Sigma xi 2013

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  • 1.Invasive plants and Native anuransA tale of two interactions 1

2. Amphibian declines ~7000 spp. ~1/3 threatened ~160 presumedextinct recent times2 3. Why?Habitat loss/degradation 3 4. Loss vs. Degradation 4 5. Invasive plants 4,000+ non-nativeplants outsidecultivation 79 plants cost US$97B per year Contribute to nearlyhalf of threatenednative spp.5 6. Butwhat do plants have to dowith frogs? Physical structure Invasive plants(Water)(Invertebrate) Chemistry Community6 7. Invasive plantsPhragmites australisTypha angustifolia7 8. Three basic questions Are there differences in water qualityamong invaded and non-invadedwetlands? If there are differences, do they affect thegrowth and survivorship of tadpoles? Do invasive plants affect the behavior ofadult frogs?8 9. Hypothesis 1 methods Natural wetlands- 2007, 2008, 2011 Tested weekly over summer P. australis, T. angustifolia, non-invaded(doubly invaded in 2007) LabPro datalogger 9 10. Water qualityTypha angustifolia 1Phragmites australis0.9Non-invaded0.8 Doubly invadedAmmonium (mg/L)0.70.60.50.40.30.20.1 08 910 11 121314 15 16 WeeksAmmonium10 11. Water qualityTypha angustifoliaPhragmites australis7.5Non-invaded 7Doubly invadedDissolved oxygen (mg/L)6.5 65.5 54.5 48 9 10 11 12 1314 15 16Weeks Dissolved Oxygen11 12. Water quality Typha angustifolia Phragmites australis Non-invaded 0.7 Doubly invaded 0.6Nitrate (mg/L) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15 16 WeeksNitrate 12 13. Water quality3025Temperature (Celsius)2015Typha angustifolia10Phragmites australisNon-invaded5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 161718 19 Weeks Temperature (2008)13 14. Lithobates catesbeianusLithobates clamitans 14 15. Larval growth and survival Natural wetlands- 2008, 2011 Tested weekly over summer P. australis, T. angustifolia, non-invaded Small enclosures with separate individuals 15 16. 16 17. Larval survival35 Typha angustifolia Phragmites australisIndividuals per enclosure30 Non-invaded25201510 5 00741852963074185296 14 14 15 16 18 18 19 21 21 23 24 25 16 17 20 22 23 25 26 Day of Year Survival 17 18. Larval length:35 Typha angustifolia Phragmites australis30 Non-invaded25Length (mm)201510 5 00741852963074185296 14 14 15 17 18 18 21 21 23 24 26 16 16 19 20 22 23 25 25 Day of YearLength18 19. Adult behavior Adult behavior arenas Stem density mimicking natural setting Acclimation 15 minutes 15 minute trial Rest Repeat with all plants 19 20. Hypothesis 3 resultsTypha angustifolia12.00Phragmites australisNon-invaded10.00NTotal time moving 8.00 6.00 P 4.00 T 2.00 0.001 3 5 7 9 1113 15 17 19 21 2325 27 293133 35 37 Individual Lithobates clamitans Lithobates clamitans 20 21. Hypothesis 3 results Typha angustifolia Phragmites australis12 Non-invaded10Number of movements 8 N 6 P 4 T 2 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 1315 1719 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 Individual Lithobates clamitansLithobates clamitans21 22. Hypothesis 3 resultsTypha angustifolia12.00Phragmites australisNon-invaded10.00 NTotal time moving 8.00 6.00P 4.00T 2.00 0.001 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 Individual Lithobates catesbieanus Lithobates catesbeianus 22 23. Hypothesis 3 results Typha angustifolia Phragmites australis12 Non-invaded10Number of movements8N6P4 T20 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2123 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 Individual Lithobates catesbeianusLithobates catesbeianus23 24. Hypothesis 3 results Typha angustifolia 8 Phragmites australis 7 Non-invadedNumber of "hang-ups" 6 5 4P 3T 2N 1 0 1 3 579 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39Individual Lithobates catesbeianusLithobates catesbeianus 24 25. Typha angustifolia 16.00 Phragmites australis 14.00 Non-invaded 12.00N 10.00Total distance8.00P6.00T4.002.000.00 1 3 5 791113 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37Individual Lithobates clamitans25 26. Typha angustifolia 18.00 Phragmites australis 16.00 Non-invaded 14.00 12.00NTotal distance 10.008.00P6.00T4.002.000.00 1 3 5 7 9 1113 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 3133 35 37 39 Individual Lithobates catesbeianus 26 27. Acknowledgements Advisors- Oscar Rocha, Mark Kershner Committee- Ferenc de Szalay, MarilynNorconk, Allison Smith Funding- Graduate Student Senate, KentEnvironmental Council, Ohio BiologicalSurvey, Ohio Native Plant Society, Societyfor the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles 27