School Libraries and Productive Pedagogy: Moving Beyond Information Literacy Ross J. Todd School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 4 Huntington Street NEW BRUNSWICK NJ 08901 firstname.lastname@example.org/~rtodd
Courage to Think Outside the Box Preparing our students today for tomorrow's unknown world, being able to predict an uncertain future, and moving into it with confidence, takes courage and conviction. Indeed, the best way to predict the future is to work towards creating it, and creating it begins today, not tomorrow. This means that although we respect and are informed by our past, we also have the courage and determination to think and act divergently (Todd, in Effective libraries in international schools (Markuson, 1999), 1999, 9)
POSITION VACANT Visioneema Valley School Information-Learning Specialist Primary Responsibilities: Through VVS library as a dynamic agent of learning, to develop all students as clear and effective thinkers and communicators, self-directed and independent learners, creative, reflective and practical problem solvers, and informed citizens.
School Library Profile Vision Valley K-12 Day School library is a physical and digital learning-centered space that fosters effective connection, interaction and utilization of information for achieving stated learning outcomes it provides space that is structured to accommodate multiple learning styles and teaching styles it provides space to facilitate multiple pathways to information, instructional interventions and learning outcomes: print and digital collections, storytelling, formal learning-teaching, technological access
Required Qualifications expertise in design of instructional interventions for learning through information at class, group and individual level expertise in mutually negotiating, planning and implementing instructional interventions as partner- leader with school administrators, teachers, students and local community expertise in mutually negotiating, planning and implementing a whole-school library program which articulates the integrated nature of information, learning processes and knowledge outcomes
Required Qualifications expertise in the provision of learning-oriented professional development targeted to whole school success with learning outcomes experience as literacy specialist particularly in area of reading comprehension and reading enrichment experience in integrating information technology in curricular areas expertise in evidence-based practice and outcomes- based evaluation information management and school library administration
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11 Pathways to Obsolescence Media: Plural of Medium. Invoking the distant powers to rescue you from your plight; derived from the Latin Mediocrum, meaning not quite up to standard Information: all the stuff that we like to keep tidy and straight on the shelves Lifelong learning: That vague state in some distant future which enables me to stop worrying about doing anything meaningful now to enable it to happen Collaboration: A guiltifying process of ensuring I spend my days in cataloguing instead of instructional intervention
11 Pathways to Obsolescence Research paper: a neat, grammatically correct written piece usually enclosed in a plastic sleeve or folder Reading motivation: encouraging kids to read what they want as long as long as it suits the selection policy and the moral high ground of the school librarian Project: A preconceived notion of what students will do, how long it will take and what credit it is worth without regard for assessing process or gaining formative feedback Information skills: Week 1, day 1 Time to tell them about Dewey, again and again, year after year
11 Pathways to Obsolescence Advocacy: a process of administrator bashing to ensure that the librarian assumes a position of authority outside library land Weeding: a diversionary tactic of focusing on the unnecessary; talking about weeding the collection in stead of weeding the profession Information Literacy: Yes, I do IL, I do Dewey! Information literacy is not about Information or sources, it is about the learner
THE SCHOOL LIBRARY IN THE INFORMATION AGE SCHOOL INFORMATIONPLACECollectionsTechnologyAccessStaffing Locating and finding information Information Literacy THESE ARE IMPORTANT KNOWLEDGESPACE Building knowledge through engagement with information Information scaffolds for learning Learning outcomes Making a difference THESE ARE LIBRARY GOALS
Information Literacy: its dilemmas Goal of the library, platform / bandwagon for school librarians Goal of the library, platform / bandwagon for school librarians Deficiency Model rather than an Empowerment Model Deficiency Model rather than an Empowerment Model Who cares: perceived to be an add-on, not linked to curriculum outcomes and knowledge outcomes Who cares: perceived to be an add-on, not linked to curriculum outcomes and knowledge outcomes Is Information literacy the end? Or is it a means to an end? Is Information literacy the end? Or is it a means to an end? Infoliteracy babble Infoliteracy babble
THE INTERCONNECTIVITY OF LEARNING
Linking information to knowledge Linking mind and environment Linking self and others Linking deliberation and action Linking actions and outcomes Promoting an empowerment model towards knowledge construction, rather than a deficiency notion ie students are somehow deficient because they do not have information skills. Gathering evidence on which to base knowledge initiatives and decisions. Learning is about making and maintaining connections
Learning in the Information Age School an active search for meaning and understanding by the learner learners constructing deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving it learners directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge learners encountering alternative perspectives and conflicting ideas so that they are able to transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings learners transferring new knowledge and skills to new circumstances learners taking ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning learners contributing to social well being, the growth of democracy, and the development of a knowledgeable society.
