Scr Mueller

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    Experience with SCR Technology for DieselExhaust Emission Control of Trucks in Asia,

    Europe and North America

    Gary Keefe and Raimund Mueller

    Bangkok, February 1, 2001

    Motivation for Diesel Engine Emission Control

    Human health impact

    Photochemical smog Acid rain Human health impact

    Human health impact

    Greenhouse gas - climate change

    Photochemical smog

    EngineEmissions

    HC

    NOx

    PM

    CO

    CO2

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    Why Reducing Nitrogen Oxides?

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

    from the Exhaust Gas

    Ozone forms and is inhaled by persons

    Sun effect

    Nitrogen Monoxide

    (NO)

    Atomic Oxigen (O)

    Molecular Oxigen (O2)

    SCR Reactions with Reducing Agent -Urea

    Hydrolysis-Reaction: (NH2) 2CO + H2O 2 NH3 + CO2

    SCR-Reaction:

    4 NH3 + 4 NO + O2 4 N2 + 6 H2O

    8 NH3 + 6 NO2 7 N2 + 12 H2O

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    Applications of SINOx Catalysts and Systems

    Power Plant Truck

    Greenhouse Fertilizer/CoGen

    Incinerator

    Marine Propulsion

    Railroad Engine

    Diesel Car

    Stationary Diesel

    SINOx -Catalysts

    Future Emission Standards for Commercial Vehicles

    and Market Requirements

    Source: Moser et. al.NOx - g/kWh

    0190

    200

    210

    220

    230

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    Marketrequirement

    Legislative

    requirement(NOx)

    Trade -off with currenttechnology (EU3/US 98)

    B S F C

    - g / k W h

    0

    0,1

    0,2

    0,3

    0,4

    P a r

    t i c u

    l a t e s -

    g / k W h

    2007

    2004/2005

    2008

    1998/2000EUUSJ

    Worldwide exhaust emission standards for HD diesel engines beyond 2000

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    Exhaust Emission Control Motivation: Diesel Trade-Off

    NOx-Emissions [g/kWh]

    98632100

    1074 5

    0,04

    0,06

    0,08

    0,10,12

    0,14

    0,16

    0,18

    P M

    - E m

    i s s i o n s

    [ g / k W h ]

    0,02

    NOx/PMDPF

    EGR &Combustion

    SINOx

    E n g i n e ( P M - o p t )

    NOx/BE

    S p e c i

    f i c

    F u e l

    C o n s u m p

    t i o n

    [ g / k W h ]

    Emissions-Reduction Potential with SINOx System

    Increase of engine-out NOxemission due tofuel efficienttuning, for lowPM emission

    Improvement of

    BSFC over EURO 3 engineattainable

    Emission data in g/kWh

    BSFC0

    2040

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    NOx HC PM

    R e l a t

    i v e

    E m

    i s s i o n

    i n %

    E

    5

    9

    1,8

    0,660,6

    0,12

    0,1

    0,03

    0,02

    80% NOx-reduction

    80% HC-reduction

    30% PM-reduction

    SINOx Capability EURO 3 EnginePM & BSFC optimi zed engineOptimized engine w/ SINOx

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    The SINOx System for Trucks

    Urea Dosing Unit,Urea and Diesel tankintegrated in one unit

    SCR-catalyst integratedin series silencer

    base-metal catalyst ceramic monolith cat.volume 30 ltr.

    200 cpsi

    12 l HD-Diesel engines 6-cylinder 400 hp class

    diagnosis

    SCR-Catalyst

    NOx,O2

    reducingagent

    (NH2) 2CO

    purifiedexhaust

    N2,H2O

    Urea-DosingUnit

    exhaust

    operatingdata

    (NH2) 2COEDC

    ECU DCU

    engine

    Characteristics of SINOx SCR Systems

    Active emission control system integrated solution - Not just an Add-on communication between engine and urea dosing unit via CAN bus integration into the vehicle infrastructure (pressurized air, electrics)

    Resources Diesel fuel with S < 0,15% 32,5% solution of urea as reducing agent

    Temperature range of exhaust: gas 200...550C (without oxidation catalyst) no or slight increase of exhaust backpressure compared to standard silencer combination with particulate filter feasible if desired for special applications

    Function

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    Urea distribution infrastructure concept Industry Committee established with members including oilindustry, vehicle and engine manufacturers ureamanufacturers and Siemens:

    Step 1- Refilling urea at truck home yard

    Step 2 - Refilling urea at main truck stops locatedalong the major highways

    Step 3 - Refilling urea at the gas stations Urea Pump Station

    Urea Charateristics: non-hazardous, non-explosive, non-toxic released as a food-additive lowest water polluting classification

