SEA ROUTE (PART 3)
Land route to China grew increasinglydangerous after Marco Polos journey
1) Death of Kublai KahnMongol empire declined and thus Mongols no longer policed the Silk Road
2) Isolationist policies of the Ming dynasty Did nothing to encourage trade between China and the rapidly developing West
However, Europeans still wanted these goods
They bought expensive eastern goods from middlemen (the Muslim merchants)
The Europeans wanted to get their goods more cheaply than buying them from the middlemen
Led an expedition that opened the sea route to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa
Traders needed to come to SEA for goods Da Gama asked whether he could take a pepper stalk with him for replanting before leaving Calicut.
However, it was not possible because the region's unusual twin monsoon with heavy rain was very important to the growth of pepper.You can take our pepper, but you will never be able to take our rains.
What does this mean?
Can you identify the countries that make up SEA? Which are SEAs two largest neighbours?
Southeast Asia lies between the Indian and Pacific oceans and stretches from Asia almost to Australia.
It consists of two main parts:(1) the mainland peninsula, which borders China to the north and India to the west(2) The islands, the largest of which include Sumatra, Borneo, and Java.
All of Southeast Asia lies within the warm, humid tropics.Monsoon winds bring the region long annual rains.
Class DiscussionA trader from Southern India wanted Chinese Silk. He had two options: he could sail directly to China or go to Palembang.
Which option would be better for him? Answer: SEA ports served as COLLECTION CENTRES for goods Less time needed: Need not to be away from his family for too long Cheaper: Did not have to spend too much money on the journey Less Dangerous with a shorter journey: Heard about the pirates and is worried for his safety Still obtain silk and earn money: Earn as much money as possible from trading in Chinese silk
SEA ports also served as CONVENIENT STOPOVERS due to monsoonsA monsoon is a seasonal change in the direction of the prevailing, or strongest, winds of a region
The summer monsoon and the winter monsoon determine the climate for most of India and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia lies in the midpoint of the most direct sea route between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea
Learning more about Sea Route through Admiral Zheng Hes voyages
Zheng He was China's most famous maritime explorerTravelled more than 50,000 km to over 30 countries during his 7 voyages over 28 years
A replica of Zheng He's treasure ship in Nanjing's Baochuan Shipyard
The great ships included enormous junks up to 120 metres long with nine masts and 12 square sails made of silk
Zheng He's flagship (Baochuan) Christoper Columbus' Santa Maria"The ships which sail the Southern Sea are like houses. When their sails are spread they are like great clouds in the sky. A description by a Chinese Historian
It was the largest fleet that the world had ever seen and it would not be surpassed for another 500 years.
NavigatorNumber of ShipsNumber of CrewZheng He (1405 - 1433)48 to 31728,000Columbus (1492)390Da Gama (1498)4160Magellan (1521)5265
Importance of Zheng Hes Voyages Zheng He needed to control the Strait of Malacca. Why? The strait is the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, linking major Asian economies such as India, China, Japan and South Korea
In order to control the straits, he needed to deal with neighbouring SEA ports.
Friendship with Parameswara (ruler of Melaka)
Captured Chen Zuyi (ruler of Palembang)
You, king (refer to Parameswara), travelled tens of thousands of li across the ocean to the capital. I (emperor Yongle) have been glad to meet with you, king, and feel that you should stay. However, your people are longing for you and it is appropriate that you return to soothe them. The weather is getting colder and the winds are suited for sailing South. It is the right time. You should eat well on your journey and look after yourself, so as to reflect my feelings of concern for you. Now I am conferring upon you, king, a gold and jade belt, ceremonial insignia, two "saddled horses", 100 liang of gold, 500 liang of silver, 400,000 guan of paper money, 2,600 guan of copper cash, 300 bolts of embroidered fine silks and silk gauzes, 1,000 bolts of thin silks. An account of Parameswaras visit to Ming China in 1411
1. Friendship with ParameswaraSiam was a rival: Attacked Malacca three times but attacks were repelled
New protector of Malacca: In 1409, the sultan paid tribute to the Ming emperor to ask for protection against Siam. Malacca was made as protectorate of Ming China
Result: Siam was deterred from further threatening MalaccaParameswara
2. Captured Chen Zuyi Ruler of PalembangStrongest pirate of Southeast Asia with 5,000 men and 10 shipsRaided ships and preyed on merchants in the Strait of Malacca for several years
Question: How did Zuyis raids affect traders in Southeast Asia?
Answer: Traders might be bankrupt and might even lose their lives. As such, they would not be willing to use this trade route.
160 different types of goods were imported during the Ming Dynasty as a result of Zheng Hes voyagesImport and Export of goods were done in ports along the maritime trade routes Impact on SEA ports? Left: Pet giraffe of the Sultan of Bengal, brought from Medieval Somalia, and later taken to China
Right: Chinese silks, porcelain, and tools were highly prized throughout Southeast Asia
What do the star and crescent moon represent? Answer: Islam (Melakas state religion)
Zhenghe performed his personal role as a pious Muslim to spread Islam
Born as the second son of a poor Muslim familu in Kunyang. He was raised a Muslim and studied the teaching of Islam.
His father and grandfather were both Haji (Muslims who visited Mecca for pilgrimage)
Birth name was Ma He Ma is the Chinese abbreviation for the Muslim Mohamed
Muhammad Cheng Hoo Mosque was built to commemorate the historic visit of acclaimed Chinese-Muslim explorer
Islam already spread to Southeast Asia: When Zhengs fleet stopped at Semarang in 1413, Zheng He and his attendants, Ma Huan and Fei Xin, went together to the local mosque to pray
Contributions: Increased spread of Islam Built more mosques in Andro, Cirebon, Tuban, Gresik, Ruoban and Java in Jakarta in 1411Established more Chinese Muslim communities in Southeast Asia
*The pattern is quite simple: the southwest monsoon, normally called the rainy season, is appearing annually out of the direction of India and south of it, crossing the Indian Ocean and entering the coasts of Malaysia, Thailand and Burma/Myanmar. Much of it is pouring down at the bordering mountain ranges as the Barisan Mountains in Sumatra and the Tenasserim Mountain Range in south Thailand. As further it penetrates inland, as weaker it gets. It's time is between May to October. There are big local differences.
The northeast monsoon is of a very different kind. It brings rather dry and cooler winds from the inner Asian continent (China). It's time is from December to February.
*The rhinoceros horn was a unique traded commodity in Champa, Vietnam. Chinese physicians used it as an antidote for snake poison during the Ming dynasty. *