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An ecosystem of (i) economic sciences*, (ii) natural sciences, (iii) social sciences and (iv) spiritual sciences for advancement of justice and human welfare Founded on “principles” not “interests” Mohammad Naeem Khan, FCA Petroleum Economist Eni Pakistan Ltd ience refers to irreversible laws

Social System - AlHuda CIBE

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Page 1: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

An ecosystem of (i) economic sciences*, (ii) natural sciences, (iii) social sciences and (iv) spiritual sciences for advancement of justice

and human welfareFounded on “principles” not “interests”

Mohammad Naeem Khan, FCAPetroleum Economist

Eni Pakistan Ltd

*Science refers to irreversible laws

Page 2: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

1Principles of Islamic economic


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Devine Economic PlanMalik 2

بعض فوق بعضكم ورفع األرض خالئف جعلكم الذي وهوآتاكم درجات ما في ليبلوكم

And Allah has made you successors in the land and raised some of you above others in different levels, to test you for what is given to you. (Araf 165) لناه خو إذا ثم دعانا ضر اإلنسان مس فإذا

علم على أوتيته إنما قال نا م هي نعمة بليعلمون فتنة ال أكثرهم ولكن

When a man gets in trouble he cries for help of Allah, and when he is granted favors, he says “I have got it due to my knowledge”. In fact wealth is a trial but most of people do not know. (Zumr 49)

Not related to effortsZumr 49

Wealth is a testAnam 165/Nahal 71

زق الر في بعض على بعضكم Jل فض واللهAnd Allah has made some of you excel others in wealth. (Nahal 71)

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Output/Resource (قوت)

Outcome (مقصد)

Work (كام)

Mission of Islam ( العين نصب كا (اسالم

Human Welfareفالح كى انسانيت

Spiritual Powerجهاد جانى

Economic Powerجهاد لى ما

Pietyجهاد نفسكا

Unityجهاد اجتمائى


Charityانفاق و زكاة



Social Systemنظام معاشرتى

Economic Systemنظام معاشى

Political Systemنظام سياسى

Spiritual Systemنظام روحانى

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Target of Islam ( العين نصب كا (اسالم

Good deedsصالح عمل

Beliefحيات مقصد

الذين الحات إن الص وعملوا آمنواكاة الز وآتوا الة الص لهم وأقاموا

عليهم خوف وال ربهم عند أجرهميحزنون هم وال

(Baqra 277)

الذين الله وعملوا وعد منكم آمنواالحات األرض الص في ليستخلفنهم

قبلهم من الذين استخلف كمالهم ارتضى الذي دينهم لهم وليمكنن

أمنا خوفهم بعد من وليبدلنهم(Noor 55)

Those who, if We give them power in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs. (Hajj 41)

األرض في كناهم م إن الة الJذين الص أقامواكاة الز عن وآتوا ونهوا بالمعروف وأمروا

األمور عاقبة ولله الJمنكر

Economic Systemزكاة (رزق) اقامت

Morality Systemاقامتصالة (شريعة)

غزا كى غزا روح كى جسمAccumulation of Wealth

ارتكاز (منكر) كا XDistribution of wealthدولتتقسيم (معروف) كى دولت

The focus of Islamic economic system is to stop the lust of possession and the lust of pleasure – twin plagues responsible for killing the humanity

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Economic Principles of Islam

Earning Sideآمدنى

State (حكومت)Distribution

تكاثر سدباب

Individual (فرد)Frugality & Sharing


Usage Sideمصارف

(Tauba 34-35)

وال ة والفض الذهب يكنزون والذينبعذاب رهم فبش الله سبيل في ينفقونها

جهنم )34(أليم نار في عليها يحمى يوموظهورهم وجنوبهم جباJههم بها فتكوىكنتم ما فذوقوا ألنفسكم كنزتم ما هذا


But if you do not stop taking usury, then be ready for war with Allah and His Messenger

(Baqra 279) تفعلوا لم الله فإن ن م بحرب فأذنواورسوله

g البيع الله با أحل الر م وحرAllah has allowed business and forbidden usury (Baqra 275) They ask you how much they should spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus Allah makes clear to you His revelations: In order that you may ponder. (Baqra 219)

كذلك العفو قل ينفقون ماذا ويسألونكتتفكرون لعلكم اآليات لكم الله األغنياء (Baqra 219) يبين بين دولة يكون ال كي

in order that wealth may not become confined to the …“ منكمrich amongst you”.

