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Best Practice SABP-H-092 01 JUN 2017

Inspection and Root Cause Analysis of FBE External Coating Failures

Document Responsibility: Coatings Standards Committee

Primary contact: Mana Mansour Page 1 of 26

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2017. All rights reserved.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Table of Contents

1 Scope ................................................................... 2

2 Purpose ................................................................ 2

3 Definitions ............................................................ 2

4 References ........................................................... 4

5 Responsibilities ................................................... 6

6 Introduction ......................................................... 6

7 Field Investigation ............................................... 7

8 Lab Investigation ............................................... 12

9 Bibliography ...................................................... 15

Document Responsibility: Paints and Coatings Standards Committee SAEP-H-092

Issue Date: 01 JUN 2017 Shop Application of FBE to the External Surfaces of Line Pipes

Saudi Aramco: Company General Use

Previous Issue: 01 JUN 2017 Next Planned Update: 01 JUN 2020 Page 2 of 26

Primary contact: Mana Mansour

1 Scope

The scope of this document is FBE failures on externally coated buried pipelines.

Premature external FBE coating failures have been observed on buried Saudi Aramco

Oil and Gas transmission lines. A reasonable expectation of service life for FBE is

around 30 years, but failures within less than 10yrs of installation have been observed.

Given the inspection, remediation costs and in particular the safety impacts of

premature failures, a more structured and comprehensive approach towards field

investigations is felt warranted to better understand and prevent such occurrences in the

future. It is hoped that this best practice will detect chronic quality and contractor errors

that only a long term study of this nature is capable of exposing.

2 Purpose

The purpose of this document is to act as a guide to both field and lab personnel when

assessing the cause of external coating failures on FBE coated buried pipelines. It

details the methodology, accepted practices and decision making to be followed when

confronted with a coating failure or potential failure. This practice has been developed

with Coating, CP, Piping and Corrosion specialists to assist in correctly assigning the

mode of failure and most probable failure root cause and the most appropriate corrective

actions.

3 Definitions

CIPS Close-Interval Potential Survey. Used for detecting areas with low CP

potential

CNS Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulphates the usual anions that drive

corrosion.

CD Cathodic Disbondment. Coating delamination driven by excessive CP

current.

CP Cathodic Protection (impressed current or sacrificial anodes).

EDS Energy-Dispersive (X-ray) Spectroscopy or EDX. Used to determine

elements present.

DCVG Direct Current Voltage Gradient. Used for detecting coating defects and

anomalies.

DFT Dry Film Thickness of FBE film usually in microns (m)

Document Responsibility: Paints and Coatings Standards Committee SAEP-H-092

Issue Date: 01 JUN 2017 Shop Application of FBE to the External Surfaces of Line Pipes

Saudi Aramco: Company General Use

Previous Issue: 01 JUN 2017 Next Planned Update: 01 JUN 2020 Page 3 of 26

Primary contact: Mana Mansour

DJ Single pipes (12m) are commonly welded at the plant into a 24m length

called a Double Joint. The DJ weld is usually shop coated. Multiple

DJs are welded in the field to form a Pipe String.

DSC Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Used to determine Tg and % cure of a

resin.

ECDA External Corrosion Direct Assessment. Inspection methodology for

external pipeline corrosion.

EIS Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique used to measure

film permeability and behaviour with respect to moisture penetration.

FBE Fusion Bonded Epoxy.

FJ Field Joint. Weld between 2 pipe strings. Compare with GW or DJ.

FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Used to determine chemical

structure of organic materials.

GW Girth Weld. Another designation for Field Joint (FJ).

Holiday Exposed bare steel on a coated pipe (due to damage etc)

HSS Heat Shrink Sleeve. Commonly used on girth welds (Field Joints)

ID Internal Diameter refers to location of coating on pipe.

ILI In-Line Inspection using intelligent internal scraper to detect pipe wall

thinning.

KM Kilometer. Usually refers to a location along the pipe. Eg; KM71.

