Side Impact Vehicle Testing: Development of A Lateral ?· Side Impact Vehicle Testing: Development of…

  • Published on
    06-Jun-2018

  • View
    213

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Side Impact Vehicle Testing: Development of A Lateral Test Procedure for

    Child Restraints

    Taryn Rockwell, ACE Systems Technologies, Inc.

  • 2

    BackgroundTREAD Act Nov. 2000Mandated that NHTSA determine whether to:l Apply scaled injury criteria performance levels

    developed for FMVSS No. 208, to CRS covered in FMVSS No. 213

    l Include CRS in NCAP crash tests

    In response, NHTSA:l Issued NPRM to address proposed changes to 213

    (Docket No. 2002-11707-3) proposed 208 scaled injury performance levels

    l Issued ANPRM for child protection in side & rear impact

    l Conducted frontal & side NCAP vehicle tests with CRABI 12MO & Hybrid III 3YO in CRS

  • 3

    Ongoing Research to Address Issues Raised in the ANPRM

    Evaluating real world side impact datal CHOP, NASS, FARS, SCI

    Evaluating different lateral test procedures for evaluating CRSsl ISO, Japan NCAP, Australia, Euro NCAP

    Sled testingl Countermeasuresl Dummies

    l Q3 vs. Hybrid III

    l IARVs

    Vehicle testingl NCAP and R&D

  • 4

    Objectives of This Research

    Address some of the issues raised in the ANPRM including:l Determining child injury mechanisms in side

    impact vehicle tests

    l Compare performance in vehicle tests to that of suggested 90o sled tests

  • 5

    Vehicle Selection

    8 vehicles selected:l 5 from list of vehicles to be selected for 2002 SINCAP

    l 3 vehicles piggy-backed to R&D tests with ES-2 dummy

    The following considered when selecting vehicles:l Difficulty of correctly positioning rear SID dummy

    exempt from side NCAP testing

    l Popular models

    l Covered various vehicle classes (2-dr. pass. cars, 4-dr. pass. cars, SUVs, vans, pickups)

    l Vehicle availability* Did NOT attempt to get cross-sample from vehicle

    manufacturers

  • 6

    Vehicle Configuration

    For any one particular vehicle, the following were identical for both outboard rear seating positions:l Model of CRS

    l CRS orientation

    l CRS belt configuration

    l Child dummy

  • 7

    Model of CRSSafety 1st Forerunnerl 5-point harnessl Convertible

    l 5-35 lbs. rear-facingl 22-40 lbs. forward-facing

    l Equipped with lower anchorages & tether (LATCH)

    Evenflo On-My-Wayl 5-point harnessl Rear-facing only (Infant seat)

    l 5-20 lbs.

    l Equipped only with tether not used

  • 8

    CRS Belt Configuration & Orientation

    Safety 1st Forerunnerl VSB, no tether, RF

    l VSB, tether, FF

    l LATCH, FF

    l Lower anchorages, no tether, RF

    Evenflo On-My-Wayl VSB, no tether, RF

  • 9

    Child Dummy Selection & Instrumentation

    Hybrid III 3YO dummy

    12MO CRABI dummy

    Equipped with:l Upper & lower neck load cells

    l Tri-axial head, chest, and pelvis accelerometers

    l Chest lateral spring potentiometer for 3YO only

  • 10

    Side NCAP Test Procedure

    MDBl 27o crabbed anglel 62.0 km/h (38.5 mph)

    Target vehiclel Positioned at 63o to the

    line of forward motion

    l Stationaryl Impacted on drivers side

    Simulates car moving at 55 km/h hitting another car moving at 27 km/h

  • 11

    Video of Crash Test Vehicle B (Pickup)

  • 12

    Post-Test CRS Examination

    Post-test examinations showed:l No CRS damaged

    l No plastic (permanent) deformation of lower anchorages in vehicle or connection hooks on CRS

    l All vehicle seat belts intact and without damage

  • 13

    Injury Criteria

    Suggested in ANPRM issued to address side impact protection for child occupants Docket No. 02-12151Examination of IARVs for side impact dummies only used as a baseline comparison

    3017Extension

    6843Flexion

    21201460Compression

    23401460Nij Intercepts: Tension

    3434Chest Deflection

    55503 ms Chest Clip

    570390HIC 15

    3YO Hybrid III12MO CRABIINJURY CRITERION

  • 14

    Head Injury Criterion

    12MO

    RF

    NL

    Pickup

    3YO

    FF

    L

    4-dr car

    3YO3YO12MO12MO12MO12MO

    SUV2-dr car4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup

    FFFFFFRFRFRF

    NLLLLLNL

    0 .0

    0 .2

    0 .4

    0 .6

    0 .8

    1 .0

    1 .2

    1 .4

    1 .6

    1 .8

    2 .0

    No

    rmal

    ized

    HIC

    15

    A B C D E F G H

    V e h i c l e s

    Head In ju ry Cr i t e r ion 15 mi l l i seconds (H IC 15 )

    N e a r - S i d e

    Fa r -S ide

    *4 .42 - Va lue o f f cha r t

  • 15

    Head Injury Criterion Vehicle E (4-dr. car)

  • 16

    Intrusion Vehicle E (4-dr. car)

  • 17

    Intrusion at Window SillVehicle Intrusion at Window Sill

    -200

    -100

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

    Distance From Impact (mm)

    Intr

    usi

    on

    (mm

    )

    AB

    CDEF

    GH

  • 18

    Thoracic Criteria Chest Acceleration

    0 .0

    0 .5

    1 .0

    1 .5

    2 .0

    2 .5

    No

    rmal

    ized

    Ch

    est

    Acc

    eler

    atio

    n (

    G's

    )

    A B C D E F H

    V e h i c l e s

    C h e s t A c c e l e r a t i o n

    N e a r - S i d e

    Fa r -S ide

    12MO

    RF

    NL

    Pickup

    3YO

    FF

    L

    4-dr car

    3YO12MO12MO12MO12MO

    SUV4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup

    FFFFRFRFRF

    NLLLLNL

  • 19

    Intrusion Vehicle F (4-dr. car)

    Dummys chest at approx. window sill level

  • 20

    Intrusion at Window SillVehicle Intrusion at Window Sill

    -200

    -100

    0

    100

    200

    300

    400

    -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

    Distance From Impact (mm)

    Intr

    usi

    on

    (mm

    )

    AB

    CDEF

    GH

  • 21

    Dummy Positioning

    C

    B

    G

    A

    H

    D

    E

    F

    Van

    Pickup

    2-dr. car

    Pickup

    SUV

    4-dr. car

    4-dr. car

    4-dr. car

    Child Dummy Closer to Door

    Rankings 1-8

    1 = closest to door

    8 = farthest away from door

    20

    21

    5

    7

    12

    32

    27

    20

    Total

    4

    6

    1

    2

    3

    8

    7

    4

    Ranking

    2221E

    1112F

    6645G

    4457H

    3333D

    8888C

    7776B

    5564A

    HDADCDHSVehicle

  • 22

    Thoracic Criteria Chest Deflection

    3YO dummy onlyl 3 vehicles F, G, & H

    Dummy readings normalized to 34 mm

    All recorded injuries well below IARVl Negligible for far-side dummy

    Highest recorded value: 0.58 near-side dummy in vehicle F

  • 23

    Neck Criteria - Nij

    Faxial = Fz Fcritical = Max. force in z-direction (tens./comp.) Moc = My + (correction factor)Fx Mcritical = Max. moment about y-axis (flex./ext.)

    Nij = max[Faxial/Fcritical + Moc/Mcritical]

    * Development of Improved Injury Criteria for the Assessment of Child Restraint Systems. Docket No. 2002-11707-18

    -3068-212023403YO

    -1743-1460146012MO

    Extension (N-m)

    Flexion (N-m)

    Compression (N)

    Tension (N)

