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Southeast Asia Southeast Asia in Conflict p. 528

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  • Southeast Asia in Conflict

    p. 528

  • French IndochinaDuring the New Imperialism era, France controlled what it called IndochinaAfter World War I, Vietnamese went to Paris to request self-determination.They were ignored.

  • French Indochinatoday known as three countries (3)Vietnam, Kampuchea, Laos

  • WW IIWhen Germany defeated France in 1940, ____ was allowed to take control of French Indochina.Japan

  • WW II to the 1950sGuerrillas:Bands of unofficial soldiers (insurgents), who resist an occupying army long after their own country surrenders.British, American, and French agents trained and equipped Vietnamese, Laotian, and Kampuchean guerrillas to fight the Japanese.Of course, Japan was defeated in 1945.The Allies gave Indochina back to France soon after.Indochinese guerrillas continued to fight the French.

  • Ho Chi Minh:Nationalist and Communist leader of the Vietnamese guerrillas (Viet Minh).His forces fought for eight years against the French. (First Indochina War), 1950s.

  • EC: 1950s North Vietnam (6)Communist, Led by Ho Chi Minh, Supported by the Soviet Union and the PRC.Capital was HanoiPreferred by anti-imperialist (US/France) VietnamesePreferred by Vietnamese hating the South Vietnams corrupt, brutal, dictatorial Diem government.

  • Dienbienphu:Viet Minh army decisively defeated the French in 1954.France decided to withdraw from VietnamBy an international agreement, there would be two countries until free elections were held:

  • EC: 1950s South Vietnam (6)Republic of Vietnam Dictatorial Led by Ngo Dinh Diem, Supported by the United States.Capital was SaigonCatholic and pro-French Vietnamese preferred it.

  • South VietnamIn the early 60s, Diem did not hold the agreed-upon elections because it was certain that the people would choose ___ as their leader.Ho Chi MinhThe US feared Communists would gain Vietnam.

  • Domino Theory:US idea that if Vietnam fell, then Communist would use it to take control of all of Southeast Asia, country-by-country.The US decided to fight it.

  • US sees Diem as a problem (3)Resisting free electionsDiems corruption and brutality against his people Conflicted even with Buddhist monks

  • Diem became an embarrassment for the US.In 1963, the CIA advises the _____ Administration to eliminate Diem.KennedyDiem is assassinated (verified in clip by former President Johnson), and US-approved leadership replaces him.

  • Viet Cong:Also called the National Liberation Front. They were South Vietnamese guerrillas who supported and fought for Ho Chi Minh.They fought the Diem forces in South Vietnam.The Viet Cong wanted to: (3)unite Vietnamdepose the dictator, Diemdrive the United States outUS forces hated and feared VC guerrilla tactics..

  • US InvolvementUntil 1964, the United States sent supplies and advisors to train the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).

  • Military InterventionAfter a maritime attack on a US warship, the US Congress passed the ____ in 1964.Gulf of Tonkin Resolution,President ________________ ordered thousands of troops into VietnamLyndon JohnsonUS has technology in its favor

  • Bombing, 10x all of WW IIThe US also began massive bombing raids on North VietnamDropping 10 times the tonnage used in Europe and Asia in all of WW II.These make US look like a bully to the worldBombings make Vietnamese hate US.

  • EC: The guerrilla-style war against the US was most effective. (2) 12/7Rainforests work in the VCs favor.VC were local people and knew their landVillagers often aided the VCUS and ARVN troops targeted such villages.Destruction of villages made US and ARVN troops unpopularHelicopter and jet raids (in this case, napalm) terrorized and destroyed many hamlets. (18, bad language, play at end?)Hidden jungle trails were used to move supplies, troops, weapons: the ____ was the main routeHo Chi Minh TrailCommunists used illegal bases and routes across the border in Kampuchea and Laos.US ordered troops and bombings on those bases, expanding the war.

  • The Soviet Union gives Vietnam effective high-technology weapons: EC: Surface-to-air missiles (SAM), to defend against US bombers and fighters.US suffers high losses doing air raids over North Vietnam.

  • Years and yearsEC: In the next few years, the United States had about ____ military personnel in Vietnam.500,000EC: American men had to register for the draft at age ___.18In the beginning, many saw service as a patriotic duty.

  • US Anti-war movement:Once again, American young men were drafted.Increasing numbers later avoided the draft by leaving the country.College students were not draftedThey led the growing anti-war movement.It grew strong enough to make many Americans want to end the war.The anti-war movement would confuse and divide the American people. Similar protests occurred in Europe ..

  • Country Joe And The Fish - Vietnam Song(performed at Woodstock)Well, come on all of you, big strong men, Uncle Sam needs your help again. He's got himself in a terrible jam Way down yonder in Vietnam So put down your books and pick up a gun, We're gonna have a whole lotta fun. Chorus:And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam; And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why, Whoopee! we're all gonna die.

