SEMESTER 1 HISTORY - 7 : The Mauryan Empire UNIT 8 : Society, ... Architecture and Sculpture of the Mauryan Empire. The ninth unit entitled, Post-Mauryan Developments in India

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  • GHT S1 01 (Block-2)

    KRISHNA KANTA HANDIQUI STATE OPEN UNIVERSITYPatgaon, Rani Gate, Guwahati - 781 017

    SEMESTER 1

    HISTORY

    (HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGIN-NING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E)

    BLOCK-2

    CONTENTS

    UNIT 6 : Alexanders Invasion of India and Its ImpactUNIT 7 : The Mauryan EmpireUNIT 8 : Society, Economy, Religion and Art in the Mauryan

    EmpireUNIT 9 : Post Mauryan Developments in IndiaUNIT 10 : The Gupta EmpireREFERENCES : For All Units

  • Subject Experts1. Dr. Sunil Pravan Baruah, Rt. Principal, B.Barooah College, Guwahati2. Dr. Gajendra Adhikari, Principal, D.K.Girls College, Mirza3. Dr. Maushumi Dutta Pathak, HOD, History, Arya Vidyapeeth College, Guwahati

    Course Coordinator : Dr. Priti Salila Rajkhowa,K.K.H.S.O.U

    SLM Preparation TeamUnits Contributors

    6 Dr. Bishwajyoti Dev Mahanta, Pragjyotish College7& 8 Dr. Navaneeta Phukan, Pandu College

    & Mridutpal Goswami, Dudhnoi College9 Dr. Navaneeta Phukan, Pandu College

    & Dr. Priti Salila Rajkhowa, KKHSOU11 Dr. Kamal Narayan Patowary, Barama College

    Editorial TeamContent (English Version) : Dr. Maushumi Dutta Pathak,HOD, History, Arya Vidyapeeth

    College, Guwahati.Language (English Version) : Professor Robin Goswami, Former HOD, English, Cotton

    College, Guwahati

    Structure, Format & Graphics : Dr. Priti Salila Rajkhowa, KKHSOU.

    June 2017 This Self Learning Material (SLM) of the Krishna KantaHandiqui State Open University is

    made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike4.0 License(international): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/

    Printed and published by Registrar on behalf of the Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University

    Head Office : Patgaon, Rani Gate, Guwahati-781 017City Office : Housefed Complex, Dispur, Guwahati-781 006; Web: www.kkhsou.in

    The University acknowledges with thanks the financial support provided by theDistance Education Bureau, UGC for the preparation of this study material.

  • BACHELOR OF ARTS

    HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE13TH CENTURY A.D

    DETAILED SYLLABUS

    BLOCK-2

    PAGES

    UNIT 6 : Alexanders Invasion of India and Its Impact 81-92

    Alexander, Impact of Alexanders Invasion- social and political

    UNIT 7 : The Mauryan Empire 93-109

    The rise of the Maurya, Mauryan Administration, The Kalinga

    War, Disintegration of the Mauryan Empire

    UNIT 8 : Society, Economy, Religion and Art in the Mauryan Empire 110-121

    Society, Economy, Religion, Architecture and Sculpture

    UNIT 9 : Post-Mauryan Developments in India 122-140

    Rise of New Kingdoms in Northern India-The Sungas,

    The Kushana, The Satavahanas, Religion-Mahayana Buddhism

    and Schism in Jainism, Cultural Developments- Art, Architecture

    and Sculpture

    UNIT 10 : The Gupta Empire 141-166

    Foundation, expansion, administration and downfall of the

    Gupta Empire

  • 80 HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E

    BLOCK INTRODUCTION

    This is the Second Block of the first Course in History entitled History of India from Pre-History

    till the Beginning of the 13th century C.E under the revised Semester system of the B.A. Programme.

    This block consists of five units.

    The sixth unit is titled, Alexanders Invasion of India and Its Impact. This unit discusses the

    significance of Alexanders invasion of India.

    The seventh unit entitled, The Mauryan Empire. This unit introduces the rise of Mauryan,

    Mauryan Administration, the Kalinga War and disintegration of the Mauryan Empire.

    The eighth unit entitled, Society, Economy, Religion and Art in the Mauryan Empire. This unit

    discusses the Society, Economy, Religion, Architecture and Sculpture of the Mauryan Empire.

    The ninth unit entitled, Post-Mauryan Developments in India. The unit discusses the rise of

    new kingdoms in Northern India-the Sungas, the Kushana, the Satavahanas, Religion-Mahayana

    Buddhism and Schism in Jainism, Cultural Developments- Art, Architecture and Sculpture in the

    Post-Mauryan India.

