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Sino-Taiwan Relations. Done By: Anson Lim 4S1 Ho Tack Jun 4A1 Tan Zhi Wei 4A1. Content. Brief History Sino-Taiwan relations during Cold War Sino-Taiwan relations after Cold War. Pre-1949 history. Taiwan was initially an island, under the governance of the Qing government - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sino-Taiwan Relations (1949-1979)

Sino-Taiwan Relations

Done By:Anson Lim 4S1Ho Tack Jun 4A1Tan Zhi Wei 4A1Brief HistorySino-Taiwan relations during Cold WarSino-Taiwan relations after Cold WarContentTaiwan was initially an island, under the governance of the Qing governmentHowever, after the Sino-Japan War in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to JapanJapan then ruled Taiwan until 1945. After its defeat, Taiwan was then ceded back to the Republic of China (ROC), which was governed by Chiang Kai Sheks KMT government. Pre-1949 historyThe KMT and the Communist Party of China (CPC) were originally in conflict until the Xian incident in 1936, in which both parties agreed to cooperate to fight the JapaneseThe KMT and the CPC then fought a war following the end of World War II for control over the sovereignty of China : Split over ideologyIn 1949, the civil war turned in the Communists favour, and the capitalist KMT government retreated to TaiwanThe Communists gained control of the mainland while the KMT has stayed at Taiwan ever since Pre-1949 history

The two sides were technically still on confrontation during this periodThe ROC repeatedly halted advance of the troops from the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), ruled by the Communists, towards Taiwan, such as in Kinmen in 1950 Some 12,000 KMT troops had escaped to Burma (Now Myanmar) after the civil warWhile initially US supported attacks by these troops against the PRC, after Burma appealed to the UN, 6,000 of these troops left Burma and the disbandment of the army was declared

Sino-Taiwan relations: 1949-1979During the Korean War, some of the captured Communist Chinese soldiers, some of whom originally fought for the KMT, were repatriated to TaiwanThroughout the 50s, there were insurgencies in China resisting the Communist government, as well as routine air strikes by the ROC government on mainland ChinaThe PRC government also routinely shelled islands in Taiwanese possessionSino-Taiwan relations: 1949-1979The US government recognized the ROC as the sole legitimate government of China in 1950While US reiterated that it would not be involved in any attack on Taiwan, this changed after the Korean WarUpon seeing the Communists ambition to conquer independent states in Asia through armed invasion and war, it was decided that it would be the USs strategic interests in the Pacific to protect TaiwanInterference of the USA naval fleet was sent to the Taiwan Strait to protect Taiwan against aggression from the PRCThe ROC government was also to stop all attacks on the mainlandInterference of the US

In 1953,however, the blockade by the US fleet was liftedThe KMT placed troops on islands in between mainland China and TaiwanThe ROC began building defensive structuresThe Peoples Liberation Army(PLA) of the Communists then began to shell these islands under KMT possession in 1954First Taiwan Strait CrisisThere was fear of Communist expansion as PRC shelled islands along the Taiwan straitAs the ROC was part of USs defensive strategy along the Pacific from South Korea to South East AsiaBoth the ROC and the US then agreed to a mutual defensive agreement, which did not cover these islands

First Taiwan Strait Crisis

Congress passed the Formosa Resolution in January 1955 authorizing the US president to use armed forces to defend ROC possessions against armed attackThe PRC government indicated it was willing to negotiate in April 1955 and ended the conflict on 1 May 1955However, the fundamental problems between both countries, in ideology and governance, remain unresolvedFirst Taiwan Strait CrisisThis began in Aug 1958 and ended 3 months later, with military engagements between the ROC and PRCIslands along the Taiwan Straits was again bombardedWhile US resisted the KMTs requests to bombard mainland artillery batteries, it provided Taiwan with arms and weaponsSecond Taiwan Strait crisisThe PRC then announced an even-day ceasefire, in which the islands will only be shelled on odd-numbered daysBoth sides never signed any agreement or treaty to officially end the warBombardment from both sides then started to take on a symbolic meaning, with artillery bombardment on and offSecond Taiwan Strait crisisIn later years, propaganda sheets were fired instead of live shellsThe bombardment ended in 1979, following US and China establishing diplomatic relations