    Come on Wall Street, don't be slow, Why man, this is war au-go-go There's plenty good money to be made By supplying the Army with the tools of its trade, But just hope and pray that if they drop the bomb, They drop it on the Viet Cong. Chorus.. Well, come on generals, let's move fast; Your big chance has come at last. Now you can go out and get those Reds 'Cause the only good commie is the one that's dead And you know that peace can only be won When we've blown 'em all to kingdom come. Chorus.. Come on mothers throughout the land, Pack your boys off to Vietnam. Come on fathers, and don't hesitate To send your sons off before it's too late. And you can be the first ones in your block To have your boy come home in a box. Chorus..

  • Tet Offensive:1968, using the relaxed celebrations of the Vietnamese new year, VC and NVA troops attacked all over South Vietnam at the same time. The US commander had been on nationwide news telling Americans the communists were all but defeated.ARVN and US troops were caught off guard. The fighting was house to house..It was the kind of fighting US troops were good at. (real footage)VC and NVA attackers were eventually killed or driven off (FMJ, offensive language).Battles and courage showed that the Communists were still very ready and able to fightAmerican and South Vietnamese leaders were humiliatedAmerican public opinion, led by the media, turned against the war.Lyndon Johnson decided not to run for a second presidential term.

  • The CommunistsEC: The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the Viet Cong (____, _____, ____) get their supplies and training from the Soviet Union and the PRC, VCCharlieMr. CharlesThe USSR and PRC do not send troops.

  • Finding a solutionPeace Talks began with North Vietnam in 1968 under President ____.Lyndon Johnson.After 1968, they continued in Paris under President ____.Richard Nixon.The first problem was the design of the table. The North Vietnamese demanded the set-up show in the image.

  • In 1973, the Paris Peace Accord was signed. (4)There would be a cease-fireUS troops would withdraw from the countryNorth Vietnam would send no more troops into South VietnamSouth Vietnam would decide when and how to begin talks for reunification.

  • Enough is enoughSouth Vietnam never called for reunification.Corruption in South Vietnam worsened.In 1975, North Vietnam quickly invaded and easily defeated the corrupt ARVN troops.The country was finally united.Saigon became known as, and still is, ___Ho Chi Minh City

  • US Vietnam LegacyThe Vietnam War saw many US soldiers and aviators taken ____(POW) or _____(MIA). (2)prisoner of warmissing in actionBy the end of the war these numbered around 2,500 and would be a point of conflict between the two countries until the 1990s.

  • Kampuchea (Cambodia)Khmer Rouge:Cambodian Communists. They took control of Kampuchea in 1975.

  • Pol Potled Khmer Rouge

  • Pol Pot began to purge Kampuchea of dangerous people. (2)City people were moved to the countryside to do honest peasant work.Westernized and educated people were eliminatedIn reeducation camps, educated and Western-influenced people were identified, tortured, and executed.One-third of the population (1 to 2 million) was slaughtered (shot, drowned, beaten) in killing fields, their bodies left to rot.

    ____ troops invaded in 1979, and, after 10 years, defeated the Khmer Rouge and ended the genocide.Vietnamese

  • AftermathThe rest of Southeast Asia remained capitalist: Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, SingaporeEC: A US-led embargo kept Vietnam poor (similar to the US embargo of _____)Cubabut soon Japan and Europeans ignored the US, and began trade and diplomatic relations.The US does trade with Vietnam somewhat now and Americans can travel there.Vietnam has mostly recovered, but a higher standard of living is still decades away.Many unexploded munitions are still in the ground and maim and kill animals and people.Vietnamese land and flora are still recovering from American chemical defoliants.EC: Vietnam still maintains a large army against its ancient enemy, _____China.

  • Homework

  • Biography, p 529Question:He shifted the Communist focus from urban workers to rural peasantsto national liberation.

  • Standards Check, p. 529Question:Vietnamese guerillas fought the French in an effort to win independence

  • Thinking Critically, p. 530-11To halt further advances of troops and supplies from North Vietnam along the Ho Chi Minh Trailto be able to attack Vietnam from the West2It was difficult to distinguish Viet Cong guerillas from local villagersSwamps and dense vegetation made it easy for guerillas to hide and ambush US forces.

  • Standards Check, p. 532Question:The US entered Vietnam to prevent the spread of Communism across Southeast Asia

  • Standards Check, p. 532Question:The US withdrew from Vietnam because:It was not winningGreat pressure from US citizens against the war.

  • Image, p. 533Question:They were desperate to escape communist rule.

  • Standards Check, p. 533Question:Communists took control or invaded Cambodia and Laos after Vietnam fell.

  • End HomeworkBegin class work: