Separatory funnels. Separatory Funnels: To separate liquid-liquid mixtures that have different densities. Typically, one of the phases will be aqueous,

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  • Separatory funnels

  • Separatory Funnels: To separate liquid-liquid mixtures that have different densities.

    Typically, one of the phases will be aqueous, and the other a fatty, organic solvent Most organic solvents float on top of an aqueous phase,

  • Filtering

  • A filter is a device (usually a membrane or layer) that is designed to physically block certain objects or substances while letting others through.

    Filters are often used to remove solid substances suspended in fluids, for example to remove air pollution, to make water drinkable, and to prepare coffee.

  • Sieving

  • A sieve, or sifter, separates wanted elements from unwanted material using a filter such as a mesh or net.

  • Evaporation

  • Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid, that occurs only on the surface of a liquid. The other type of vaporization is boiling, that instead occurs on the entire mass of the liquid.

  • Magnets

  • A magnet produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field is invisible but is responsible for the force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials like iron and attracts or repels other magnets.

  • Decantation

  • Decantation This is achieved by carefully pouring a solution from a container in order to leave the precipitate (sediments) in the bottom of the original container.

    It is generally used to separate a liquid from an insoluble solid (e.g. in red wine, where the wine is decanted from the potassium bitartrate crystals).

  • Crystallization

  • Crystals

  • Crystallization forms solid crystals precipitating from a solution, melt or more rarely deposited directly from a gas.

  • Chromatography

  • Chromatography: the different components are flushed through the material at different rates of absorption providing the separation.

  • Fractional distillation

  • Fractional distillation separates by using the boiling points at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate.

  • Centrifugation

  • The centrifuge uses the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration causes more dense substances to separate out along the bottom of the tube and lighter objects will move to the top.