Second Taiwan Strait crisis

Until 1971, most countries recognized the ROC as the legitimate governmentNATO countries (i.e. anti-communist) recognized the ROC while Soviet Bloc countries and members of the non-aligned movement recognized the PRCPropaganda permeated into the education system on both sides, each labeling the other as bandits and living in miseryCross-Strait relations: 1949-1979In 1978, the ROC government allowed visits to mainland China, benefitting many, especially former KMT soldiers, whose families were on the other side of the straitIn 1979, as the US regained normal diplomatic ties with the PRC, it had to recognize the principle of One China and hence broke off diplomatic relations officially with Taiwan, whom it had recognized as the legitimate government, resulting in a thaw in relationship cross-straitCross-Strait relations: 1949-1979

The Cold War, being an ideological conflict between the USSR and USA, both of which had different political systems, also manifested in the conflict between the ROC and PRCThe ROC was communist while the PRC was capitalistTherefore, it became a source of conflict, especially when both parties needed to form a new government in China after the Japanese surrenderThis led to both sides, trying to triumph over the other party, through military aggression, similar to that between USSR and USA over control of the world, which resulted in incidents such as the Cuban missile crisis and Bay of Pigs invasionImpact of Cold War on Sino-Taiwan relationsWhile Chinese-Soviet relations broke down after the Korean War, US was still worried about communist expansion and try to contain it so that it does not reach its sphere of influence in the Pacific, resulting in its continual support for the ROC, even after US and the PRC government established diplomatic tiesIf Taiwan was to fall, other countries such as Japan and the Philippines nearby could also fall, as communism would rampage through Asia like dominoesThis, however, led to prolonged conflict between both parties as well once superpowers got into play, which disrupted the balance of power between the PRC and ROCImpact of Cold War on Sino-Taiwan relationsIn 1971, the ROC government walked out of the United Nations shortly before it recognized the PRC government inBeijingas the legitimate holder of China's seat in the United Nations. The ROC had been offered dual representation, but Chiang Kai-shek demanded to retain a seat on the UN Security Council, which was not acceptable to the PRC. Chiang expressed his decision in his famous "the sky is not big enough for two suns" speech.

Sino-Taiwan Relations: 1970s-1980sIn October 1971,Resolution 2758was passed by the UN General Assembly and "the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek" were expelled from the UN and replaced as "China" by the PRC. In 1979, the United States switched recognition from Taipei to Beijing, following the One China Principle.Sino-Taiwan Relations: 1970s 1980sBackgroundUS President Nixon and his National Security Adviser, Henry Kissinger, viewed opening relations with China as a part of the strategy for withdrawing the United States from the Vietnam War. They also saw the relationship as a strategic advantage in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. In China, Mao Zedong and his advisers were equally interested in achieving balance in their foreign relations as they felt that the Soviet Union was a threatening hegemonist and revisionist practicer of social imperialism.

Taiwan Relations Act (1979)As the relationship between the PRC and the United States deepened in the years after 1972, the two sides made progress toward the establishment of full diplomatic relations. To establish full relations required that the United States withdraw its troops from the island of Taiwan and withdraw diplomatic recognition of the government of the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. These conditions were fulfilled under U.S. President Jimmy Carter, and an agreement on mutual recognition was issued on December 15, 1978.

Taiwan Relations Act (1979)However, the Democratic Carter administrations recognition of the PRC did not go down well in the Republican-controlled Congress. Indeed, many members of Congress would have much preferred not to extend diplomatic recognition to a Communist power. As a result, Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979 in order to lay the basis for a continuing relationship with Taiwan.

Taiwan Relations Act (1979)The PRC viewed the Taiwan Relations Act as "an unwarranted intrusion by the United States into the internal affairs of China.TheThree Joint Communiques (a collection of three joint statements made by the US and PRC that played a crucial role in building relations between the two countries)were signed in 1972, 1979, and 1982. The United States declared that the United States would not formally recognize PRCs sovereignty over Taiwan as part of the Six Assurances (guidelines used in relations between US and Taiwan regarding the sale of arms to Taiwan)offered to Taipei in 1982.

Chinas reaction to the Taiwan Relations Act (1979)

Chiang Kai-shek was succeeded by his sonChiang Ching-kuo, liberalizing the system when in power. In 1986, the Democratic Progressive Party was formed to counter the KMT as the KMT was becoming increasingly unpopular with the Taiwanese. This organization was formed illegally, and inaugurated as the first party in opposition to Taiwan. Martial law was lifted one year later by Chiang Ching-kuo, emergency rule which had

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