(Hashar 7)

Business بيع


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Islam abhors DEBT and strongly discourages it1. Prophet (PBUH) said: "Whoever asks for money while he has what

suffices him has asked for a lot of Hellfire's embers." People asked him, "What is the sufficient amount of money above which one should not ask?" He said, "The amount he needs for his lunch and dinner." (Abu Dawud)

2. He also said: "Whoever asks people for their money to increase his wealth, has asked for embers, so let him ask a little or a lot”.

3. A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said, "O Messenger of Allah! If I was killed in Allah's cause, observing patience, awaiting Allah's reward, attacking, not retreating, would Allah forgive my sins?" The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Yes, except for the debt." The Prophet (PBUH) said, "A believer's soul is attached to his debt till it is paid.“

4. A dead person was brought to the Prophet so that he might lead the funeral prayer for him. He (PBUH) asked, "Is he in debt?" When the people replied in the negative, he led the funeral prayer. Another dead person was brought and he asked, "Is he in debt?" They said, "Yes." He (refused to lead the prayer and) said, "Lead the prayer of your friend." Abu Qatada said, "O Allah's Apostle! I undertake to pay his debt." Allah's Apostle then led his funeral prayer. No. 2154 (Sahih Bokhari)

Page 8: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Islam prohibits and strongly CONDEMNS usury or RIBA.

1. Allah will deprive usury of all blessing, but will increase benefits of charity" (Baqra 276);

2. If you do not stop taking usury, then be ready for a war with Allâh and His Messenger (Baqra 279)

3. Abdullah ibn Hanjalah related that the Prophet said: A dirham of Riba (interest) knowingly taken by a man is a sin worse than committing Zina (fornication) 36 times (Ahmad, Daraqutni).

4. Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah: Allah's Messenger cursed the accepter of interest and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses; and he said: They are all equal (Muslim).

5. Hazrat Abu Hurairah r.a. reported that the Prophet said : A time will certainly come when none will remain who will not devour usury. If he does not devour it, its vapors will fall on him [Ahmed,Abu Dawood,Nisai,Ibn Majah]

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Primary focus of Islam is on the spiritual System (test of Taqwa/free will)Legal system provides only safety valve for safeguarding basic human rightsKeeping excess wealth and generating income from it is allowed legally but spiritually is it detested.

Dimensions of Islamic Economic System

Legal SystemLimited Capitalism

(surplus wealth for personal use)

Spiritual System Spiritual Socialism

(human rights on surplus wealth)

Treatment system (Repair/Maintenance)

Restricts luxury & wealth accumulation

Immune System (Regulatory)

Channels excess wealth to needy

Inter-dependent & Inter-connected (Synthesis)









g et




al v



Page 10: Social System - AlHuda CIBE



StateCollection &


Economics: A life blood system of Society

Page 11: Social System - AlHuda CIBE






Partnership (Labor + Capital)

Status of Sources of Income





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Voluntary Charity (انفاق)Entire wealth in access of basic needs

Inheritance (وراثت)Strictly in accordance with injunction of Quran

Zakat (زكاة) Payable on wealth of individual

Taxes (تيكس)Taxes imposed by state to

provide basic needs of its citizens


Marriage payment and penalties on certain faults

% o

f con



nDistribution Channels (عبادت)

Page 13: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Stock Exchange TransactionsTrade*

Risk capital investment at profit/loss + Work + Public

benefit*Limited liability is an exclusion

Public Benefits Does the activity lead to

employment/resource generation or brings harm to

the public interest

Interest basedLoad taken/given at interest with security against fully insured property (margin


GamblingProfit/loss without efforts at the

expense of someone else

1. Limited liability concept in anti-Islam2. Primary purpose of the transaction is to make quick money rather than long term

investment3. Mostly investment is made from loan taken from banks or brokers4. It is a gambling business (gain at the loss of someone else5. Short term focus leads to extreme damage of public interest.