Constructivist Approach to Learning 1.Students learn by being actively engaged and reflecting on that experience. (Dewey). 2.Students learn by building on what they already know. (Ausubel) 3.Students develop higher order thinking through guidance at critical points in the learning process. (Vygotsky) 4.Students development occurs in a sequence of stages. (Piaget) 5.Students have different ways of learning. (Gardener) 6.Students learn through social interaction with others. (Vygotsky)
FROM INFORMATION TO KNOWLEDGE Knowledge, Knowledge, as the transforming effects of the school librarians interventions, is the reason for school libraries.
In an Information Age School Library, the challenge is to celebrate the understood, not the found
Moving Beyond Information Literacy Productive Pedagogy Guided Inquiry Partner-Leaders Librarian as information learning specialist
The dimensions of Productive Pedagogy Intellectual Quality Deep knowledge Deep understanding Problematic knowledge Higher order thinking Meta-language Substantive communication Quality Learning Environment Explicit quality criteria Engagement High Expectations Social Support Students self-regulation Student direction Significance Background knowledge Cultural knowledge Knowledge integration InclusivityConnectednessNarrative
INTELLECTUAL QUALITY Knowledge is deep when focus is sustained on key concepts and ideas Students are able to demonstrate meaningful understanding of the central ideas and the relationships between them Students are encouraged to address multiple perspectives and/or solutions and to recognise that knowledge is often conflicting and problematic Students are engaged in thinking that requires them to organise, reorganise, apply, analyse, synthesise and evaluate knowledge and information (higher-order thinking) students learn to use complex terms relevant to their subject (meta- language) Students regularly engage in substantive conversations about the concepts and ideas can manifest in oral, written, artistic forms
QUALITY LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Learning environment provides high levels of support for learning: Explicit quality criteria Engagement High expectations Social support Self regulation Student direction
Why does it matter? SIGNIFICANCE Students need to see why and understand that their learning matters and has real world connections Is their learning with the school librarian connected to real units and meaningful literacy support?
Guided Inquiry Guided inquiry is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention of an instructional team of school librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that gradually lead towards deep knowledge and deep understanding, and independent learning. The guided inquiry approach is grounded in a constuctivist approach to learning for developing students competence with learning form a variety of sources while enhancing their understanding of the content areas of the curriculum.
THE INFORMATION SEARCH PROCESS: FRAMEWORK FOR GUIDED INQUIRY Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or (affective) frustration direction/ disappointment doubt confidence doubt confidence Thoughtsvague-------------------------------------focused (cognitive) ----------------------------------------------- increased interest Actions seeking relevant information----------------------------seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting INFORMATION SEARCH PROCESS: C. Kuhlthau
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry guided inquiry learning is initiated though compelling situations, and questions which meaningfully engage students in wanting to know, and which provide challenge and opportunity instructional activities put emphasis on meaningful, authentic activities that help the learner develop skills relevant to problem solving and to construct understandings students are more motivated to engage in their inquiry when they are able to exercise some choice over the specific questions they want to answer and how to present their new understandings an attempt is made to connect with students background knowledge
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry instructional activities involve the students in thinking, acting, and reflecting, discovering and linking ideas, making connections, developing and transforming prior knowledge, skills, attitudes and values - higher order thinking and critical analysis occurs throughout instructional activities enable students to develop deep knowledge, deep understanding Students see that inquiry learning is developmental, an iterative process of advancing, consolidating, reinforcing, and involving whole person; opportunities for students to provide their understanding of concepts or ideas, and opportunities for sustained dialogue between students, and between teachers / school librarian and students
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry learning activities closely resemble the ways that students will be expected to use their knowledge and skills in the real world focus on identifying and solving intellectual and/or real-world problems structured interventions are informed by the Information Search Process enable students to have the information seeking and use skills to engage in an active search for meaning and understanding students know how to engage with diverse information sources to build background knowledge, formulate a focus and collect pertinent information the focus is constructing mew knowledge, not just a source orientation students encounter deep knowledge and build deep understanding of the curriculum content students demonstrate a personal process of construction through the products they create that show their new understandings
Characteristics of Guided Inquiry students have opportunity to communicate and share their new understandings the inquiry learning environment is one where academic and personal success and intellectual inquiry are valued and acknowledged, and one where students feel connected, cared for and trusted students are given feedback throughout their inquiry process that advances and nourishes their learning and continues to motivate them students are given opportunity to practice their new skills to sustain and support their learning beyond the formal classroom and school library experience inquiry learning is responsive to students personal, social and cultural worlds, valuing differences and cultivating an inclusive community
Guided Inquiry and Productive Pedagogy in Action: Case Study Gill St Bernards School Gladstone NJ
SAMPLE 43 Grade 9 students at Gill St Bernards School, Gladstone NJ (21 girls, 22 boys) Semester long course: Research Project School librarian / teacher collaboration (7 teachers) Instructional Intervention: Understanding the Information Search Process, information searching, information analysis and note taking 2 phases of course: Instructional intervention culminating in major oral presentation (7 weeks); guided free-choice research paper (7 weeks) within the theme: Celebration in Culture
DATA COLLECTION 1.Written protocol at three key stages in the Information Search Pr...