    Reducing Agent Aqueous Urea

    Urea - Applications

    UREA

    Agriculturefertilizer feed

    Water industrynutritive substance for the biologicaltreatment of wastewater

    Power industry

    reducing agentfor exhaust gas

    Chemical Industryraw material for:

    UF-resinsUrethanesand many others Food processing

    for chewing gumproduction

    Medical andpharmaceutics for theproduction of:

    barbituratesdiureticsspecial injury bandages

    Other industriesauxiliaries in:

    chipboard industrytextile industrycoolant lindustrycosmetics industry

    There is no shortageof urea

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    SINOx System - Field Demonstration

    Total mileage: 21 trucks 6.099.000 kmMax. mileage of single vehicles: 524.000 km

    (Status: 2000-03-27*)

    *) 2nd roadtest finished1999-12-31. Some vehiclesareoperatedfurtherfor longtermtesting

    Measurements

    Investigations:

    on the road (vehicle): NOx-reductionUrea consumptionmechanical durability

    in lab reactor (SCR-catalyst): activity (NOx-reduction) = f (mileage)physico-chemical measurements(surface area, composition, etc.)

    on the test bench (silencer): NOx-reduction at start (ESC, ETC)NOx-reduction at end (ESC, ETC)

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    0

    0,004

    0,008

    0,012

    0,016

    0,02

    P M [ g / k W h ]

    total PM soluable insoluable0

    0,004

    0,008

    0,012

    0,016

    0,02

    P M [ g / k W h ]

    total PM soluable insoluable

    PM and NOx emissions - ESC test w/12 ltr. HDE +

    SINOx

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    N O x

    [ g / k W h ]

    NOx

    Engine out emissions after SINOxEngine out emissions after SINOx

    - 81%

    PM and NOx Emissions - ETC test w/12 ltr. HDE+SINOx

    0

    0,0040,008

    0,012

    0,016

    0,020,024

    P M [ g / k W h ]

    total PM soluable insoluable0

    24

    6

    8

    10

    12

    N O x

    [ g / k W h ]

    NOx

    Engine out emissions after SINOx

    0

    0,0040,008

    0,012

    0,016

    0,020,024

    P M [ g / k W h ]

    total PM soluable insoluable

    - 86%

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    On-board NOx-measurement on mixed highway

    Time in seconds

    Highway Section Bamberg Redwitz

    N O x -

    C o n c e n

    t r a t

    i o n

    i n p p m

    0200

    400600800

    100012001400160018002000

    0 750 1500 2250 3000

    NOx conversion: 71.2 %NOx conversion: 71.2 % NOx before Cat.

    NOx after Cat.

    NOx before Cat.

    NOx after Cat.

    Results of Measurements

    Measurements were done and reported by TV Automotive, Germany

    1st demonstration program: 0 km 130,000 km remark

    NOx reduction on-road: 56% 54% constant within accurarcy

    Urea consumption fleet average 4.1 % of diesel fuel consumption

    2nd demonstration program: 0 km 272,000 km remark

    NOx reduction ESC cycle: 65% 63% constant within accurarcy

    NOx reduction ETC cycle: 70% 71% constant within accurarcy

    NOx reduction on-road: 74% measured after 212,000 km

    Urea consumption fleet average 5.5 % of diesel fuel consumption

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    Catalyst activity during field demonstration

    Catalyst Activity in accordance with predicted deterioration factor (over 500,000 km)Catalyst total specific surface area and active materials constant over test program Deposition of phoshate on catalyst surface in upstream face of catalyst

    0 .6

    0 .7

    0 .8

    0 .9

    1

    0 1 0 0 20 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0

    Driv ing Performance [1000 km]

    N O x

    C o n v e r s

    i o n

    P e r f .

    ( r e

    l . )

    SINOx Catalyst

    Fuel optimized engine meeting EURO 4/2 with SCR

    Engine modification to EURO III engine for best fuel economy (BSFC)

    NOx & PM Emission below EURO 4/2 in ESC and ETC

    Program by VROM, AVL, Deutz, Siemens(Source: AVL, Cartellieri et. al. )

    0,0

    2,0

    4,0

    6,0

    8,0

    10,0

    12,0

    Baseline Optimized w /SCR EUROIV/1

    w/SCR EUROIV/2

    N O x , P M * 1 0 0 i n

    180

    185

    190

    195

    200

    205

    210

    215

    220

    225

    B S F C i n g

    NOx

    PM * 100

    BSFC

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    US truck SCR investigatio

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