    The tenth unit The Gupta Empire explains the foundation, expansion, administration and

    .downfall of the Gupta Empire in detail.

    While going through this block, you will notice that some boxes are put in the left hand or right

    hand side of the text. These boxes are meant to serve the purpose of in-text glossary for you. Again,

    you may find some boxes marked with: "LET US KNOW". These boxes will provide you with some

    additional interesting and relevant information. The boxes marked with "ACTIVITY" will help you in

    making your learning more active and efficient. And, at the end of each section, you will get "CHECK

    YOUR PROGRESS" questions. These have been designed to self-check your progress of study. It

    will be better if you solve the problems put in these boxes immediately after you go through the sec-

    tions of the units and then match your answer with "ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS"

    given at the end of each unit.

  • 81HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E

    Unit 6: ALEXANDERS INVASION OF INDIA ANDITS IMPACT

    UNIT STRUCTURE

    6.1 Learning Objectives

    6.2 Introduction

    6.3 Political condition in North West India

    6.3.1 Early Persian Invasions

    6.3.2 Results of the Contacts

    6.4 Alexanders Invasion of India

    6.5 Effects of Alexanders Invasion

    6.6 Indian Reaction to the Greeks

    6.7 Let Us Sum Up

    6.8 Further Reading

    6.9 Answers to Check Your Progress

    6.10 Model Questions

    6.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    After going through this unit, you will be able to-

    discuss the political condition of north-west India before Alexanders

    invasion,

    trace the early Persian Invasions,

    assess different aspects of Alexanders invasion,

    analyse the effects of Alexanders invasion of India and Indias

    reaction to it.

    6.2 INTRODUCTION

    The invasion of India by Alexander, the great king of Macedon in 326

    B.C. is an important event of far reaching consequence in the ancient Indian

    history. In this unit we are going to discuss in detail the invasion of Alexander

    to India and the effects of his invasion in India. As a background to it we will

    at first discuss the political condition of North-West India during that period

  • 82 HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E

    when Alexander entered India through the North-West frontier. The Persian

    invasions that occurred prior to Alexanders invasions are also being

    discussed along with the impact of the Persian contact on India.

    6.3 POLITICAL CONDITION IN NORTH WEST INDIA

    In an earlier unit we have discussed the emergence of different

    janapadas in North India. They often fought among themselves for political

    and economic supremacy. At last, in the Eastern Gangetic Valley the kingdom

    of Magadha became most powerful. It occupied many territories and built

    an Empire. But in the North-West India there was no political unity. It was

    divided into small kingdoms like Kamboja, Gandhara or Madra. They were

    fighting very frequently among themselves. The location of these states

    was also important. Although they were geographically within the Indian sub-

    continent yet they were linked with Central Asia through many passes.

    Foreigners could easily enter there by crossing the passes in the Hindukush

    Mountains. In this section you will be told about some of such attempts.

    6.3.1 Early Persian Invasions

    On the 6th century B.C. an Empire was built up in Persia,

    the area of present Iran, Iraq, etc. It was called Achaemenid Empire.

    By 530 B.C. its Emperor Cyrus crossed the Hindukush Mountains.

    He was militarily more powerful than the smaller kingdoms of North-

    Western India. He forced the people of Kamboja and Gandhara to

    pay tribute to him. After him, another Achaemenid ruler Darius

    annexed Punjab and the Western part of the Indus and Sind in North-

    West India in 516 B.C. This area became the most fertile part of the

    Persian Empire. So, we can say that the North-Western India was

    ruled by different kings or Emperors at different times. Sometimes it

    was ruled by the local rulers or chiefs and sometimes by the

    Persians.

    Alexanders Invasion of India and its ImpactUnit 6

  • 83HISTORY OF INDIA FROM PRE-HISTORY TILL THE BEGINNING OF THE 13TH CENTURY C.E

    LET US KNOWGandhara and Hindukush are mentioned as satrapies

    or provinces in Achaemenian inscriptions. They were

    known for their prosperity.

    6.3.2 Results of the Contacts

    There were far reaching results of the Persian contact on

    North Western India after the early Persian invasions. It was a contact

    between two cultures which brought many changes of the North

    Western region.

    After coming into contact with Persia many towns of North -

    West India became cosmopolitan centres. Out of them mention may

    be made of Gandhara and Takshashila. Indian and Persian learning

    mingled in these centres. This mixing influenced the different aspects

    of Indian life. Firstly, Indians struck Persian Sigloi type coins.

    Secondly, you perhaps have heard that king Asoka used many rock

    inscriptions to propagate Buddhism. He perhaps borrowed the idea

    of inscription from Persian king Darius. Thirdly, the script Kharosti,

    which was widely used in North-Western India, was der

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