- 1. Humor Reduces Stress in a ChallengingTaskSamantha Bates and BreannaWilliamsPenn State Erie, the BehrendCollege
2. Theories of Humor Relief TheoryShurcliff, 1968Smuts, 2009 Incongruity TheoryShultz, 1974 3. Past ResearchMcCrae, 1984 Found humor as a response to a challengeMartin et. al, 2003 Identified 4 dimensions of humor and created the Humor Style QuestionnaireAbel & Maxwell, 2002 Experimental research that found videos inducing laughter decreased anxiety. 4. The Gap Our research aims to bridge the gap between humorand the effects it has on an individual after completing a challenge. 5. Methods Participants 64 Females and 37 Males Age Range: 18-29 Introductory psychology classes at Penn State Behrend Participants treated according to the ethical standards of the American Psychological Association Stimuli and Materials Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ), (Martin & Doris, 2003) Feelings Questionnaire Modular Arithmetic (MA), (Bogomolny, 1996) Videos 6. Stimuli and MaterialsHumor Style Questionnaire Feelings Questionnaire1=Totally Disagree 7=Totally Agree0=Not at all, 4=ExtremelyMood=91. I usually dont laugh or jokeTense01234around much with other people.Unhappy012341234567 Lively 012342. If I am feeling depressed, I can Anxiety=6usually cheer myself up with humor. Strained01234 1234567Relaxed 01234Worried 01234 7. Stimuli and Materials Modular Arithmetic (MA) The object is to judge whether the answer was a whole number or not. Easy Task Examples: 7 = 2 (mod 5) True 7 = 2 (mod4) False Hard Task Examples: 51 = 19 (mod4) True 51 = 19 (mod3) False 8. Stimuli and Materials Videos Positive Humorous Whose Line is it Anyway? Positive Non-humorous Documentary on Celine Dion Neutral How to draw a man sitting in a chair 9. Informed ConsentFeelingsQuestionnaireHard Task Easy TaskFeelingsQuestionnairePositive Positive Non- NeutralHumorous HumorousFeelings Questionnaire, HSQ, Demographic 10. Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: Viewing the positive humorous video willlead to more positive mood, lower worry, and lowerstrained scores compared to the other two videos. Hypothesis 2: Completing the hard task will lead to anincrease in negative mood compared to those whocompleted the least difficult task. Hypothesis 3: Women would have a higher affiliative andself-enhancing humor score, whereas, men would have ahigher aggressive and self-defeating score. 11. F (4,178) = 6.56, p < 0.001 Effects of a Video on MoodBefore After Task After Video1210Mean Mood Score86420HumorNon-HumorNeutralVideo 12. F (2,178) = 3.12, p < 0.001 Effects of Task on Mood Before After Task After Video1210Mean Mood Score86420Easy TaskHard TaskTime Scale 13. F (4,178) = 2.98, p = 0.02 Effects of Humor on Strained Mood ScoreBefore After Task After Video 2 1.8 1.6 Mean Mood Score 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0HumorNon-HumorNeutralVideo 14. Discussion Hypothesis 1: Viewing the positive humorous video willlead to more positive mood, lower worry, and lowerstrained scores compared to the other two videos.PARTIAL YES! Hypothesis 2: Completing the hard task will lead to anincrease in negative mood compared to those whocompleted the least difficult task. YES! Hypothesis 3: Women would have a higher affiliative andself-enhancing humor score, whereas, men would have ahigher aggressive and self-defeating score. NO! 15. LimitationImplications Unequal number of Humorous videosfemales and malesare effective at Generalized to relieving stress.college students Laboratory setting Completed ingroups rather thanindividually 16. Future Research Personality Differences Different stressor: loss or threat Other humor differences among genders otherthan the HSQ 17. Resources Bogomolny, A. (1996). Modular arithmetic. Retrieved May 3, 2011, from http://www.cut-the-knot.com/blue/Modulo.shtml Martin, R., Puhlik-Dors., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences inuses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: Development of the humor stylesquestionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48-75. Shurcliff, A. (1968). Judged humor, arousal, and the relief theory. Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, 8(4), 360-363. doi: 10.1037/h0025493 Smuts, A. (2009). Humor. In Internet encyclopedia of philosophy Retrieved fromhttp://www.iep.utm.edu/humor/ Shultz, T. R., (1974). Order of cognitive processing in humour appreciation. Canadian Journalof Psychology, 4, 409-420. McCrae, R.R. (1984). Situational determinants of coping responses: Loss, threat, andchallenge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 48-75. Abel, M. H., & Maxwell, D. (2002). Humor and effective consequences of a stressful task.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(2), 165-190. doi: 10.152/jscp.126.96.36.19916 18. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. Dawn Blasko for all hertime, effort, and valuable input throughout ourproject. We would also like to thank Dr. Rod. A.Martin, creator of the HSQ questionnaire, forproviding us with a copy of the questionnaire for ourexperiment. Lastly, we would like to thank theUndergraduate Research Office grant program atBehrend College for providing us with a grant to fundour research project.