    Dummy

    IN-POSITION LIMITS - Nij INTERCEPTS

  • 24

    Neck Criteria - Nij

    0 .0

    0 .2

    0 .4

    0 .6

    0 .8

    1 .0

    1 .2

    1 .4

    1 .6

    1 .8

    Max

    imu

    m N

    ij

    A B C D E F G H

    V e h i c l e s

    M a x i m u m N i j

    N e a r - S i d e

    Fa r -S ide

    12MO

    RF

    NL

    Pickup

    3YO

    FF

    L

    4-dr car

    3YO3YO12MO12MO12MO12MO

    SUV2-dr car4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup

    FFFFFFRFRFRF

    NLLLLLNL

  • 25

    Nij Failure Modes for 12MO CRABIMaximum Nij Moment and Force Levels for Near Side and Far Side

    12-Month-Old CRABI Dummies in Side NCAP CRS Tests

    -2500

    -2000

    -1500

    -1000

    -500

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

    Moment (N-m)

    Fo

    rce

    (N)

    Near Side Dummy

    Far Side Dummy

    Tension-Flexion

    Compression-FlexionCompression-Extension

    Tension-Extension

    Diamond formed by Nij interceptsMy & Fz injury values at time of max. Nij found

    Exceed 1 of 4 modes of neck motion if recorded moment/force combination falls outside diamond

    EDCBA

    12MO

    RF

    NL

    Pickup

    12MO12MO12MO12MO

    4-dr car4-dr carVanPickup

    FFRFRFRF

    LLLNL

  • 26

    Nij Failure Modes for 12MO CRABI

    Tension/ Extension in vehicle C (van)

    Neck tension head up relative to neck or chest down relative to neckNeck extension chin up, away from sternum, forcing head back

  • 27

    Nij Neck Motion for 3YO Hybrid III

    Maximum Nij Moment and Force Levels for Near Side and Far Side 3-Year-Old Hybrid III Dummies in Side NCAP CRS Tests

    -2500

    -2000

    -1500

    -1000

    -500

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

    Moment (N-m)

    Fo

    rce

    (N)

    Near Side Dummy

    Far Side DummyTension-Flexion

    Compression-FlexionCompression-Extension

    Tension-Extension

    Vehicle F

    HGF

    3YO

    FF

    L

    4-dr car

    3YO3YO

    SUV2-dr car

    FFFF

    NLL

  • 28

    Nij Neck Motion for 3YO Hybrid III

    Tension/Extension in vehicle G (2-dr. car)

    Tension/ Flexion in vehicle F (4-dr. car)

    Neck tension head up relative to neck or chest down relative to neckNeck flexion chin down toward sternum & head curls forward

  • 29

    Resultant Pelvis Acceleration

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    1 0 0

    1 2 0

    1 4 0

    1 6 0

    Res

    ult

    ant

    Pel

    vis

    Acc

    eler

    atio

    n (

    G's

    )

    A B C D E F G H

    V e h i c l e s

    Resu l tan t Pe lv is Acce le ra t ion

    N e a r - S i d e

    Fa r -S ide

    12MO

    RF

    L

    4-dr car

    12MO

    RF

    L

    Van

    12MO

    RF

    NL

    Pickup

    3YO

    FF

    L

    4-dr car

    3YO3YO12MO12MO

    SUV2-dr car4-dr carPickup

    FFFFFFRF

    NLLLNL

  • 30

    Summary of Injury

    Several vehicles exceeded numerous injury criteria

    3YO

    3YO

    3YO

    12MO

    12MO

    12MO

    12MO

    12MO

    Dummy Type

    0.470.840.14Near-SideSUVH0.350.470.05Far-Side

    0.84N/A0.55Near-Side2-dr. carG0.70N/A0.66Far-Side

    0.601.520.53Near-Side4-dr. carF0.470.410.10Far-Side

    1.601.881.74Near-Side4-dr. carE0.850.710.56Far-Side

    0.972.074.42Near-Side4-dr. carD1.330.731.04Far-Side

    1.63N/A0.45Near-SideVanC0.600.330.14Far-Side

    1.290.770.28Near-SidePickupA0.550.470.09Far-Side

    Pickup

    Vehicle Type

    Far-Side

    Near-Side

    Dummy Position

    1.000.460.11

    0.76N/A0.18B

    NijChest Gs

    HIC 15

  • 31

    Comparison of Sled Tests to Vehicle Tests

  • 32

    Suggested Lateral Sled Tests to Be Added to 213

    ANPRM suggested 2 Options:l 90o, no rigid wall

    l 20 mphl sine pulse or upgraded 213 pulse

    l Tethered CRSl Impose 20 head excursion limit

    l 90o, rigid-walll 15 mph

    l Grand Am pulse derived from pulse of Pontiac Grand Am when tested both under 214 (15 mph w/ 21g peakaccel.) & side NCAP (21 mph w/ 26 g peak accel.)

