Solar Power Satellite - JST 2 Solar Power Satellite (SPS) 1GW Solar Power Station. 2kmد†Solar Cells

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  • Solar Power Satellite - Toward Unexplored Frontier with Nobel Technologies -

    @ Moonshut International Symposium WG3 : Expanding frontiers through co-evolution of AI and robots

    Naoki Shinohara Professor

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere Kyoto University, Japan

    shino@rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp 1

  • 2

    Solar Power Satellite (SPS)

    1GW Solar Power Station 2kmφ Solar Cells 2kmφ Microwave Antenna < 10,000 ton weight 36,000km

    Wireless Power Transfer (via Microwave) [WPT]

    2 - 4kmφ Receiving Antenna

    Energy Availability Factor Ground PV

    : < 15% (Night, Rain…) Space PV (SPS)

    : >90% (No Night in 36,000km Orbit, No Rain by Microwave Propagation)

    -> SPS is huge, stable, and CO2-less future power station

  • Significance of SPS

    3

    Mile Stone toward Future Space Development (Huge Space Satellite (Structure))

    Future Stable Solar Power Station without CO2 (Huge Solar Power from Satellite)

    [Key Technologies for SPS] • Economical Launch System (Reusable Rocket, OTV, etc.)

    • Totally 2km Structure in space with Solar Cells and WPT (Wireless Power Transfer) • Power Management in Plasma

    • > 1 Million kW (1GW) Power (> 10-100kV in Plasma) • Wireless Power Transfer Technology (by Microwave, Laser)

    • 36,000km WPT with > 50% (Electricity -> WPT (>90%)-> Electricity)

  • Various SPS Models Solar Power Satellite

    Non-Concentrator Concentrator

    Bus Power Bus PowerDistributed Power Distributed Power Laser Direct Excitation

    NASA Reference Model

    SPS2000 (Experiment)

    NEDO Grand Design

    USEF Tether SSPS NASA Sun Tower

    NASA ISC

    NASDA 2001

    JAXA M-SSPS

    JAXA L-SSPS

    IAA Study Model

    Designed in Japan

    SPS-alpha (US)

    First SPS (Glaser, P.E.)

    4

    CASSIOPeiA (UK)

    MR-SPS (CAST, China) SPS-omega (China)

    System Size is the same (1GW power, a few km size, < 10,000 tons satellite) -> Required Technology is similar.

  • Scale of Space Structure

    5

    5

    SPS

    Space Colony International Space Station

    Modular Reflector

  • 6

    How to Launch > 10,000 tons Space Segment 2 Step Launch (Ground→LEO(400km), LEO→GEO(36,000km)

    Final Assembly, Expansion Data Relay Satellite

    Orbiter Transfer Vehicle (OTV)

    Construction Platform

    Supply Station

    Module Construction

    Rectenna Tracking, Control

    “Mission Image of Japanese SPS”, NEDO SSPS Report, 1994

  • How to Construct/Maintain > 2km Space Structure by Robot for SPS Construction/Maintenance

    7NASDA (JAXA) SSPS Report, 2001

    Structure Friendly Robot Robot Friendly Structure

    Robot in Space

    Storage

    Robot on Structure

    Image of SPS Structure (Solar Cell, WPT) (Easy Construction)

    Unit Structure (Micro : Rigid, Macro : Soft) Actively Fluctuated Structure

    < 2 km

  • Test Bed of Automatic Construction of SPS Structure on Ground

    8 Construction of Large Structure

    StorageExpansion Support of Expansion of Structure

    Move, Transportation on Soft Structure

    Inflatable Structure Construction

    Connection of Soft Structure

    Supply, Parts Transportation

    JAXA, SSPS Robot WG 2004

    [Future Works] • Move, Transportation on Soft and Light Structure • Construction of Soft Structure • Remote Control / Self-Reliance Operation

  • Significance of SPS

    9

    Mile Stone toward Future Space Development (Huge Space Satellite (Structure))

    Future Stable Solar Power Station without CO2 (Huge Solar Power from Satellite)

    [Key Technologies for SPS] • Economical Launch System (Reusable Rocket, OTV, etc.)

