SCIR Fall 2012 Issue

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Fall 2012 Issue of the Southern California International Review, a global undergraduate international studies journal published biannually and funded by the School of International Relations at the University of Southern California

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  • Southern California International Review

    Volume 2, Number 2 Fall 2012

  • Dedicated to the memory of a beloved teacher and respected leader:

    Robert L. FriedheimProfessor of International Relations, 1976-2001

    Director of the School of International Relations, 1992-1995

  • The Southern California International Review (SCIR) is a bi-annual interdis-ciplinary print and online journal of scholarship in the field of international

    studies generously funded by the School of International Relations at the University of Southern California (USC). In particular, SCIR would like to thank the Robert L. Friedheim Fund and the USC SIR Alumni Fund.

    Founded in 2011, the journal seeks to foster and enhance discussion between theoretical and policy-oriented research regarding significant global issues. SCIR also serves as an opportunity for undergraduate students at USC to publish their work. SCIR is managed completely by students and also pro-

    vides undergraduates valuable experience in the fields of editing and graphic design.

    Copyright 2012 Southern California International Review.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform without the express written consent of the Southern California International

    Review.

    Views expressed in this journal are solely those of the authors themselves and do not necessarilyrepresent those of the editorial board, faculty advisors, or the University of Southern California.

    Southern California International Reviewscinternationalreview.org

    StaffEditor-in-ChiefSamir Kumar

    Assistant Editor-in-Chief: Andrew Ju

    Editors:Natalie Tecimer

    Matthew Prusak

    Taline Gettas

    Rebecca Braun

    Cover Design: Samir Kumar

    Layout: Rebecca Braun

  • Contents

    1. The 16 Year CrisisSecurity, Geopolitics, and Conflict Management in the Arctic

    Kelsey Bradshaw, Jason Finklestein, Nicholas Kosturos

    9

    2. Expressions of NationalismExploring the Implications of Russian Gemeinschaft

    Tyler D. Tyburski

    29

    3. The Ethnic Korean Population in JapanThe Last Frontier?

    Alyssa Min

    43

    4. Genocide, Identity, and the StateThe Dire Potential for Conflict in Colonial Identities

    Erik Peterson

    57

  • The capability and dedication of our authors and editors are what make this issue strong, but USCs faith in our abilities is just as valuable. SCIR would not exist without the generous funding provided by the Robert L. Freidheim Memorial Endowment, and the support of the School of International Relations. Significant appreciation goes to the Director, Dr. Robert English, and the wonderful faculty and staff that have assisted us over the past three years. I would particularly like to thank Linda Cole for her constant presence and her willingness to see us succeed at our current endeavors and lay the groundwork to aim higher.

    Finally, please do not underestimate our receptivity to your comments! We would love to hear your feedback on this issue. Please send us your comments, questions, and sugges-tions at scinternationalreview@gmail.com, and we will do our best to take these into account or offer a thoughtful reply.

    Sincerely,

    Samir KumarEditor-in-Chief

    Dear Reader,

    It is with great pleasure that I introduce the fourth issue of the Southern California International Review (SCIR). This bi-annual undergraduate journal based at the University of Southern California seeks to create a unique opportunity for students to publish their research and other academic work in order to spread their ideas to a wider audience. By fostering such dialogue between students of international relations and related fields both on campus and throughout the country, SCIR seeks to promote a better understanding of the global challenges facing our world today. As our world becomes increasingly intercon-nected through technology, trade, and diplomacy, it is evident that events occurring any-where on the globe have worldwide effects. The need to not only study, but also interrogate, international relations and related disciplines, has never been more important. Thus, this journal desires to contribute unique and innovative ideas to this fascinating and essential field of study.

    I am happy to write that this is the second issue in which SCIR accepted article submis-sions from students at universities other than USC. The pieces contained in the journal are written by undergraduate students and were chosen by our six member editorial board. The graphics, templates, and formatting was also designed by our editorial board. In an effort to not restrict students in their submissions, SCIR welcomed submissions on a wide variety of topics in the realm of international studies, thereby emphasizing our commitment to interdisciplinary learning.

