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Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

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Page 1: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Skeletal SystemChapter 8/Part II

Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Page 2: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Divisions of the Skeletal SystemSkeletal system is

divided into two sections:

(1)-Axial Skeleton

(2)-Appendicular Skeleton

Page 3: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Axial SkeletonThe Axial Skeleton

includes: Bones of the skull Hyoid bone Bones of the middle

ear Vertebral column Bony thorax

Page 4: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular

Skeleton includes: Bones of the arms

and legs Bones of the hips Bones of the

shoulder girdles

Page 5: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumBony structure that

encases and protects the brain.Composed of 8 bones: Frontal 1 Parietal 2 Temporal 2 Occipital 1 Sphenoid 1 Ethmoid 1

Page 6: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumFrontal Bone: Forms the forehead

and the upper part of the bony structure surrounding

the eyes.

Page 7: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumParietal bones: (2)Form the upper sides

of the head and the roof of

the cranial cavity.

Page 8: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumTemporal Bones: (2)Located on both sides

of the Head close to the ears,commonly called the Temples.

Page 9: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumImportant Bone Markings Found on the temporal

bones:(1)-External auditory meatus Opening for the ear.

(2)-Zygomatic Process-forms part of the cheek-bone.

(3)-Styloid Process-sharp projection used as a point of attachment for some of the muscles associated with the tongue and larynx.

Page 10: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Cranium(4) Mastoid Process:Forms a point of

attachment for some of the

muscles of the neck.

Page 11: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumOccipital Bone:Located at the base of

the skull.

Foramen magnum-large hole

in the occipital bone, allows

the brainstem to extend

downward as the spinal

cord.

Page 12: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumSphenoid Bone: Butterfly bone that forms part of the floor and sides of the cranium.Also forms part of the orbits surrounding the eyes. Sella Turcica-depression in

the midline of the sphenoid bone, forms the seat for the pituitary gland.

(also called Turk’s saddle)

Page 13: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The CraniumEthmoid Bone:An irregularly shaped

bone located between the

eyeorbits, helps to form

the bony structure of the

nasal cavity.

Page 14: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Facial BonesFacial Bones: (14) Mandible-lower jaw bone, carries the lower teeth. Anterior portion of the mandible forms the chin. Forms the only freely movable joint in the

skull. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)-depression in front

of the ear. Tension or stress cause pain.

Page 15: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Facial BonesMaxilla: Carries the upper teeth.

An extension of the maxilla is the palatine process, this forms the anterior portion of the hard palate (roof) of the mouth.

These bones also form parts of the nasal cavity and the eye orbits.

Page 16: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Facial BonesPalatine Bones: (2) Form the posterior

part of the hard palate and the floor of the nasal cavity

Page 17: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Facial BonesFailure of the palatine

and maxillary bones to

fuse causes a condition

known asCleft palate. This

makes it very difficult for an

infant tosuck. Can be

surgically repaired.

Page 18: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Facial BnesZygomatic Bones: The cheekbones,

also form part of the orbits of the eyes.

Page 19: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Facial BonesSeveral other bones

complete the facial structure:

Lacrimal bones The nasal bones The vomer The inferior nasal

conchae

Page 20: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Broken Jaw Usually the result of

trauma or automobile accident.

Cannot cast, must be immobilized by wiring it to the upper jaw.

Patient cannot talk, eat or vomit.

Wire cutters need to be on hand in case of vomiting.

Page 21: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Sinuses Sinuses-air-filled cavities located in several

bones of the skull.

Two important functions: (1)-lessen the weight of the skull. (2)-increase the sound of the voice.

Paranasal sinuses- four sinuses that surround and connect with the nasal structures.

Page 22: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Sinuses Four Sinuses: (1)-frontal sinus (2)-ethmoid sinus (3)-sphenoidal sinus (4)-maxillary sinus

Page 23: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Sinuses Sinusitis-a sinus infection characterized by

stuffiness and pain in the overlying facial region.

Allergies cause the membranes that line the facial sinuses to over secrete mucous.

Mucous forms a medium for bacterial growth.

As the mucous accumulates, the membranes swell causing pressure and discomfort in the facial region which overlies the sinuses.

Page 24: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

SuturesSuture- joining of the

bonesof the skull together,

much like a zipper.

Major Sutures: Coronal suture Lambdoidal suture Squamosal suture

Page 25: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Infant Skull Fontanels-soft areas that have not yet been

converted to bone. The rhythm of the baby’s pulse can be found in these soft spots.

Two Major Fontanels: (1)-larger, diamond-shaped anterior fontanel. (2)-smaller, posterior, triangular occipital

fontanel.

Fontanels are usually closed by the age of two years.

Page 26: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Infant Skull

Page 27: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Infant Skull Microcephalia-a

condition where the sutures of the brain fuse too early, this is characterized by a small skull and impaired intellectual functioning.

Page 28: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Infant Skull Hydrocephalus-

occurs when the skull expands too much from an excessive accumulation of fluid, the bones are forced apart and the skull enlarges.

Page 29: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Hyoid BoneHyoid Bone-U shaped

bone located in the upper

neck.

Anchors the tongue and is

associated with swallowing.

Often fractured during strangulation.

Page 30: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Vertebral Column Also called

backbone-extends from the skull

to the pelvis.

Consists of 26 bones called vertebrae.

Vertebrae are stacked in a column.

Page 31: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Vertebral Column Four Major functions

of the vertebral column:

(1) forms a supporting structure for head and thorax.

(2) forms an attachment for the pelvic girdle.

(3) encases and protects the spinal cord.

(4) provides flexibility for the body.

Page 32: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Vertebral Column Vertebrae are named

according to their location in the body.

(C1 to C7)- seven cervical

located in the neck region.

Vertebra prominens-C7- used as a landmark in assessing surface anatomy.

Page 33: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Vetebral column

C7:-vetebra prominens:

Feels like a large bump.

Page 34: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Vertebral Column12 Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 to T 12)Located in the chest

region.

5 Lumbar Vertebrae (L1 to L5)Located in the lower

back Region.

5 Sacral Vertebrae fuse into one sacrum.

Page 35: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

The Vertebral ColumnThe sacrum forms the posterior wall of the

pelvis.

Four small vertebrae fuse

Into the tailbone.

The tailbone is also called

The coccyx.

Page 36: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

C1 and C2Atlas-C1: First cervical

vertebrae.

No body (thick solid section that other vertebrae have) but has depressions into which fit the bony projections of the occipital bone of the skull.

Atlas supports the skull and allows you to nod “yes”.

Page 37: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

C1 and C2 Axis (C2): Has a toothlike

projection called the dens that fits into the atlas and acts as a pivot or swivel for the atlas.

Allows you to rotate your head from side to side to say “no”.

Page 38: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Characteristics of Vertebrae Vertebrae are

irregular bones that contain several distinct structures.

Body of the vertebrae is padded by a cartilaginous disc called an intervertebral disc.

Supports the weight of the vertebrae sitting on top of it.

Page 39: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Vertebrae Vertebral column – also

known as the spine.

Vertebrae become larger as the vertebral column descends.

Larger, lower vertebrae carry a heavier load.

Vertebral foramen –opening for the spinal cord.

Page 40: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Abnormalities of the Vertebral Column Spina Bifida –failure

of the lamina of the vertebra to fuse during fetal development.

Lamina-bone that forms a protective ring around the vertebrae.

Page 41: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Abnormalities of the Vertebral Column Spina Bifida –defect

allows the spinal cord to protrude onto the surface of the back.

Compression of the spinal cord causes paralysis and loss of bladder and bowel control.

Page 42: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Abnormalities of the Vertebral Column Discs may become damaged or may be called

a “slipped” disc.

The spinal cord descends from the base of the brain through the vertebral foramen so injury at any point can compress or sever the spinal cord, causing paralysis.

Laminectomy –surgical procedure used to access the intervertebral discs.

