GHT S1 01 (Block-2)
KRISHNA KANTA HANDIQUI STATE OPEN UNIVERSITYPatgaon, Rani Gate, Guwahati - 781 017
(HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGIN-NING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E)
UNIT 6 : Alexanders Invasion of India and Its ImpactUNIT 7 : The Mauryan EmpireUNIT 8 : Society, Economy, Religion and Art in the Mauryan
EmpireUNIT 9 : Post Mauryan Developments in IndiaUNIT 10 : The Gupta EmpireREFERENCES : For All Units
Subject Experts1. Dr. Sunil Pravan Baruah, Rt. Principal, B.Barooah College, Guwahati2. Dr. Gajendra Adhikari, Principal, D.K.Girls College, Mirza3. Dr. Maushumi Dutta Pathak, HOD, History, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati
Course Coordinator : Dr. Priti Salila Rajkhowa,K.K.H.S.O.U
SLM Preparation TeamUnits Contributors
6 Dr. Bishwajyoti Dev Mahanta, Pragjyotish College7& 8 Dr. Navaneeta Phukan, Pandu College
& Mridutpal Goswami, Dudhnoi College9 Dr. Navaneeta Phukan, Pandu College
& Dr. Priti Salila Rajkhowa, KKHSOU11 Dr. Kamal Narayan Patowary, Barama College
Editorial TeamContent (English Version) : Dr. Maushumi Dutta Pathak,HOD, History, Arya Vidyapeeth
College, Guwahati.Language (English Version) : Professor Robin Goswami, Former HOD, English, Cotton
Structure, Format & Graphics : Dr. Priti Salila Rajkhowa, KKHSOU.
June 2017 This Self Learning Material (SLM) of the Krishna KantaHandiqui State Open University is
made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike4.0 License(international): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/
Printed and published by Registrar on behalf of the Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University
Head Office : Patgaon, Rani Gate, Guwahati-781 017City Office : Housefed Complex, Dispur, Guwahati-781 006; Web: www.kkhsou.in
The University acknowledges with thanks the financial support provided by theDistance Education Bureau, UGC for the preparation of this study material.
BACHELOR OF ARTS
HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE13TH CENTURY A.D
UNIT 6 : Alexanders Invasion of India and Its Impact 81-92
Alexander, Impact of Alexanders Invasion- social and political
UNIT 7 : The Mauryan Empire 93-109
The rise of the Maurya, Mauryan Administration, The Kalinga
War, Disintegration of the Mauryan Empire
UNIT 8 : Society, Economy, Religion and Art in the Mauryan Empire 110-121
Society, Economy, Religion, Architecture and Sculpture
UNIT 9 : Post-Mauryan Developments in India 122-140
Rise of New Kingdoms in Northern India-The Sungas,
The Kushana, The Satavahanas, Religion-Mahayana Buddhism
and Schism in Jainism, Cultural Developments- Art, Architecture
UNIT 10 : The Gupta Empire 141-166
Foundation, expansion, administration and downfall of the
80 HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E
This is the Second Block of the first Course in History entitled History of India from Pre-History
till the Beginning of the 13th century C.E under the revised Semester system of the B.A. Programme.
This block consists of five units.
The sixth unit is titled, Alexanders Invasion of India and Its Impact. This unit discusses the
significance of Alexanders invasion of India.
The seventh unit entitled, The Mauryan Empire. This unit introduces the rise of Mauryan,
Mauryan Administration, the Kalinga War and disintegration of the Mauryan Empire.
The eighth unit entitled, Society, Economy, Religion and Art in the Mauryan Empire. This unit
discusses the Society, Economy, Religion, Architecture and Sculpture of the Mauryan Empire.
The ninth unit entitled, Post-Mauryan Developments in India. The unit discusses the rise of
new kingdoms in Northern India-the Sungas, the Kushana, the Satavahanas, Religion-Mahayana
Buddhism and Schism in Jainism, Cultural Developments- Art, Architecture and Sculpture in the
The tenth unit The Gupta Empire explains the foundation, expansion, administration and
.downfall of the Gupta Empire in detail.