    From a discussion of an emerging threat to international security in the Arctic to an examination of identity manipulation in Rwanda, the content of this issue should engage you and prompt further inquiry into these particular realms of study. As you read, ask your-self, Why is this article important? My hope is that your question is answered, and you find yourself with a host of more incisive questions that would incite enthralling answers. Additionally, in the future, please keep an eye out for the authors published herein, for they might soon be in a position to influence the very issues that they have examined!

    A letter from the editor:

  • The 16 Years Crisis Security, Geopolitics, and Conflict in the Arctic

    Kelsey Bradshaw, Jason Finklestein, Nicholas Kosturos

    We dont talk about conflict or else it might happenJyrki Terva, Finnish Consul General to St. Petersburg, Russian Federation

    Due to a changing global climate, the Arctic region of our globe is shifting from being ice-capped to ice-free. Though the Arctic region is not regularly on the forefront of most Ameri-cans minds, the untapped resources at the bottom of Arctic Ocean in conjunction with the potential for drastically cheaper shipping options makes the Arctic a region of utmost economic and geostrategic significance for many nations across the globe. Claims on critical natural resources and shipping routes are tenuous at best, which should lead diplomats and leaders to be wary of possible disputes. This research paper finds a startling dissonance between regional states behavior and state officials statements and positions with regards to the status quo of affairs in the Arctic. In addition to a telling denial by diplomats of any potential for conflict, a number of factors indicate a high risk of potential interstate conflict. These security risks in-clude an evident military buildup in the Arctic region; lack of effective governing institutions; post-Cold War tensions and the resulting realist-driven operational codes; internal domestic political pressures; and the uncertainty of the Artic Councils future leadership role. While this report does not seek to be alarmist about a looming world war, it suggests that Arctic conflict management has become increasingly critical to preventing the Arctic from transforming from a zone of peace into a zone of conflict.

    Introduction

    The Arctic is hot is the fashion in which Russian diplomat Aleksi Ivanov recently described the growing significance of the Arctic to the world.1 The depletion of worldwide

    1 Aleksi Ivanov, interview held with University of Southern California researchers, Stockholm, Sweden, May 25, 2012.

    Kelsey Bradshaw is a senior at the University of Southern California majoring in International Relations.

    Jason Finklestein is a senior at the University of Southern California majoring in International Relations.

    Nicholas Kosturos is a junior at the University of Southern California majoring in International Relations.

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    Southern California International Review - Vol. 2 No. 2

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    Southern California International Review - Vol. 2 No. 2

    The 16 Years CrisisKelsey Bradshaw, Jason Finklestein, Nicholas Kosturos

    oil and gas resources has caused many states around the world to pay increased attention to the Arctic region, which holds 25% of the worlds natural gas2, 13% of its oil3, and 20% of its technologically important rare-earth elements.4 In addition to containing critical natu-ral resources, the Arctics melting ice has allowed for new shipping routes to become more accessible, such as the Northwest and Northeast passages.5 The successful navigation of these passages could result in an up to 40% decrease in shipping costs when compared to conventional shipping routes.6 These new estimates of rich natural resource reserves and increased shipping efficiency possibilities in the Arctic have resulted in the applications of states including China, India, Italy, the European Union (EU), and South Korea to obtain Permanent Observer status in the Arctic Council. With high stakes and numerous states vying for position in the region, the Arctic certainly seems to be growing hot.

    In 1939, Edward Hallet Carr published The Twenty Years Crisis, a work central to the canon of modern day international relations theory. Carr advanced the argument that excessively idealistic thinking following the World War I acted as the primary cause for World War II. Carr postulated that world leaders of the period were subject to a crisis of idealism, where they fell prey to the dangerous and glaring defect of nearly all thinking: neglect of power. In Carrs eyes, these leaders placed excessive trust in liberal internation-alism and the role of international organizations, and therefore were victim to the classical realist motivations for human behavior. What some may term wishful thinking failed to prevent the rise of fascism and subsequently World War II.