    • Totally 2km Structure with Solar Cells and WPT • Power Management in Plasma

    • > 1 Million kW (1GW) Power (> 10-100kV in Plasma) • Wireless Power Transfer Technology (by Microwave, Laser)

    • 36,000km WPT with > 50% (Electricity -> WPT (>90%)-> Electricity) Spin Off/In Technology for/from Commercial WPT

  • Proposal of Spin-off / Landing Applications of SPS by JAXA (2017)

    10

    • Laser Power Transfer to Flying Drone • Laser Power Transfer to Driving Rover on Moon

    • Microwave Power Transfer to Stratospheric Platform (>MW)

    • Radar Rain Gauge with Large Expanded Structure (> 30m)

  • WPT to Flying Drone with Phased Array with New GaN Solid State Devices in FY2018

    [R&D Project toward SPS by METI (2009-14, 15-16, 17-18, 19- )]

    11

    Rectennas

    Beam Direction Control (Pilot Signal Receiver)

    Transmitter

    Payload on Drone (Pilot Signal Transmitter + Rectennas)

    Signal Monitor

    Pilot Signal Transmitter

    • Microwave frequency : 5.8GHz • 1.6kW MW Power (Max) • REV (Rotating Electric-field Vector Method) + Retrodirective Beam Direction Control • Height 10m, 30m • Checking Target Detecting

    and Beam Steering • Received Electric Power 42W @ 30m

    METI : Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry

  • Beam WPT via Radio Wave in Japan [MPT to Flying Drone Demonstration (2019.5.24)]

    12

    Frequency : 5.8GHzCW, Tx MW Power : 1.6kW, Distance : 30m, Rx DC Power : 42W Developed by Mistubishi Electric, IHI Aerospace, conducted by J-Spacesystems, funded by METI Shinohara is a chair of steering committee

  • Microwave Power Supply System for Moving Robot (Project of ‘Center of Innovation’ supported by JST (2013- )

    Microwave Beam Control for Moving Robot

    Power Transmission

    SystemReceiving Unit

    Power Monitoring

    Microwave Beam

    by Kyoto University with Panasonic co. in 2015

    13

  • Various Commercial WPT Products in the World

    14

    Inductive WPT (Magnetic Field)

    WPT via Radio Wave (Microwave, UHF)OWPT

    De facto standard with > 500 companies, including Apple

    World Regulation in IEC, ISO, ITU, etc.

    WPT is suitable for autonomous and unconscious system like robot with AI.

    http://car.watch.impress.co.jp/img/car/docs/483/382/html/c02.jpg.html

  • Working Document Towards a Preliminary Draft New Report ITU-R SM.[WPT.WIDE-BEAM.IMPACTS] rev. (2019)

    15 In Japan, we start discussion for new WPT regulation in MIC and will decide it before the end of FY2019 MIC : Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications

    System System 1 System 2 System 3

    Spec.

    Frequency 920 MHz bands (915-930 MHz)

    2.45 GHz bands (2.40-2.499 GHz)

    5.7 GHz bands (5.470-5.770 GHz)

    Output Power 1 W 15 W 32 W

    Antenna gain 6 dBi 24 dBi 30 dBi

    EIRP 4 W (36 dBm) 65 dBm 70 dBm

    Modulation TBD TBD TBD

    Place of use Indoor Indoor Indoor

    System specifications of beam WPT at the first step commercialization (2020)

    Application of wide-beam WPT technology for wireless charger of mobile devices (System2,3)

    Application of wide-beam WPT technology for wireless powered sensor network (System1)

  • 16

    Roadmap to SPS by METI (2017)

    On Ground Phase In Space PhaseAlready Finished

    On Going Unknown… No Guarantee…

    Spin Off for Commercial Applications / Space Applications

    Spin Off/In for/from Commercial Applications / Space Applications

    Pow er

    Structure Launch

  • Significance of SPS

    17

    Future Stable Solar Power Station without CO2 (Huge Solar Power from Satellite)

    Population Explosion

    Energy Problem Global Warming

    Space Development Expanding Frontiers

    From Closed-Earth System To Open-Space SystemHow to Solve

    The problems

    Mile Stone toward Future Space Development (Huge Space Satellite (Structure))

  • 18

    The Limits to Growth by Rome Club WORLD-2 Model Simulation

    •Meadows, D. H., D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and W. W. Behrens III ; "The limits to growth - A report for THE CLUB OF ROME'S project on the predicament of mankind", Universe Books, New York, 1972

    Computer Simulation With Parameters in 1970

  • 19

    The Limits to Growth by Rome Club WORLD-2 Model Simulation

    •Meadows, D. H., D. L. Meadows, J. Randers, and W. W. Behrens III ; "The limits to growth - A report for THE CLUB OF ROME'S project on the predicament of mankind", Universe Books, New York, 1972

    Computer Simulation With Parameters in 1970

    with SPS

    •Yamagiwa, Y. and M. Nagatomo ; "An Evaluation Model of Solar Power Satellites Using World Dynamics Simulation", Space Power, vol.11, no.2, pp.121-131, 1992

  • 20

    SDGs with Harmonization with Human and Nature (on Closed-Earth System of Sustainable Humanosphere)

    + SGDs with Space Development (Open-Space System)

    + Key Mile Stone

    : SPS

    SDGs : Sustainable Development Goals

    Not Enough!

  • The Moon Speech - John F. Kennedy at Rice University - September 12, 1962

    “We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, becaus