Storytelling 2.0

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


Uses of cross-media strategies for new ways of communicating

Text of Storytelling 2.0

  • 1. Storytelling 2.0uses of cross-media strategies for new ways of communicating IPIN summer schoolAugust 8th 2012 Kjetil Sandvik, associate professor, Media, Cognition and Communication,University of Copenhagen

2. Agenda Focus on strategic storytelling, particularly in thefield of communicating culture/cultural heritage inthe light of digital, network-based and mobilemedia and the increasing use of web 2.0/socialmedia-services. From a cross-media perspective we will focus onthe opportunities and challenges which these newmedia technologies, platforms and servicesrepresent to cultural organizations and institutions: Storytelling 2.0 and a perpetual beta way ofcommunicating focusing on dynamic and easychangeable formats with a strong focus on userparticipation, collaboration and co-creation). 3. MA in dramaturgyPHD on computer-gamesHead of master pro-gram in Cross-MediaCommunicationResearch: strategiccommunication, newmedia, storytelling etc. 4. This lecture Some brief words about storytelling andcross-media communication the generalidea Rich media experiences: from experi-ence+ to experience universes casestudies: X factor and Harry Potter Storytelling 2.0 case study: anaugmented reality game 5. Storytelling classic A chain of events in time and space Told by someone (a narrator) to somebodyelse (a reader or spectator) through a specific media (novel, movie, TVseries) And in a specific discourse (a genredefining the structure of the plot/storyline) 6. Storytelling 2.0: participation The ingredients are the same, but the roleof the recipient has changed The story hands out the possibility forinteraction: to influence the course of events to gain control over one or more characters to play a part in the storyline Storytelling Storydwelling 7. Labyrinthine story structure Myst 2: Riven 8. Storytelling 2.0: co-creation Added the possibility for the participants tobe a part of creating the story, adding new parts to it, adding new characters, adding new narrative spaces and so on Storytelling Storyprocessing 9. Storyspace World of Warcraft 10. SandboxConceptEnvironment Design toolsSecond Life 11. Cross-media communication Collaborative interplay between differentmedia Each media playing its specific role anddelivering its part of the overall story Putting to play the specific strengths ofeach media (the media does what it doesbest!) Cross-media storytelling: putting bothstorytelling classic and the two modes ofstorytelling 2.0 to effective use! 12. Cross-media communication It is about getting through to the user It is about giving the user a broader andricher media experience It is about giving the user the possibility toget engaged and to be involved in themedia experience on different levels andto various degrees It is about giving the user the possibility forparticipation and co-creation. 13. Cross-media communicationThe art of having different (old andnew) media communicating together Each media has its special qualities Context: media evolution CMC challenges the role of the media types Context: participatory culture CMC challenges our models ofcommunication 14. Challenges of digital mediaParticipatory (social) media/web 2.0: radical possibilities for dialogic processes, forcollaboration and co-creation Communication as dynamic processes Fixed solutions changeable, adaptive anduser-centered solutions Uses of web 2.0 apps mashups:combinations of cheap, effective andconstantly updated and improved mediatechnology Storytelling 2.0: perpetual beta way ofcommunication 15. Context: participatoryculture and 2G experience economy 16. Participatory culture Patterns of media consumption have beenprofoundly altered by a succession of newmedia technologies which enable averagecitizens to participate in the archiving,annotation, appropriation, transformation,and recirculation of media content. Partici-patory culture refers to the new style ofconsumerism that emerges in this environment. Henry Jenkins 17. 2G experience economy:participation co-creation 18. Co-creation Boswijk focuses on the creativedialogue between supplier and customerinstead of the supplier deciding what thecustomer wants: It builds upon communication as sharing ofknowledge and the idea that value creationno longer takes place within the company butis created in the individual: The development of meaningful-experienceconcepts cannot take place without the directparticipation of the (potential) customer. 19. Participation-based communication We do not just want to be communicationto (classical mass-media communicationformat: one-to-many). We need new communication modelswhich focuses on various forms of userinvolvement and user experiences (one-to-one and many-to-many communication) personalization: online-services which adaptto the users actions 20. Participation based communication We do not just want to be communication to(classical mass-media communication format:one-to-many). We need new communication models whichfocuses on various forms of userinvolvement and user experiences (one-to-one and many-to-many communication) personalization: online-services which adapt tothe users actions enabling dialogue (e.g. blogs), userparticipation (interactive elements creatingunique user experiences) and user co-creation(possibility to create your own content). 