Southeast Asia in Conflict
French IndochinaDuring the New Imperialism era, France
controlled what it called IndochinaAfter World War I, Vietnamese
went to Paris to request self-determination.They were ignored.
French Indochinatoday known as three countries (3)Vietnam,
WW IIWhen Germany defeated France in 1940, ____ was allowed to
take control of French Indochina.Japan
WW II to the 1950sGuerrillas:Bands of unofficial soldiers
(insurgents), who resist an occupying army long after their own
country surrenders.British, American, and French agents trained and
equipped Vietnamese, Laotian, and Kampuchean guerrillas to fight
the Japanese.Of course, Japan was defeated in 1945.The Allies gave
Indochina back to France soon after.Indochinese guerrillas
continued to fight the French.
Ho Chi Minh:Nationalist and Communist leader of the Vietnamese
guerrillas (Viet Minh).His forces fought for eight years against
the French. (First Indochina War), 1950s.
EC: 1950s North Vietnam (6)Communist, Led by Ho Chi Minh,
Supported by the Soviet Union and the PRC.Capital was
HanoiPreferred by anti-imperialist (US/France) VietnamesePreferred
by Vietnamese hating the South Vietnams corrupt, brutal,
dictatorial Diem government.
Dienbienphu:Viet Minh army decisively defeated the French in
1954.France decided to withdraw from VietnamBy an international
agreement, there would be two countries until free elections were
EC: 1950s South Vietnam (6)Republic of Vietnam Dictatorial Led
by Ngo Dinh Diem, Supported by the United States.Capital was
SaigonCatholic and pro-French Vietnamese preferred it.
South VietnamIn the early 60s, Diem did not hold the agreed-upon
elections because it was certain that the people would choose ___
as their leader.Ho Chi MinhThe US feared Communists would gain
Domino Theory:US idea that if Vietnam fell, then Communist would
use it to take control of all of Southeast Asia,
country-by-country.The US decided to fight it.
US sees Diem as a problem (3)Resisting free electionsDiems
corruption and brutality against his people Conflicted even with
Diem became an embarrassment for the US.In 1963, the CIA advises
the _____ Administration to eliminate Diem.KennedyDiem is
assassinated (verified in clip by former President Johnson), and
US-approved leadership replaces him.
Viet Cong:Also called the National Liberation Front. They were
South Vietnamese guerrillas who supported and fought for Ho Chi
Minh.They fought the Diem forces in South Vietnam.The Viet Cong
wanted to: (3)unite Vietnamdepose the dictator, Diemdrive the
United States outUS forces hated and feared VC guerrilla
US InvolvementUntil 1964, the United States sent supplies and
advisors to train the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).
Military InterventionAfter a maritime attack on a US warship,
the US Congress passed the ____ in 1964.Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution,President ________________ ordered thousands of troops
into VietnamLyndon JohnsonUS has technology in its favor
Bombing, 10x all of WW IIThe US also began massive bombing raids
on North VietnamDropping 10 times the tonnage used in Europe and
Asia in all of WW II.These make US look like a bully to the
worldBombings make Vietnamese hate US.
EC: The guerrilla-style war against the US was most effective.
(2) 12/7Rainforests work in the VCs favor.VC were local people and
knew their landVillagers often aided the VCUS and ARVN troops
targeted such villages.Destruction of villages made US and ARVN
troops unpopularHelicopter and jet raids (in this case, napalm)
terrorized and destroyed many hamlets. (18, bad language, play at
end?)Hidden jungle trails were used to move supplies, troops,
weapons: the ____ was the main routeHo Chi Minh TrailCommunists
used illegal bases and routes across the border in Kampuchea and
Laos.US ordered troops and bombings on those bases, expanding the
The Soviet Union gives Vietnam effective high-technology
weapons: EC: Surface-to-air missiles (SAM), to defend against US
bombers and fighters.US suffers high losses doing air raids over
Years and yearsEC: In the next few years, the United States had
about ____ military personnel in Vietnam.500,000EC: American men
had to register for the draft at age ___.18In the beginning, many
saw service as a patriotic duty.
US Anti-war movement:Once again, American young men were
drafted.Increasing numbers later avoided the draft by leaving the
country.College students were not draftedThey led the growing
anti-war movement.It grew strong enough to make many Americans want
to end the war.The anti-war movement would confuse and divide the
American people. Similar protests occurred in Europe ..