Page 14: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Property business (Plots)Trade*

Risk capital investment at profit/loss + Work + Public

benefit*Limited liability is an exclusion

Public Benefits Does the activity lead to

employment/resource generation or brings harm to

the public interest

Interest basedLoan taken/given at interest with security against fully insured property (margin


GamblingProfit/loss without efforts at the

expense of someone else

As per Islamic law house is right of every Muslim. Anyone trying to grab the property for the purpose of trade/profit making is haram because it is a gamble (profit/loss at the

expense of others) and it is also not a business/trade as it does not lead to any fruitful business activity which entails hardwork. As a consequence of profit making price of the

property rise and takes it out of the reach of legitimate buyer for building his house

Page 15: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

State Financial Crime: Inflation

100 147 216 317 466685












0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

An item costing Rs 100 now costs Rs 4,690 in year 50

@8% inflation rate



e “R


Page 16: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Faceless dragon eating humanity

Corporation: An ingenious device for obtaining individual profit without individual responsibility.

Moto: Profit, growth & Competition and amorality, dehumanization, opposition to nature.

كسبت ما لها وسعها إال نفسا الله يكلف الاكتسبت ما وعليها

Allah does not impose upon anyone a duty but to the extent of his ability; He gets reward for every good deed, and suffers for every ill that he earns. (Barea 286)

أخرى وزر وازرة تزر مثقلة وال تدع وإنذا كان ولو شيء منه يJحمل ال حملها إلى

قربىNor can a bearer of burdens bear another's burdens if one heavily laden should call another to (bear) his load. Not the least portion of it can be carried (by the other). Even though he be nearly related.

(Fatir 18)

Resourcesآمدنى زرائ




Politiciansدان سياست






Corporate Capitalist Citizen(limited liability)


Islam does not permit

limitation of liability. Every individual is fully responsible for

his deeds

Page 17: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

1.Banks were created for taking public deposit and lending at interest and investment in treasury bonds, derivatives, securities etc.

2. Interest is against natural laws. Proper functioning of natural laws and economy implies a zero rate of interest

3. Islam detests borrowing even at zero interest rate.

4.Banking was conceived in iniquity (against natural law) and was born in sin (for the benefit of rich).

5.An interest rate of zero means the end of the money & banking system.

Does Islam allow any Banking System?

1. (http://www.biblebelievers.org.au/usury.htm)

Page 18: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Hallal means of living Distribution of entire excess wealth Hardy any situation of Zakat Simple lifestyle

Moral(Height of spiritualliving)

Hallal means of living Pays Zakat and other compulsory dues Charity (infaq) up to the level of Taqwa Modest lifestyle

Legal(Minimum threshold of living)

No distinction of hallal/harram Does not care to pays Zakat/other dues Charity for image building Extravagant and luxurious lifestyle Stinginess/wealth piling up

Illegal(State of practical


Three economic modes of Muslims

Page 19: Social System - AlHuda CIBE


TyrannySavageryCut-throat competitionSelf-centerednessCriminalityRobberyTheftRacism

Before (Savage Society)Ex








Care of kinAffection Sincerity FreedomFortitude

MunificenceZeal & Endeavor





After (Natural Society)H



Social SecurityPlan

(Surplus Pool)

Mirror view before/After Implementation

Page 20: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Summary of natural economic System of Islam1. Islamic view is that “real economy” controls, and the money is only a

“supportive function”. Protects labour/work.

2. Stop earning money through money and compels people to work and invest money in business ventures

3. Eliminates sources of unearned income (interest/speculation)

4. No protection to capital and uses wealth in real economic activities integrated with physical laws of nature.

5. Collect zakat (wealth tax) no tax on income or consumption.

6. It is responsibility of individuals for meeting needs of poor and social welfare of society

7. State is responsible for meeting basic needs of citizens and taking administration/legal measure for checking concentration of wealth in few hands.

8. Business in Islam is not an grabbing the opportunity but a “Ibadah” covered under the ethos of Islamic principles of life.

Page 21: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

2Principles of current economic


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1. GDP growth2. Free market3. Credit4. Tax on income/

Consumption5. Deficit financing

Modern Economic DriversGovernment Companies Individuals

1. Economics is a Science of wealth (to teach selfishness). K.K Dewett

2. Economic is made to study “wealth” rather than “welfare”.

3. Whatever the economics is concerned with it is not concerned with: Study of relation of real goods (physical science) and wealth (monetary

science) Study of relation of material welfare (of individual) and general welfare (of

humanity). Study of relation of “short term needs: and “long-term needs”

1. Wealth Tax (عبادت)

2. Guarantee basic human needs

3. Restricting wealth accumulation

1. Earned income (محنت)

2. Restricts consumption (اعتدال)

3. Distribute surplus wealth (عبادت)

Islamic Economic Drivers

1. Sales growth2. Money3. Credit4. Consumerism5. Profit maximization

1. Income growth2. Money3. Credit4. Consumption5. Wealth maximization

“Ownership/Competition”Short-term approach

“Trusteeship/Cooperation”Long-term approach

Page 23: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Profound change in the underlying dynamics:•Money and credit rather than goods/services had become the real economy•Energy and automation has become real contributor rather than manpower and animals

Organic Resourcesاشياء حياتى

(Manpower, animals, plants)

Inorganic Resourcesاشياء نامياتى

(Natural Resources)

Taxes (محصول)

Money (كرنسى)

Credit (قرض)

Gov. Deficit ( زر (افراط

Operates under physical/biological constraints

Operates under unconstrained compound interest rate growth

Matter (ماده)Natural (Real) Economy

Money (دولت)Financial (Shadow) Economy

Major problem of Humanity:Operating under incompatible Systems

Page 24: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Framework of integrated human ecosystem





Primary production

PopulationsOrganic matter

NutrientsDisturbances انسانى اور فطرى

ربط كا قوانين

Biggest tragedy of our time is that modern priests (economists) do not know that something must be physically possible before it can be economically possible.

External Biological, Geological & Physical Conditions

External Political & Economic Conditions

InteractionsLand use

Land coverProduction


Human Systems

قوانين انسانى


قوانين فطرى

Page 25: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

natural curve (natural resources)

linear curve (machines)exponential curve (money)


GrowthBasic types of growth patterns




Page 26: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

298,342,731 10.0%

Year Outstanding US Debt Debt/Citizen1 8,199,252,799,551 27,483

25 88,836,493,038,639 297,767 50 962,517,279,115,525 3,226,213 75 10,428,591,684,647,000 34,955,072

100 112,990,724,306,816,000 378,727,928 125 1,224,221,272,194,810,000 4,103,405,731 150 13,264,077,493,871,600,000 44,459,194,462 175 143,712,379,256,415,000,000 481,702,298,476 200 1,557,081,369,667,970,000,000 5,219,102,756,246 225 16,870,518,770,280,900,000,000 56,547,443,652,250 250 182,787,109,988,408,000,000,000 612,674,923,822,453

U.S. National Debt Clock US Population

Current Interest Rate


77 times of national total now

As of 25th January 2006

Page 27: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Wayne A.M. Visser and Alastair McIntoshhttp://www.che.ac.uk/publications/usury.htm

“Organisations in the West with money to invest, especially those which like to consider themselves as being ethical, might have rather more to learn from Islam than is generally acknowledged. By applying the Islamic approach, a lot of human misery could have been avoided.


Year Kg (Gold, Sliver or any other commodity)0 1

200 4,838,950 400 23,415,433,085,206 600 113,306,100,207,918,000,000 800 548,282,506,567,769,000,000,000,000

1000 2,653,111,407,564,170,000,000,000,000,000,000 1200 12,838,272,344,326,700,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1400 62,123,752,631,416,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1600 300,613,707,008,236,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1800 1,454,654,572,742,820,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 2000 7,039,000,140,947,130,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

5,972,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 1,178,667,136,796,240,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

1 Kg in year 1Weight

of EarthNo of earthsKgs in

year 2000

Interest Rate (8%)

The economist sees economic activity as a function of infinite "money creation", rather than a function of finite “natural resources".


Impracticable (Financing Decisions)cc

Page 28: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Un-natural (Investing Decisions)

1. Under discounting system, we need less and less quantities in future to survive.

2. Under natural system, we need a constant quantity of food to meet our biological needs

3. Hence, discounting concept is in conflict with nature




15 9 6 4 2 1 0

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100



1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50Year



es @


Capitalist Way Islamic Way

Year 50 Quantities

Year 1Quantities

Page 29: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

3Outcome of

current economic practices

Page 30: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

القربى ذا هوآت والمسكين حقبيل الس تبذيرا وابن تبذر )26( وال

إخوان كانوا المبذرين إنلربه يطان الش وكان ياطين الش


And give to the relatives due and to the needy and the wayfarer, and do not squander

wastefully. Surely the squanderers are the fellows of the devils and the satan is ever

ungrateful to his Lord. (Isra 26-27)

Outcome of modern economic system

Explosion of Over-utilization

استمال كثرت

Explosion of Over-production

بيداوار كثرت

Explosion of Over-wastage

ضياع كثرت

Explosion of Over-supply

ترسيل كثرت

Explosion of Debt

جال كا كاروبار سودىExplosion of Competition

بازى مقابله اندهى

Page 31: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

World Economy at CrossroadIndustrial Economy


EmploymentIndustrial Economy

Paper Economy

Real Economy


Economic Principles

1. Primary products economy uncoupled from Industrial Economy2. Industrial Economy uncoupled from Employment3. Symbol economy disconnected from real economy4. Economic principles (self-interest/short term focus) disconnection

from social principles

Page 32: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Modern tragedy of Contradictory Laws


Moral Laws Physical









ht P


Quick Usage

"It is well that the people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary

system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning."

Henry Ford

Page 33: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

The Earth can no longer support the lifestyle of the cool hunting American-style consumer. We have sought, bought, spewed and devoured too much, too fast, too brazenly, and now we're about to pay. Economic "progress" is killing the planet. (Kellay Lason)


1. Sixty percent of the families in America can maintain their standards of living for only one month

2. The next 20% can maintain it for only three months.

3. That means that 80% of the population is living at an incredibly high level of economic insecurity

Consumption & Waste Culture








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March towards Destruction?

Each U.S citizen requires energy of 300 persons

working round the clock

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Domesticated Animals

Lifecycle is no more sustainable







1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970

p.79 BEYOND OIL. J. Gever et al. 1991



Domesticated Animals

Energy is now

life blood of economy

6000 products(Fertilizers & pesticides!!!!)

Oil is capitalism's crack cocaine

Stacked presentation of work done over time in United States by labor, Domesticated animals, Fuels as a percentage of Total Horsepower in the Economy

Page 36: Social System - AlHuda CIBE


Importance of EnergyHow Much Human Energy Is Contained in One

     Barrel of Oil?***

1 Barrel of Oil = 5,800,000 BTUs**

1 Barrel of Oil = 23,200 Hours of Human Work OutputHuman work cost of 1 barrel of oil

Rate per hour= US$ 8/hourTotal cost= $185,600 per barrel equivalent human

workSwitchover is possible only when the oil cost

increases $185,600/barrelOr Rupees 70,000/Litre

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Greatest Threat to Life: Food Scarcityfrom planting, irrigation, feeding and harvesting, through to processing, distribution and packaging. In addition, fossil fuels are essential in the construction and the repair of equipment and infrastructure needed to facilitate this industry, including farm machinery, processing facilities, storage, ships, trucks and roads Pesticides (Gas)

Page 38: Social System - AlHuda CIBE


Richard C. Duncan, Ph.D. Institute on Energy and Man, June 27, 1996

Even if the entire mass of the earth were petroleum, it would be exhausted in 500 years at 5% increase in rate of consumption. For addition 100 year 157 earths would be required (current production is 10 Trillion Ton/year)

Page 39: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

ظالمة وهي أهلكناها قرية من فكأينوبئر عروشها على خاوية فهي

شيد م وقصر عطلة مX

How many populations have We destroyed, which were given to wrong-doing? They tumbled down on their roofs. And how many wells are lying idle and neglected, and castles lofty and well-built? (Hajj 45)


Story of Past Rebels “Tower of Babel”

Period of Namrood (let us revolt) 2500 BC

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should we do?

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War with Allah & RasulInterest Economic

Revenge (Qasas)Killing Political

100 LashesSex Social

Disliking/Curse of Allahvarious Moral


Penalties on various crimes

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1. Limit growth and focus on wellbeing2. Limit Debt & encourage entrepreneurs3. Introduce zero rated debts4. Impose Charge on money holding5. Make speculation a criminal offence 6. Incentivise productive work and investment; 7. Tax Unearned Gains8. Replace labor for energy use 9. Strengthen the social fabric of family and

community10. Lease land for living/business purposes

Steps for healing the money system

The money system is like a

cancer that consumes its

host and ultimately

destroys itself

Healing the Money System “David C. Korten”: http://www.converge.org.nz/pirm/money.htm

Page 43: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Action at personal level1. Adopt simple lifestyle (Resource conservation &

sharing)2. Get out of interest/speculation based investments 3. Fully utilize goods before replacement4. Eliminate morbid craving for extravagant gadgetry 5. Get rid of fashion (a bio-economic disease of the

human mind )6. Demand durable goods to be made still more

durable by being designed so as to be repairable.7. Get closer to the nature as possible8. Join hands to fight for reform at state level

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Final outcome سعته من سعة ذو عليه لينفق قدر ومنالله يكلف ال الله آتاه ا مم فلينفق رزقهعسر بعد الله سيجعل آتاها ما إال نفسا

ربها )7يسرا ( أمر عن عتت قرية من وكأينشديدا ورسله حسابا وعذبناها فحاسبناها

نكرا وكان )8( عذابا أمرها وبال فذاقتخسرا أمرها عذابا )9( عاقبة لهم الله أعد

الذين شديدا األلباب أولي يا الله فاتقواذكرا إليكم الله أنزل قد آمنوا

*****Let the man of means spend according to his means: and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allah has given him. Allah puts no burden on any person beyond what He has given him. After a difficulty, Allah will soon grant relief. And how many a community revolted against the ordinance of its Lord and His messengers and We took detailed accountability of their deeds and punished them severely. Then did they taste the evil result of their conduct, and the End of their conduct was great loss.

(Talaq 7-10)

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Small & Local


Large & Global

Global Financial System

Global Corporation

Culture &Choice Rules




Culture &Choice Rules




Source: Life after the Dominance of Capital, by David C. Kortenhttp://www.bke.hu/~kg_korny/altern/korten/kortpres.html

Page 46: Social System - AlHuda CIBE

Most frequent question is: Where is modern Islamic

Economic System?

Surprisingly, the Quran troughs the question back to us?

Create it based on the guiding principles keeping in view needs and deeds of the society. Then keep on

modifying it based on the emerging needs of the Humanity

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