    We see this could be considered analogous to the situation developing in both the of-ficial positions and the thought processes of the vast majority of Arctic diplomats. As will be shown in this paper, there is near universal denial among diplomatic officials of any pos-sibility of interstate conflict in the Arctic. While this paper does not intend to be alarmist about a looming World War III, diplomats and researchers who grapple with Arctic issues appear to dangerously disregard the prospect of interstate conflict. This research paper seeks to evaluate the significant security challenges that exist in the Arctic region, specifically the possibility of interstate conflict, and to identify problem areas that, if left unaddressed, could lead the Arctic to become a center of strife in this century. This paper will also propose recommendations to improve multilateral negotiation in the realm of security in order to prevent the possibility of a large-scale armed conflict.

    2 Ekaterina Klimenko, Ambitious Plans and Domestic Policies for the Arctic in Russia, Stockholm International Peace Re-search Institute Meeting with University of Southern California researchers (Stockholm, Sweden), May 21, 2012.

    3 90 billion Barrels of Oil and 1670 Trillion Cubic Feet of Natural Gas Assessed in the Arctic, U.S. Geological Survey, ac-cessed June 6, 2012, http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=1980#.T89KA-068UU.

    4 Matteo Rongione, Role of Resources in the Arctic- Rare Earth Elements, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Stockholm, Sweden), May 21, 2012.

    5 Tom Arnbom, Arctic is Hot, World Wildlife Fund (Stockholm, Sweden) May 22, 2012.

    6 Alun Anderson, After the Ice, (Washington DC: Smithsonian, 2009).

    Background InformationBefore exploring current politics and security concerns in the region, it is prudent to

    discuss how the history of the region informs the present day. Many explorers have at-tempted to conquer the Arctic and the northern passages, most to no avail. In 1845, Sir John Franklin and two British Navy ships set out to explore the Northwest Passage and never returned. More than forty search expeditions were sent to look for the explorers, but it was not until 1981 that evidence, such as graves and bodies that explained the ships demise, were found near King Williams Island, 70 degrees latitude.7 On April 6th, 1909 another team of explorers, made up of Americans and Inuits, arrived at the North Pole. They had made the long journey from Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island by dogsled.8 Cold-weather capabili-ties have expanded drastically since that time. Today, explorers investigate the Arctic via icebreaker ships and floating scientific stations and venture off the semi-permanent struc-tures using use aircraft, dog sleds, skis, and snowmobiles to learn more about the region.

    While there has been interest in the Arctic as an unexplored region for centuries, it was not until recently that ecological and environmental factors began to capture the awareness a broader audience than explorers. Sea ice coverage fluctuates throughout the year, with the high in March and the low in September. This trend has only increased in its intensity in recent times. Research shows that a sharp decline in summer sea ice occurred in September of 2007, shrinking the total ice-covered area down down to 4.28 million square kilometers, a record low.9 This dramatic decline in summer sea ice opened coastlines throughout north-ern Russia and the northern Canadian islands, making the possibility of using northern sea routes for shipping and tourism more plausible. Furthermore, New deposits for oil and natural gas drilling were discovered because of the shrinking sea ice, and many Arctic states, including Russia, the United States, and Norway, have began researching possible deposits and drilling sites.

    However, increased possibilities within the region have not been without their price. The nation-states with Arctic coastlines remain at odds over how to divide up the region, perhaps more so than ever before.10 Both Canada and Russia claim the territory connected to the Lomonosov ridge and have appealed to the Arctic Council with scientific evidence that purportedly shows the ridge extending from their shoreline. Although no decision has

    7 Fitzpatrick, Kathleen, Franklin, Sir John (17861847), Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/franklin-sir-john-2066/text2575, accessed 20 October 2012.

    8 Robert Peary: To the Top of the World. PBS. PBS, 1999. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. .

    9 Renfrow, Stephanie. Arctic Sea Ice Shatters All Previous Record Lows. NSIDC Arctic Sea Ice News Fall 2007. National Snow and Ice Data Center, 1 Oct. 2007. Web. 20 Oct. 2012.

    10 Bennett, Jody R. Vying for Power in the High North. International Relations Security Network. ISN Security Watch, 6 Sept. 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.

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    Southern California International Review - Vol. 2 No. 2

    The 16 Years CrisisKelsey Bradshaw, Jason Finklestein, Nicholas Kosturos

    been made, and none will be made in the near future, both countries are scouring the ridge to find the natural resources required to bolster their cases for an extension of their Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Between other nation-states i...