While going through this block, you will notice that some boxes are put in the left hand or right
hand side of the text. These boxes are meant to serve the purpose of in-text glossary for you. Again,
you may find some boxes marked with: "LET US KNOW". These boxes will provide you with some
additional interesting and relevant information. The boxes marked with "ACTIVITY" will help you in
making your learning more active and efficient. And, at the end of each section, you will get "CHECK
YOUR PROGRESS" questions. These have been designed to self-check your progress of study. It
will be better if you solve the problems put in these boxes immediately after you go through the sec-
tions of the units and then match your answer with "ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS"
given at the end of each unit.
81HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E
Unit 6: ALEXANDERS INVASION OF INDIA ANDITS IMPACT
6.1 Learning Objectives
6.3 Political condition in North West India
6.3.1 Early Persian Invasions
6.3.2 Results of the Contacts
6.4 Alexanders Invasion of India
6.5 Effects of Alexanders Invasion
6.6 Indian Reaction to the Greeks
6.7 Let Us Sum Up
6.8 Further Reading
6.9 Answers to Check Your Progress
6.10 Model Questions
6.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to-
discuss the political condition of north-west India before Alexanders
trace the early Persian Invasions,
assess different aspects of Alexanders invasion,
analyse the effects of Alexanders invasion of India and Indias
reaction to it.
The invasion of India by Alexander, the great king of Macedon in 326
B.C. is an important event of far reaching consequence in the ancient Indian
history. In this unit we are going to discuss in detail the invasion of Alexander
to India and the effects of his invasion in India. As a background to it we will
at first discuss the political condition of North-West India during that period
82 HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E
when Alexander entered India through the North-West frontier. The Persian
invasions that occurred prior to Alexanders invasions are also being
discussed along with the impact of the Persian contact on India.
6.3 POLITICAL CONDITION IN NORTH WEST INDIA
In an earlier unit we have discussed the emergence of different
janapadas in North India. They often fought among themselves for political
and economic supremacy. At last, in the Eastern Gangetic Valley the kingdom
of Magadha became most powerful. It occupied many territories and built
an Empire. But in the North-West India there was no political unity. It was
divided into small kingdoms like Kamboja, Gandhara or Madra. They were
fighting very frequently among themselves. The location of these states
was also important. Although they were geographically within the Indian sub-
continent yet they were linked with Central Asia through many passes.
Foreigners could easily enter there by crossing the passes in the Hindukush
Mountains. In this section you will be told about some of such attempts.
6.3.1 Early Persian Invasions
On the 6th century B.C. an Empire was built up in Persia,
the area of present Iran, Iraq, etc. It was called Achaemenid Empire.
By 530 B.C. its Emperor Cyrus crossed the Hindukush Mountains.
He was militarily more powerful than the smaller kingdoms of North-
Western India. He forced the people of Kamboja and Gandhara to
pay tribute to him. After him, another Achaemenid ruler Darius
annexed Punjab and the Western part of the Indus and Sind in North-
West India in 516 B.C. This area became the most fertile part of the
Persian Empire. So, we can say that the North-Western India was
ruled by different kings or Emperors at different times. Sometimes it
was ruled by the local rulers or chiefs and sometimes by the
Alexanders Invasion of India and its ImpactUnit 6
83HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E
LET US KNOWGandhara and Hindukush are mentioned as satrapies
or provinces in Achaemenian inscriptions. They were
known for their prosperity.
6.3.2 Results of the Contacts
There were far reaching results of the Persian contact on
North Western India after the early Persian invasions. It was a contact
between two cultures which brought many changes of the North
After coming into contact with Persia many towns of North -
West India became cosmopolitan centres. Out of them mention may
be made of Gandhara and Takshashila. Indian and Persian learning
mingled in these centres. This mixing influenced the different aspects
of Indian life. Firstly, Indians struck Persian Sigloi type coins.
Secondly, you perhaps have heard that king Asoka used many rock
inscriptions to propagate Buddhism. He perhaps borrowed the idea
of inscription from Persian king Darius. Thirdly, the script Kharosti,
which was widely used in North-Western India, was der