Page 43: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Curvatures The vertebral column has four normal

curvatures: (1)-cervical (2)-thoracic (3)-lumbar (4)-sacral

The cervical and lumbar curvatures bend toward the front of the body.

The thoracic and sacral curvatures bend away from the body.

Page 44: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Normal Curvatures

Page 45: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Abnormal Curvatures Scoliosis – Lateral curvature. Usually involves the

thoracic vertebrae. Severe can compress

abdominal organs. May diminish

expansion of the rib cage and impair breathing.

Page 46: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Abnormal Curvatures Kyphosis – Exaggerated thoracic

curvature. Can impair breathing Sometimes called

hunchback.

Page 47: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Abnormal Curvatures Lordosis – Exaggerated lumbar

curvature. Sometimes called

swayback.

Causes of abnormal curvatures:

(1)-genetic defect. (2)-response to a

disease. (3)-poor posture

Page 48: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Thoracic Cage The thoracic cage is

the bony, cone-shaped cage that surrounds and protects the lungs, heart, large blood vessels, liver and spleen.

Plays a crucial role in breathing and helps to support the bones of the shoulder.

Page 49: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Thoracic Cage Thoracic Cage is

composed of: Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae

Page 50: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Sternum Sternum: Also called

breastbone. Dagger shaped. Located along the

midline of the anterior chest.

Sternum has 3 parts: (1) manubrium (2)body (3) xiphoid process

(tip of the sternum).

Page 51: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Ribs Ribs-(12) pair:

Posteriorly, twelve pairs of ribs attach to the thoracic vertebrae.

Anteriorly, the top seven pairs of ribs attach directly to the sternum by costal cartilage.

These are the true ribs.

Page 52: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Ribs False Ribs: The lower five pair of

ribs that attach indirectly to the sternum or not at all.

Floating Ribs: The bottom two pair

of false ribs that lack sternal attachment.

Page 53: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Ribs Floating ribs are the most easily broken

because of their location and lack of attachment.

Ribs are numbered to describe location of the thoracic structures. Eg. The heart is located between the 2nd and 6th ribs.

Intercostal muscles are located between the ribs, contraction of these muscles helps move the thoracic cage during breathing.

Page 54: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular

skeleton is composed of bones of :

The shoulder girdle Upper limbs Pelvic girdle Lower limbs

Page 55: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Appendicular Skeleton Shoulder Girdle-

Also called pectoral girdle.

Each shoulder contains:

One clavicle One scapula

Page 56: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Appendicular Skeleton Functions of the

shoulder:

Supports the arms. Serves as a place of

attachment for the muscles.

Area of great flexibility.

Page 57: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Appendicular Skeleton Clavicle:

Also called the collarbone.

Looks like a long, slender,

S-shaped rod. Articulates with the

sternum and the scapula.

Attachment is weak and easily dislocated.

Most frequently broken bone in the body.

Page 58: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Appendicular Skeleton Glenoid Cavity:

Located on the scapula, site where the head of the humerus fits, allowing you to rotate your shoulder.

Acromion Process and coracoid process on the scapula serve as points of attachment for ligaments and muscles.

Page 59: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Upper Limb contains:

Bones of the upper arm (humerus).

The forearm (ulna and radius).

The hand, (carpals, metacarpals and phalanges).

Page 60: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Humerus:

Long bone of the upper arm.

Contains a head which fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula that allows the upper arm to rotate at the shoulder joint.

Page 61: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Distal head of the

humerus contains several processes that allow it to articulate with the bones of the lower arm:

Olecranon fossa-depression of the humerus that holds the olecranon process of the ulna when the elbow is extended.

Page 62: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Radius:

One of two bones of the forearm.

Located on the “thumb side” when the palm of the hand is facing forward.

Head of the radius articulates with the humerus, ulna and carpal bones.

Page 63: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Ulna:

Second bone of the forearm.

Ulna is the longer of the two bones.

Located on the little-finger side of the forearm.

Page 64: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Ulna: Ulna contains

processes and depressions that allow it to articulate with the humerus, radius and carpal bones.

Olecranon process of the ulna is what you feel as the bony point of the elbow.

