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<p>SIMPLE PAST TENSE</p> <p>SIMPLE PAST TENSEPAST PROGRESSIVEFUTURE PROGRESSIVEPERFECT ASPECTSIMPLE PAST TENSEThe simple past expresses action carried out prior to the time of speaking.</p> <p>Represented by ed inflection on regular verbs, but differs for irregular verbs.</p> <p>Regular and Irregular PastREGULARWalk - walkedLove - loved</p> <p>The irregular past tense verbs make it very difficult for English learners.</p> <p>IRREGULAREat - ateRun - ranBuild - built</p> <p>Time ExpressionsTo show past, speakers frequently use expressions that indicate a specific point in time when the action was carried out:Yesterday, a week ago, last Wednesday, at three oclock, etc.Time expressions are used with 4 types of verbs:Stative verbs She liked him then.Activity verbs I ate a lot yesterday.Accomplishment verbsThey won the war years ago.Achievement verbs He ran home last week.</p> <p>Additional Uses of Simple PastSimple past can replace simple present:Reported Speech- when speech is reported, it is backshifted to simple past. This is especially true in writing.Kara said, I am so hungry. (Quoted Speech)Kara said that she was hungry. (Reported Speech)Unreal Conditionals- In clauses introduced by if, the simple past represents an unreal condition.If he made that dinner, he should be a chef.If I ever said that, my mom would kill me.Pragmatic Factors (i.e. politeness)- especially when asking questions, using simple past is more polite.Do you need my help? Did you need my help?I want to ask for your help. I wanted to ask for your help.Do you want to speak with me? Did you want to speak with me? PAST PROGRESSIVEAlso known as past continuous, this tense is formed with was or were and a present participle.</p> <p>It represents an ongoing action in the past.Examples of Past ProgressiveWhen- the past progressive action can be in the main clause, or subordinate. While- the past progressive is in the subordinate clause.[They were cleaning] when the doorbell rang.[She fell] when/while she was running on the icy road.Most often, past progressive is used with simultaneous ongoing actions:I was reading while my mom was cooking dinner.They were dancing while the music was playing.Examples ContinuedOccurs with time expressions that indicate a point in time when:Action was ongoing:She was sleeping at ten oclock.Action was terminated:She was sleeping until eight in the morning.Period during which it was ongoing- usually use from (time 1) to (time 2) :She was sleeping from ten oclock to eight in the morning.Just like present progressive, past progressive can give a repeating (iterative) sense to the actions:The girl was begging and pleading to not have time out.</p> <p>FUTURE PROGRESSIVEConsists of will followed by be and a present participle.</p> <p>Future Progressive ExamplesMeans an action will be ongoing in the (near) future. It will indicate when the action begins, at what time it is ongoing, or the length or time it is scheduled for.They will be walking at eight oclock/all morning/tomorrow.It can also talk about an action that will continue in the future for a long period of time. Usually utilizes for with a time expression.They will be arguing about what to eat for the rest of the night.</p> <p>PERFECT ASPECTFormed with have and past participle (verb + ed), to express a completed action.</p> <p>There are three tenses: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect.PRESENT PERFECTFormed with (has or have) and a past participle. Generally occurs with a time expression.Present perfect is used to express many meanings:Expressing a situation that started in the past and continues to the present. (Uses for or since)The dogs have barked since three oclock.She has worked here for years.Expressing a recently completed action.The taxi has arrived.The girl has recently painted a canvas.PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUEDExpressing an action that occurred at an unspecified time and has current relevance.We have already completed all the homework.She has seen that episode.Describing an action that occurred over a period of time that is complete at the time of speaking.The puppy has doubled in size over the last year.You have grown since last year.</p> <p>PAST PERFECTFormed with had and a past participle.Meaning: Shows a past action completed prior to another event or time in the past. Therefore, usually occurs in a sentence with a main and subordinate clause.She walked to the store after she had eaten.She had already eaten when she walked to the store.</p> <p>*Note, the order in which the past perfect occurs does not affect the interpretation.PAST PERFECT, CONTINUEDIn subordinate clauses introduced by certain subordinators (before, after, as soon as), simple past can be used instead of past perfect. This is when the second event is of short duration.I laughed as soon as she had made the joke.I laughed as soon as she made the joke.However, in some contexts, past perfect is REQUIRED. If the second event in a clause has a long duration, past perfect is required.He sighed after he had taken the class.*He sighed after he took the class. Past perfect also occurs in counterfactual conditional sentences (express speculations or regrets about unfulfilled events).If only he had tried harder, he would have won the game.FUTURE PERFECTIs formed with will followed by have and the past participle of the main verb. It is usually used to express an action that will be completed prior to some specified future time. Accomplishment verbs are especially common with future present. These are generally followed by gerundive complements.I will have completed [painting the canvas] by dinner.</p> <p>FUTURE PERFECT, CONTINUEDFuture perfect can be used to express states over a long period of time in the future.In May, we will have been married for ten years.Just like past perfect, when there is a main and a subordinate clause, the future action is completed prior to another action when introduced by before or by the time. The verb can be present perfect or simple perfect.I will have finished cooking before you arrive.I will have completed homework by the time youve eaten.Some verbs of future perfect can be replaced by future forms. (Ex: will+be+adj)He will have finished by ten.He will be finished by ten.He will be ready by ten.PERFECT PROGRESSIVEThis combines both the perfect and progressive aspects with present, past, and future time.PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVEFormed with has or have + been + present participle. Time expressions can be used, but are not necessary.Hes been coming to school the last few months.Ive been studying for the test.Expresses past activity that extends to the present. Is often interchangeable with the present perfect. The difference is that the PPP gives a sense of ongoingness.He has been working on that paper for over an hour.He has worked on that paper for over an hour. (PP)Present Perfect Prog. ContinuedThe difference in meaning between PPP and present perfect is especially seen in questions:How long have you studied? (PP)How long have you been studying? (PPP)PPP is not always correct with sentences:How long have you known him? (PP)*How long have you been knowing him?PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVEFormed with had+ been+ present participle. It expresses an ongoing action in the past related to another past action (usually simple past tense). The other action is usually in sub. clause.The couple had been waiting to be seated for 20 minutes when the waitress finally came. For sentences without sub. clause, a time expression is needed.At that point, they had already been waiting for 20 minutes.FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVEFormed with will + have + been + present participle. It expresses an action that will continue into the future up to a specific time (usually specified by for).At six, I will have been studying for five hours.She will have been playing the piano for six years when she performs her first concert.</p> <p>NOTE: The future perfect progressive tends to be used very infrequently in spoken and written English.</p>


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