21. LEGO Factory A co-creative story:The user in centre ofthe design process inaccordance withLEGOs corporatevalues: Stimulatingcreative play! 22. Users want to create their own toys 23. Co-creation: sharing and reworking design 24. Users want to design their own kitchens 25. Users want to tell their own stories 26. Users want to solve the crime mystery themselves 27. Users want to produce TVthemselves 28. Users want to write the news themselves Citizen Journalism 29. Collective intelligence: crowdsourced, co-creative creation of knowledge 30. Traditional media com-munication (storytelling classic)Control of flowProducer ContentUserInterpretation/use MediaInspired by Randy Haykin:Multimedia demystified. A guide tothe world of multimedia from Apple Computer, 1994 31. Dialogic media communication PerformanceControl of flowProducer ContentUser Interpretation/useMedia Feedback 32. Participatory media communication Production of content Control of flowProducer Content User Interpretation/use Produser Performance/Feedback MediaProdusage Reconfiguration (editing) 33. Producer prodUser prodUserProduction of contentprodUser Content prodUser Use of contentMedia PlatformprodUserprodUser Co-creation based communication model 34. Modes of user engagement Communication as composition (the combination ofrelated media contents by established media (thebook, the movie, the game, the website) and/or thecombined use of various media and applications byaudiences (using a player to watch a TV program,using a browser to monitor its website, and newsapplications to get updates)). Communication as collaboration (e.g., participating indebates relating to media content (chats, blogs,forums)) Communication as participation (e.g., influencing thecontent of television, such as using SMS to vote forones favorite in a talent show) Communication as co-creation (the independentcreation of media content, e.g. designing new featureson Facebook) 35. A networked, participatory environment enables allparticipants to be users as well as producers ofinformation and knowledge - frequently in a hybridrole of produser where usage is necessarily alsoproductive. Produsers engage not in a traditional form ofcontent production, but are instead involved inprodusage - the collaborative and continuousbuilding and extending of existing content in pursuitof further improvement.Axel Bruns: Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond:From Production to Produsage, 2008 36. This lecture Some brief words about storytelling andcross-media communication the generalidea Rich media experiences: fromexperience + to experience universes case studies: X factor and Harry Potter Storytelling 2.0 case study: anaugmented reality game 37. The elements of the media cirquit (John Fiske 1987) the primary text (the movie/tv-series) the secondary text (pr/marketing,background material, bonus material:surrounding the primary text) the tertiary text (the users own texts: areproduced on the background of theprimary and secondary text) Cross-media productions (and theirnew media cirquits) changes thishierarchy 38. New media cirquits Cross-media production: Connects primary, secondary and tertiarytexts into one common media text Embeds possibilities for participation Uses several communication matrixes: One-to-many (the TV show in itself) One-to-one (chats) Many-to-many (debate forums, quizzes, games) One-to-one-as-group (communities on e.g. FB) Attempt to create a sense of belonging inthe user based on identification ANDinteraction 39. Convergence culture This circulation of media content - acrossdifferent media systems, competing mediaeconomies, and national borders - dependsheavily on consumers active participation. Convergence should NOT be understoodprimarily as a technological process bringingtogether multiple media functions within thesame devices. Instead, convergence represents a culturalshift as consumers are encouraged to seekout new information and make connectionsamong dispersed media content. Henry Jenkins 40. Rich media experiences Experience through engagement and identification participation collaboration co-creation Two types of rich media experience Experience + (the augmentation of experience of one specific media by implementing other media in the communication-structure, e.g. a website to a TV-show) Experience universe (interplay between different media: e.g. book, movies, games) 41. Experience + X factor 42. Engagement and identification The use of the TV medias strenghts: Storytelling classicto create emotional intensification A dramatic plot: the contest-format The use