upon the definition of allergy. Volk points out that an important difference between immunity and allergy is that immunity involves neutralization of poisonous suh- stances, while in allergy nonpoisonous substances, combining with the antibody, become highly toxic.
It seems definitely established that the infected organism possesses defense mechanisms, the relative strength of which is an influential factor in the etiology and type of skin tuberculosis.
Aside from the factors of the total strength of defense and the number of bacilli, the site of the first appearance of tissue change is important. If the num- ber of bacilli is small and the quantity of antibodies large, the cutis will be invaded and the different forms of papulonecrotic tuberculosis produced, while indurative tuberculosis finds its beginning in the subcutis.
Investigations Concerning Effects of Bacteriotoxins on Skin. Robert, P.: Arch. f. Dermat. u. Syph. 173: 267,1935.
Robert, after investigating the parasitic nature of eczema and testing the epicutaneous effects of bacterial products on both eczematous and noneczematous adults and children, found that bouillon culture products alone caused positive re- actions, and that the extract of Staphylococcus aweus most frequently was effective. Streptococcus, B. pyocyaneus, oidium and trichophyton caused positive results : B. diphtheriae and Proteus vzclgaris did not. The reaction was clinically and histologically the same in all cases. The number of positive reactions was larger than with ordinary eczema tests (patch tests). Eezematous individuals reacted more strongly than noneczematous; children reacted more frequently than adults, although nurslings under one year almost never reacted.
The author points out that these reactions, although typical, must not be re- garded as eczemato-allergic, for the possibility of a toxic effect (similar to that of eroton oil) must be considered, the results depending on the antitoxin content of the tissues.
Repeated applications of filtrate did not sensitize non-sensitive individuals nor desensitize sensitive ones.
Specificity of the Frei Test in Lymphopathia Venerea. Bacon, H. E.: Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 21: 570, 1935.
Bacon studied 155 patients, of whom 150 gave a positive Frei test. All con- trols gave negative responses.
Of those with a negative Frei response, 3 gave a positive Wassermann reaction. Even after completion of an antisyphilitic course, they repeatedly failed to give a positive Frei test. Other investigators have reported that in the presence of a recent or active syphilitic process the Frei test may become temporarily inactive.
Bacon concludes that the Frei test has proved specific; and that, in the presence of clinical evidence, one negative test should not be considered to indicate that the process is not one of lymphopathia venerea.
Intradermal Reaction for Chancroids With Chancroidal Bubo Pus. Cole, H. N., and Levin, E. A.: J. A. M. A. 105: 2040, 1935.
Using an antigen prepared from a proved chancroidal bubo Cole and Levin per- formed 433 intracutaneous chancroidal tests. Fifty-two were definitely positive, and 272 negative.
Patients with a positive reaction were divided into four groups: (1) those with active manifestations of the disease; (2) those with previous chancroidal infection; (3) those with histories of previous venereal ulcerations and suppurating buboes; (4) those without active infection or history.