Page 65: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Supination-palm up-

two bones are parallel.

Pronation-palm down-the bones cross to achieve this movement.

Page 66: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Hand:

Composed of a wrist, palm and fingers.

Wrist contains eight carpal bones, which are tightly bound by ligaments.

Five metacarpal bones form the palm of the hand.

Each metacarpal bone is in line with a finger.

Page 67: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Upper Extremities Hand:

Phalanges-14 finger bones, also called digits.

Each digit has three bones except the thumb, which only has two bones.

The thumb is also called the pollex.

Page 68: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Pelvic Girdle Pelvic Girdle:

Composed of two coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly.

Page 69: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Pelvic Girdle Pelvic Girdle

performs three functions:

(1) Bears the weight of the body.

Serves as a place of attachment for the legs.

Protects the organs located in the pelvic cavity.

Page 70: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Pelvis Pelvis is formed by: The pelvic girdle Sacrum Coccyx

Female pelvis is broader and shallower than the male pelvis. Necessary for childbearing.

Male pelvis is narrow and funnel shaped.

Page 71: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Coxal Bone Coxal Bone – hip

bone

Composed of three parts:

(1) ilium (2) ischium (3) pubis

The three bones join together to form the acetabulum, it receives the head of the femur and enables the thigh to rotate

Page 72: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Ilium Ilium-largest part of

the coxal bone, can be felt at the hip.

Outer edge is called the iliac crest.

Ilium connects in the back with the sacrum, forming the sacroiliac joint.

Page 73: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Ilium Greater Sciatic Notch-site where blood vessels

and the sciatic nerve pass from the pelvic cavity into the posterior thigh region.

Ilium produces blood cells and is a common site for bone marrow biopsy.

Page 74: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Ischium Ischium-most inferior

part of the coxal bone.

Contains three important structures:

Ischial tuberosity Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch

The ischial tuberosity is the part of the coxal bone on which you sit.

Page 75: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Pubis Pubis – most anterior

part of the coxal bone.

The two pubic bones join together in the front as the symphysis pubis.

A disc of cartilage separates the pubic bones at the symphysis pubis.

Page 76: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Pubis Obturator Foramen-

large hole formed as the pubic bone fuses with a part of the ischium.

The obturator is the largest foramen in the body.

Page 77: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities The lower limb

includes the bones of:

The thigh The knee-cap Leg Foot

Page 78: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Femur-the thighbone. Longest and

strongest bone in the body.

Articulates with the coxal bone to form the hip and with the bones of the lower leg to form the knee.

The head of the femur sits in the acetabulum of the coxal bone and allows the thigh to rotate at the hip.

Page 79: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Greater and lesser

trochanters - provide sites of attachment for several muscles.

Neck of the femur is the most common site of fracture in the elderly who “break hips”.

Page 80: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Patella-kneecap

Triangle bone that is located within a tendon that passes over the knee.

The patella articulates with both the femur and the tibia.

Page 81: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Tibia and Fibula-

form the leg. The tibia is the

shinbone and articulates with the femur at the knee.

The tibia is the larger weight bearing bone of the leg.

Tibial Tuberosity-site of attachment for the muscles and ligaments of the leg.

Page 82: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Fibula-long thin bone

positioned laterally alongside the tibia in the lower leg.

TIB-Thick Inner Bone

FibuLA-Lateral to the tibia.

Page 83: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Foot - each foot has: Ankle Instep Five toes

Great toe is called the hallux.

Seven tarsal bones form the ankle.

Talus articulates with the tibia and fibula.

Page 84: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Lower Extremities Bones of the foot:

Calcaneus-heel bone, supports the body weight.

Five metatarsal bones form the instep of the foot.

Tarsals, metatarsals, and associated tendons and ligaments form the arches of the foot.

Page 85: Skeletal System Chapter 8/Part II Joe Pistack, MS/Ed

Joints (Articulations) Joint or articulation-

the site where two bones meet.

Perform two functions:

(1) hold the bones together.

(2) provide flexibility to a rigid skeleton.