Country Joe And The Fish - Vietnam Song(performed at
Woodstock)Well, come on all of you, big strong men, Uncle Sam needs
your help again. He's got himself in a terrible jam Way down yonder
in Vietnam So put down your books and pick up a gun, We're gonna
have a whole lotta fun. Chorus:And it's one, two, three, What are
we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is
Vietnam; And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well
there ain't no time to wonder why, Whoopee! we're all gonna
Come on Wall Street, don't be slow, Why man, this is war
au-go-go There's plenty good money to be made By supplying the Army
with the tools of its trade, But just hope and pray that if they
drop the bomb, They drop it on the Viet Cong. Chorus.. Well, come
on generals, let's move fast; Your big chance has come at last. Now
you can go out and get those Reds 'Cause the only good commie is
the one that's dead And you know that peace can only be won When
we've blown 'em all to kingdom come. Chorus.. Come on mothers
throughout the land, Pack your boys off to Vietnam. Come on
fathers, and don't hesitate To send your sons off before it's too
late. And you can be the first ones in your block To have your boy
come home in a box. Chorus..
Tet Offensive:1968, using the relaxed celebrations of the
Vietnamese new year, VC and NVA troops attacked all over South
Vietnam at the same time. The US commander had been on nationwide
news telling Americans the communists were all but defeated.ARVN
and US troops were caught off guard. The fighting was house to
house..It was the kind of fighting US troops were good at. (real
footage)VC and NVA attackers were eventually killed or driven off
(FMJ, offensive language).Battles and courage showed that the
Communists were still very ready and able to fightAmerican and
South Vietnamese leaders were humiliatedAmerican public opinion,
led by the media, turned against the war.Lyndon Johnson decided not
to run for a second presidential term.
The CommunistsEC: The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and the Viet
Cong (____, _____, ____) get their supplies and training from the
Soviet Union and the PRC, VCCharlieMr. CharlesThe USSR and PRC do
not send troops.
Finding a solutionPeace Talks began with North Vietnam in 1968
under President ____.Lyndon Johnson.After 1968, they continued in
Paris under President ____.Richard Nixon.The first problem was the
design of the table. The North Vietnamese demanded the set-up show
in the image.
In 1973, the Paris Peace Accord was signed. (4)There would be a
cease-fireUS troops would withdraw from the countryNorth Vietnam
would send no more troops into South VietnamSouth Vietnam would
decide when and how to begin talks for reunification.
Enough is enoughSouth Vietnam never called for
reunification.Corruption in South Vietnam worsened.In 1975, North
Vietnam quickly invaded and easily defeated the corrupt ARVN
troops.The country was finally united.Saigon became known as, and
still is, ___Ho Chi Minh City
US Vietnam LegacyThe Vietnam War saw many US soldiers and
aviators taken ____(POW) or _____(MIA). (2)prisoner of warmissing
in actionBy the end of the war these numbered around 2,500 and
would be a point of conflict between the two countries until the
Kampuchea (Cambodia)Khmer Rouge:Cambodian Communists. They took
control of Kampuchea in 1975.
Pol Potled Khmer Rouge
Pol Pot began to purge Kampuchea of dangerous people. (2)City
people were moved to the countryside to do honest peasant
work.Westernized and educated people were eliminatedIn reeducation
camps, educated and Western-influenced people were identified,
tortured, and executed.One-third of the population (1 to 2 million)
was slaughtered (shot, drowned, beaten) in killing fields, their
bodies left to rot.
____ troops invaded in 1979, and, after 10 years, defeated the
Khmer Rouge and ended the genocide.Vietnamese
AftermathThe rest of Southeast Asia remained capitalist:
Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, SingaporeEC: A US-led embargo kept
Vietnam poor (similar to the US embargo of _____)Cubabut soon Japan
and Europeans ignored the US, and began trade and diplomatic
relations.The US does trade with Vietnam somewhat now and Americans
can travel there.Vietnam has mostly recovered, but a higher
standard of living is still decades away.Many unexploded munitions
are still in the ground and maim and kill animals and
people.Vietnamese land and flora are still recovering from American
chemical defoliants.EC: Vietnam still maintains a large army
against its ancient enemy, _____China.
Biography, p 529Question:He shifted the Communist focus from
urban workers to rural peasantsto national liberation.
Standards Check, p. 529Question:Vietnamese guerillas fought the
French in an effort to win independence
Thinking Critically, p. 530-11To halt further advances of troops
and supplies from North Vietnam along the Ho Chi Minh Trailto be
able to attack Vietnam from the West2It was difficult to
distinguish Viet Cong guerillas from local villagersSwamps and
dense vegetation made it easy for guerillas to hide and ambush US
Standards Check, p. 532Question:The US entered Vietnam to
prevent the spread of Communism across Southeast Asia
Standards Check, p. 532Question:The US withdrew from Vietnam
because:It was not winningGreat pressure from US citizens against
Image, p. 533Question:They were desperate to escape communist
Standards Check, p. 533Question:Communists took control or
invaded Cambodia and Laos after Vietnam fell.
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