MIC Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion.

MPN Most Probable Number. Measure of Bacteria Numbers.

qPCR Quantitive Polymerase chain reaction. Method to measure live and dead

bacteria numbers

ML Metal Loss. In the case of piping, the reduction in wall thickness.

OD Outer diameter of a pipe

Pipe String Pipeline, welded together in preparation for burial.

SEM Scanning Electron Microscope. Used for high magnification imaging and

analysis.

TGA Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. Alternate method for determining thermal

stability and chemical composition of compounds

Document Responsibility: Paints and Coatings Standards Committee SAEP-H-092

Issue Date: 01 JUN 2017 Shop Application of FBE to the External Surfaces of Line Pipes

Saudi Aramco: Company General Use

Previous Issue: 01 JUN 2017 Next Planned Update: 01 JUN 2020 Page 4 of 26

Primary contact: Mana Mansour

TMA Thermo-Mechanical Analysis. Alternate method for determining Tg.

Tg Glass Transition Temperature. Transition point between rubber like and

solid like behaviour.

XRD X-ray diffraction. Method for determining crystallographic structure of

inorganic compounds (oxides, soil, etc)

XRF X-ray fluorescence. Method for determining elemental composition of

inorganic materials (soils, oxides, etc)

4 References

4.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards

SAES-H-002 Internal and External Coatings for Steel Pipelines and

Piping

SAES-H-002V Approved Saudi Aramco Data Sheets for the Pipeline and

Piping Coatings

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification

01-SAMSS-024 Pipe Handling and Nesting

09-SAMSS-089 Shop Applied External FBE for Steel Line Pipes

09-SAMSS-200 Storage, Handling and Installation of Externally Coated

Pipe

Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements

Form 175-091300 Shop-Applied External FBE Coating

4.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTM D4417 Field Measurement of Surface Profile for Blast Cleaned

Pipe.

ASTM D4959-16 Determination of Water Content of Soil by Direct Heating

ASTM D5162-08 Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing of Nonconductive

Protective Coating on Metallic Substrates

ASTM G14 Test for Impact Resistance of Pipeline Coatings

ASTM G51 95 Measuring pH of Soil for Use in Corrosion Testing.

ASTM G57 06 Field Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Wenner

Four-Electrode Method.

https://standards.aramco.com.sa:10009/mycommittee.asp?fol=Inspection_Requirements&committee_id=8&sm=175-091300

Document Responsibility: Paints and Coatings Standards Committee SAEP-H-092

Issue Date: 01 JUN 2017 Shop Application of FBE to the External Surfaces of Line Pipes

Saudi Aramco: Company General Use

Previous Issue: 01 JUN 2017 Next Planned Update: 01 JUN 2020 Page 5 of 26

Primary contact: Mana Mansour

ASTM G162 Conducting and Evaluating Laboratory Corrosion Tests in

Soils.

ASTM G187-12A Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Two-Electrode

Soil Box Method.

ASTM G200-09 Measurement of Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) of

Soil

ASTM G6677-01 Adhesion Testing

International Organization for Standardization

ISO 8502-3 Assessment of Dust on Steel Surfaces (pressure sensitive

tape method)

ISO 8502-9 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints

and related products Tests for the assessment of surface

cleanliness Part 9: Field method for the conductometric

determination of water-soluble salts

The Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC)

SSPC PA 2 Measurement of Dry Coating Thickness with Magnetic

Gages.

Canadian Standards Association

CAN/CSA-Z245.20 External Fusion Bond Epoxy Coating for Steel Pipe.

NACE

NACE RP0394 Application, Performance, and Quality Control of Plant-

Applied Fusion Bonded Epoxy External Pipe Coating.

NACE SP0169 Control of External Corrosion on Underground or

Submerged Metallic Piping Systems

Miscellaeneous

DIN 50929-3 Metal corrosion; corrosion probability of metallic

materials with external exposure to corrosion; ducts and

structural elements i