Six Sigma- DMAIC

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DMAICStep 1Define a Project

Step 0 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 Step 9 Step 10 Step 11 Step 12

Establish CTQ Characteristics Define a Project



Establish Performance Parameters Validate Measurement System for Y Establish Process Baseline Define Performance Goals Identify Variation Sources Explore Potential Causes Establish Variable Relationship Design Operating Limits Validate Measurement System for X Verify Process Improvement Institutionalize New Capability

Deliverables of Step 1Step

Step Owner

1.1 Select a Project & Green Belt Champion, BB 1.2 Scope the ProjectGB, BB GB, BB

1.3 Develop Team Charter 1.4 Quantify Benefits

GB, BB, Finance

1.5 Sign-off with Champion BB, GB 1.6 Kick-off the Project Champion, BB, GB 1.7 Complete Teaming ModuleBB, GB

1.1 Select a Project

In those situations when you brainstorm project themes, theme selection matrix can be used to prioritize project themes. It is a more structured & data-oriented prioritization exercise as compared to multi- voting. In fact, it can be used even after multi-voting to further short-list

Theme Selection Matrix

1.2 Scope the Project

What is Scoping? Its an attempt to define what will be covered in the project deliverables Scoping sharpens the focus of the project team & sets the expectations right Types of Scoping Longitudinal Scoping Lateral Scoping

Longitudinal Scoping Longitudinal scoping is done on the length of the process e.g. From customer request for new connection to the time the number is activated. From customer reporting the complaint till final satisfaction confirmation

Mostly the start & end points are baton change points A macro as-is process map must be prepared to facilitate longitudinal scoping

SIPOCPProcess 3






5 4




Process Boundary

SIPOC First 90 days of customer

Process Mapping NomenclatureProcess Decision Data

Pre-defined Process



Manual Operation


Manual Input

Lateral Scoping Lateral scoping is done on the breadth of the process e.g. New connections in Maharastra Circle. e.g. Calls received during general shift

One or more of the following are covered here: What all kinds of units the process will cover In what situations the process is valid What are the qualifiers for the transactions What functional domains does the process cover In what geographical areas the process is valid

Scoping Techniques Write inside the box what you think project covers for an On time Bill Despatch project Example Write outside the box what you think Longitudinal project excludesStarts after receipt of CDR customer wise for the given time frame Ends at the despatch from IDEA office Despatches from Maharastra Circle All despatches during shift A Despatch through Courier XAny transit delays Bill damages Non-availability of customer




Out of scope

Project boundary

Scope Verification After the scoping has been done, following should be checked to validate the scope If the scoped process is within the control of the GB / Team If the pain area lies within the scoped process If the scoped process is narrow enough If there are enough transactions to measure (at least 20 transactions per month are

recommended for effective measurements)If the scope is still aligned with the Internal CTQ / CBP If the scoped process would still result in achieving the objectives set by the Champion

Re-scoping may be needed later even after spending considerable time on the project

Form Teams

Team Composition Green Belt Is the Team Leader for a Project Selects other members of his project team Defines the goal of project with Champion & team members Defines the roles and responsibilities for each team member Identifies training requirements for team along with Black Belt Helps make the Financial Score Card along with his CFO

Team Composition Team Members A Team Member is chosen for a special skill or competence Team Members help design the new process Team Members drive the project to completion

Guidelines for team members

Up to 5 people People who have stake in the process People who are benefited by removal of pain area People who have complementary skills People from same location Guest members

Develop Team Charter Sl. No. table with your BB for the roles of Fill this Name of Functio Project each team member nal Respons the teamTool




Team Charter

1 2 3

1.4 Quantify Benefits

1.5 Sign-off with Champion

Project Sign-off Champions sign-off ensures a common understanding of deliverables It reflects his approval on team members & financials It indicates the tentative project plan Formal sign-off is a must

Project Agreement FormTool

Project Agreement Form

DMAIC Project Agreement Form

Defining a Problem Statement A well-defined problem statement describes the pain What is wrong or not meeting your customers needs? When and where do the problems occur? How big is the problem? Whats the negative impact of the problem?

Defining a Problem StatementPoor Example: Our customers are angry with us and thus delay paying their bills. Good Example: In the last 3 months, 12% of our customers are late, by over 45 days in paying their bills. This represents 20% of our outstanding receivables & negatively affects our operating cash flow.When What Magnitude Consequence

Key Concepts Points to remember while defining a problem statement: Is the problem based on observation (fact) or assumption (guess)? Does the problem statement prejudge a root cause? Can data be collected by the team to verify and analyze the problem? Is the problem statement too narrowly or broadly defined? Is a solution included in the statement?Must not assign blame, presume cause, or prescribe solution!


Kick-off the Project

Call a Team Meeting Call a project team meeting to formally begin the project Ask Champion to define his expectations from the project Communicate objective of the project Explain project time frame and deadlines Get agreement from all members on their participation

Call a Team Meeting

Create This Matrix with Your TeamLossWhat are the short-term threats if we dont do the project?

GainWhat are the Immediate gains if we are successful in the project?


Short Term

Loss-Gain Matrix

Long Term

What are the long-term threats you can foresee?

What are the long-term gains?

Prepare an Elevator Speech with your Team Prepare a speech Short-list key words Create the want to sell your Six Sigma project to your vision statement 1. Imagine you CEO in a chance meeting in an empty elevator with Communicate to organization 90 seconds to ride.2. Describe the need for project & the vision of the new state as if responding to WHY DO IT?


Elevator Speech

Tollgate - Define Macro-level process map Signed-off Project Agreement Form Project kick-off meeting Teaming done for project team Loss-Gain Matrix Elevator Speech

Tollgate - DEFINE

All the Best for the Quiz!!!!!!!!!

DEFINE Q1 How many types of CTQs did you learn?a)2 b)5 c)4 d)3

DEFINE Q2 DMAIC is best applicable toa)One time defect reduction in uni-functional environment b)Dynamic defect reduction in cross-functional environment c)One time defect reduction in cross-functional environment d)Dynamic defect reduction in uni-functional environment

DEFINE Q3 DMAIC applies toa)Existing process that needs improvement b)New process c)Existing process in need of re-design d)None of the above

DEFINE Q4 Inputs to a QFD come froma)VOC b)Surveys c)Internal Data d)All of the above

DEFINE Q5 Tool used for visioning isa)Loss-gain matrix b)Elevator speech c)VOC d)QFD

DEFINE Q6 Customer CTQs are defined bya)Champion b)Green Belt c)Customers d)Black Belt