    l No head excursion limit necessary

  • 33

    Comparison of 90o (No wall) TRC Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests

    Near-side dummy readings for HIC 15 & chest G in sled tests (no wall) much lower than in vehicle tests

    Head & Chest Injury for Near-Side Dummies - Side NCAP Tests Vs. TRC 90o Sled Tests (No Wall)

    0.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0

    2.5

    3.0

    3.5

    4.0

    4.5

    5.0

    0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

    Normalized Chest G

    No

    rmal

    ized

    HIC

    15

    TRC 1/2 Sine Pulse (3YO)

    TRC 213 Pulse (3YO)

    SINCAP (3YO)

    SINCAP (12MO)

  • 34

    Comparison of 90o (No wall) TRC Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests

    Inconclusive whether HIC 15 & chest G readings for far-side dummy in vehicle tests greater than in sled tests (no wall)

    Head & Chest Injury for Far-Side Dummies - Side NCAP Tests Vs. TRC 90o Sled Tests (No wall)

    0.0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1.0

    1.2

    0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

    Normalized Chest G

    No

    rmal

    ized

    HIC

    15

    TRC 1/2 Sine Pulse (12MO)

    TRC 213 Pulse (12MO)

    SINCAP (3YO)

    SINCAP (12MO)

  • 35

    Comparison of TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests

    90o Y-acceleration on rear floorpan for five vehicles

    -10

    -5

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    -0.02 -0.01 -0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

    Right Rear Floorpan 90 degrees (Y)

    G'S

    Time in Seconds

    RSX Impreza Wagon Santa Fe Sentra TundraG (2-dr. car) F (4-dr. car) H (SUV) E (4-dr. car) A (Pickup)

  • 36

    Average acceleration curve in y-direction for 5 vehicles (v = 17.38 mph) vs. pulse for 15 mph rigid wall sled test

    Comparison of TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests

    -5

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    -0.02 -0.01 -0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

    G'S

    Time in Seconds

    VRTC 15 mph Rigid Wall Sled Test Pulse Avg. Accel. from Rear Floorpan of SINCAP Tests

    ~ 0.01 sec.

    ~ 8 Gs

    Note different shape

  • 37

    Comparison of TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests to SINCAP Vehicle Tests

    In general, near-side dummy readings for HIC 15 & chest G in 15 mph rigid wall sled tests are similar to readings in SINCAP vehicle tests

    Head & Chest Injury for Near-Side Dummies - Side NCAP Tests Vs. TRC 90o Rigid Wall Sled Tests at Various Speeds

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0

    6.0

    7.0

    0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

    Normalized Chest G

    No

    rmal

    ized

    HIC

    15

    TRC (10 mph)

    TRC (15 mph)

    TRC (20 mph)

    SINCAP (17.4 mph)

  • 38

    Preliminary Observations

    Based on limited test series:l CRSs withstand severity of side impact crash

    conditions

    l Near-side dummy readings generally greater than far-side dummy readingsl Contributors: Intrusion & lower anchorage locations

    changes relative position of dummy

  • 39

    Preliminary Observations

    Sled tests vs. vehicle tests:l Sled test (no wall)

    l Near-side dummy - readings for HIC 15 & chest G much lower than in vehicle tests

    l Far-side dummy inconclusive

    l Sled test (rigid wall)l Near-side dummy readings for HIC 15 & chest

    G for test at 15 mph similar to dummy readings for vehicle tests

  • 40

    Next Steps

    Evaluation of countermeasures

    Evaluation of biofidelity of dummies for side impact

    Additional vehicle testing

    Possible development of lateral impact test procedure for CRS

Recommended

View more >