academic knowledge: knowledge:

    bridging across bridging across silossilos

    Experiential Experiential knowledge: knowledge:

    Recognition of Recognition of value addedvalue added

    Participatory institutions for Participatory institutions for bridging: sustainable transport bridging: sustainable transport

    equivalent of Chambers of equivalent of Chambers of Commerce.Commerce.

  • THE (FATAL) ATTRACTIONS OF AUTOMOBILITY...

    100 years, billions of dollars in advertising

    Main product (after mortgages) in the financial industry.

    For users, cars (like cigarettes) promise freedom: door-to-door service, user-defined timing, ability to

    carry cargo (especially children and groceries)

    HOW CAN WE CURB THE CAR?

  • Cycling advocacy exploding worldwide...

  • Missing to date:Citizens movements and advocacy in

    favour of all sustainable transport, including public transport and BRT.

    We wont get more sustainable cities without them...

  • Practicalities = Policies

  • Strategic participation1. Fundamental 1: Making PARTICIPATION

    strategic2. Fundamental 2: POLICY STREAMS AND

    ENTREPRENEURS3. Fundamental 3: POLICY TRANSPLANTS4. Planning and implementation: starting from

    people5. Putting it together, sustainable transport as

    part of new systems for living

  • Fundamental 1: Strategic participation

  • Well-planned, well-integrated participation builds connections among disparate groups and players, tuning individual voices by providing them with

    information and incentives to sing out, but above all connecting them, so they function with all the

    power, inspiration and effectiveness of a well-trained choir.

  • Partners Opponents

    FansOutsiders

    positive negativeAttitude on the issue

    m

    u

    c

    h

    l

    i

    t

    t

    l

    e

    I

    n

    f

    l

    u

    e

    n

    c

    e

    Co-operate Involve

    Utilise Inform

    Mobilizing ecologies of actors(or policy entrepreneurs)

    Source: Tom Godefrooij, I-CE/Brabant

    planners, The Netherlands

  • TIME is an issue: the one-two rule of policy innovation20- to 30-year cycle for significant policy change,

    roughly four stages.

    1.Small innovations, often erroneous and/or imperfect

    2.Contagion: problem-solution-crisis

    3. Sexy city, crisis, or other catalyst

    4.Exponential growth, often from one-city level to national policy

  • The one-two rule: maintain the movement 2/3

    Experts (technical staff, academics, NGOs, operators, others)

  • The one-two rule: create pros, to counter the contras 3/3

    CREDIBILITY DEPENDS ON

    KnowledgeSkills

    ConnectionsIndependence

  • Individuals are good, organizations betterContinuity beyond government turnover

    Independent monitoring and evaluation that other people value, credibility

    Instant data, which can replace, supplement or complement expensive studies

    Optimal conditions for successful pilots

    Accumulate: Skills, knowledge, capacity, relationships, networks.

  • Fundamental 2: Policy streams and entrepreneurs

  • Policy not rational-technicalReflects framingand agendasetting(Kingdon)

  • Connecting PROBLEM and POLICY streamsHow can we resolve Whos asking?

    Congestion, road safety City and regional governments, citizens

    Air pollution Governments at all levels, especially regional (metropolitan), CSOs, health actors

    Obesity/sedentarism, non-communicable diseases, social determinants of health

    Governments, WHO (urban, transport and education systems highly relevant)

    Inclusion: access to the citys benefits (jobs, culture, education, etc.)

    International agencies, policy makers, individuals, families andneighbourhoods

    Improvement to public spaces, children Cities, neighbourhoods, people, especially children (nowhere to play), public health especially US)

    Social justice -- human, social, economic, environmental rights

    Women, disabled, elderly, children, full inclusion -- international agencies, policymakers, citizens.

    Global warming/climate change, especially heat island, transport energy

    International agencies, lead cities, environmental and other citizens groups

    Peak oil Public policy makers, leading edge academics and thinkers (business, media)

    Loss of biodiversity International agencies, environmental groups, biologists

    Water quality International agencies, policy makers, lead cities, environmental and other citizens groups

  • Fundamental 3: Getting the most out of policy transplants

  • Leverage pointsWhere change happens

    Level of action Formal relations Informal practices

    Constitutional level (ground rules)

    Legal systems Value orientations

    Policy area level (relations between governmental bodies)

    Formal regulations Informal codes

    Operation level (daily activities)

    Procedures

    De Jong et al. The Theory and Practice of Institutional Transformation

    Roles

  • Who does the leveraging? Our policy entrepreneurs (Kingdon), mavens, connectors (Gladwell and others), owners

  • Passive recipients vs...

  • Active policyentrepreneurs

  • A specific kind of communication needed

  • You have all these allies sitting out there on your buses, walking or riding alongside on their bikes, how to bring them on-board?

  • Communication

    FORMAL SPACES

    LARGE AND SMALL

    LARGE FORMAL SPACES

    SMALL GROUPS, FORMAL

    AND INFORMAL SPACES

  • Communication-participation spectrum

  • 4. Planning and implementation: starting with the right people (the choir director)

  • Bringing people together: deliberationSmall groups and large

    Ongoing and one-off

    Multiple feedback mechanisms

    Genuine integration: of people into processes, of walking and cycling into public transport, of different transport layers within the city, with respect for public spaces.

  • Dont call a vet when you need a doctor...Not communications, marketing, sociology...

    We need experts in URBAN SYSTEMS (the spatial dimension) and PEOPLE. INTERACTIONS and RELATIONSHIPS. DIVERSITY. INCLUSION. EMPOWERMENT.

    Wholistic, bridge-builders, strong participatory skills. Most common in NGOs and CSOs (civil society organizations), adult education, some health, urban planners (north), anthropologists, human geographers, mediation (law, womens studies).

  • Civil society actors KEYExtensive networking, diverse relationships (internal, external), multiple skills.Horizontal relationships: governments set rules and give orders, the private sector sells, civil society educates and invites people to change.

    Low-risk experimentation, small-scale to mid- to large.

    CREDIBLE, autonomous, transparent, communicate

    Outsiders, effective innovators (Jane Jacobs: innovation comes from outside the system).

  • All over the world...

    Global CSOs sowing grassroots change: bottom up, but also middle out, and reaching through the top, down. Interface for Cycling Expertise, ITDP, Embarq...

  • 5. Putting it together...by focusing on people

  • Remember that sustainable transportis the answer: what if the question is how to live happier, healthier, more socially inclusive lives?

  • WHO - Public health: new priorities everywhere

    Social determinants of health

    Obesity epidemic, under- and over-nutrition

    Mainstreaming health into every policy areaWORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, HEALTH NGOS AND HEALTH AUTHORITIES, EG. KENYA, CHILE,

    INDIA, US, CANADA.

  • Obesity epidemic, under-and over-nutritionThe main challenge in public health for the 21st century, in both developed and developing countries

    Associated with high-calorie, low-nutrient foods

    And car-based urban (not only transport) systems.

    EG. THE ACTIVE LIVING CENTER, US, FINANCING CIVIL SOCIETY AND RESEARCH, PUBLISHING URBAN DESIGN

    AND OTHER MANUALS TO FIGHT THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC.

  • ACTIVE LIVINGRESOURCE CENTER

    OVERWEIGHT & OBESE ADULTS

    HEALTHY ADULTS

    62 %38%

  • ACTIVE LIVINGRESOURCE CENTER

    OBESITY RATES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1989

    LESS THAN 10% OBESE

    10-14% OBESE

    15-20% OBESE

    MORE THAN 20% OBESE

    NO DATA

  • ACTIVE LIVINGRESOURCE CENTER

    OBESITY R