Text of S AFETY AND I NFECTION C ONTROL Sarah Woolard, Jessica Bozych, Lisa Anderson, Jessica Linn, Barb...
S AFETY AND I NFECTION C ONTROL Sarah Woolard, Jessica Bozych, Lisa Anderson, Jessica Linn, Barb Lowell
O VERVIEW To educate patients and staff on work place safety and infection control. The understanding that employee safety is just as important as patient safety must be constantly re-enforced so that nurses realize it is not ok to go home with a backache every day. It is a culture change and it is an important one. -Karen Witzman
H AZARD C ONTROL Fire Prevention Fuel, Oxygen, and Heat Spontaneous combustion Paint Oily rags Oily waste (2010). Saftey and Infection Control
H AZARD C ONTROL Fire Safety RACE Rescue Alarm Contain Evacuate/ Extinguish (2010). S AFTEY AND I NFECTION C ONTROL
H AZARD CONTROL Fire Safety Pass Pull the Pin Aim the nozzle Squeeze the handle Sweep (2010). Saftey and Infection Control
H AZARD CONTROL Fire Safety Class A Paper or wood Class B Flammable liquids or gases Class C Electric equipment or wiring (2010). Saftey and Infection Control
H AZARD C ONTROL Electric Shock Ground Plugs Equipment that is used near any type of water Overload circuits Connecting to many circuits to a single outlet Extension Cords Never use extension cords us an approved power strip Proper Approval All equipment and circuits must be approved for safety before being used after set up. (2010). Saftey and Infection Control
H AZARD C ONTROL Falls and Collisions Equipment put to close to a corner Storage areas Heavy items places on the floor or near the floor Electric cords should not be strung across doorways or traffic areas If cord must be placed in areas tape down to the floor to reduce tripping. (2010). Saftey and Infection Control
W ORK P LACE S AFETY Ergonomics Good body mechanics is using the body in efficient and careful ways and includes good posture, balance, and using the largest muscles to do the heaviest work. Most common injuries in the office is to the eyes and the back Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24).
W ORK PLACE SAFETY Eye Strain Problems with the eyes in the office: Double vision Burning and dry eyes Eye fatigue Light sensitivity After images Prevention Have good lighting No glare Use high quality monitor Take breaks from the computer Make sure you are blinking when at a computer for long amounts of time Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24).
W ORK PLACE S AFETY BACK, NECK, SHOULDER Prevention Change positions every 20-30 minutes Warm up or stretch before activities Avoid twisting and bending Avoid over extending yourself Bend from your hips not you waits when lifting Walsh, M. C. (2004, July 24).
W ORK PLACE SAFETY BODY MECHANICS You need to learn how the body works and moves so you can prevent injury Make sure you always have good posture An exercise that may help is to squeeze your shoulders blades together and pull your elbows behind your back. Do this and count to five. Do not sit slumpy. Make sure you stand or sit with your shoulders and head erect and balanced all day. This will lessen future back pain. Kalnitsky, A., MA. (1999, November 22).
W ORK PLACE SAFETY CHEMICAL SPILL MANAGEMENT Wear PPE Gloves, gowns, boots, shields/goggles, respiratory equipment Bund a wall of brick, stone, concrete, or other impervious material, which may form part of or the entire perimeter of a compound and provides a barrier to retain liquid. Hazardous Substance substance that contains ingredients that may be harmful to health Dangerous Goods - a hazardous substance that contains ingredients defined by the Dangerous Substance Act of 1979. Chemical Spill Management.
W ORK PLACE SAFETY CHEMICAL SPILL MANAGEMENT CONTINUED Your office should have MSDS and everybody should know where they are Immediately report and spill Follow written procedure Appropriately store all equipment Risk assessment includes nature of spill, quantity of spill, location of spill Make sure you evaluate the situation before you start cleaning Chemical Spill Management.
W ORK PLACE SAFETY CHEMICAL SPILL MANAGEMENT CONTINUED If there is a spill kit available....USE IT What to do: Clear affected area Check people involved Isolate spill Contact emergency personnel if necessary Gather all information regarding spill Clean appropriately Chemical Spill Management.
A SSISTING P ATIENTS TRANSFERRING PATIENTS Stand in front of patient Make sure transfer belt is on securely Lift with your knees Make sure you legs are shoulder width apart Help the person lean forward and put both hands on the sides of the patient grabbing the belt Instead of lifting them rock their weight to their hips and this happens help them stand Turn them to the new chair and assist them down slowly Equipment available: Wheelchairs Belts Canes Crutches Two-Person Transfer. (2008).
IMMOBILIZATION The process of holding a joint or bone in place by using: Splint Cast Brace To prevent an injured area from moving while it heals Restricts motion Reduce pain, swelling and muscle spasm In some cases to repair bones, tendons or ligaments Also allows for proper alignment Immobilization usually extends from the joint above the injury to the joint below the injury. Immobilization. (2010).
IMMOBILIZATION Casts and Splints Generally used with a broken bone Should not get wet Custom made Made from plaster or fiberglass Fiberglass weighs less than plaster, is more durable, and allows more airflow Splints are used for dislocated joint Finger injuries- fractures or Baseball finger Arm or leg immediately after injury before moving the person Made from acrylic, polyethylene foam, plaster of paris, or aluminum Immobilization. (2010).
IMMOBILIZATION Slings Used to support the arm after fracture or other injury Generally used with a cast or splint Triangular bandage under arm and tied around neck Braces Used to support, align, or hold a body part in the correct position Can easily be removed for exercise Used with physical therapy Custom made or ready made Immobilization. (2010).
IMMOBILIZATION Collars Generally used for neck injuries Cervical collars are used by emergency personnel at the scene Traction Method for applying tension to correct the alignment of two structures and hold them correct position Strongest form involves inserting a stainless steel pin though a bony prominence attached by a horse-shoe shaped bow and rope to a pulley and weights suspended over the end of the pts bed Must be balanced by countertraction Tilt bed Pt.s body acts as counterweight Or use weights pulling in the opposite direction Requires careful observation and adjustment Immobilization. (2010).
IMMOBILIZATION Aftercare After cast or splint is on: Elevate for 24 to 72 hours Raised above level of heart Rest Fingers and toes can be exercised after casting Decreases swelling and stiffness Ice injured area After cast, splint, brace is removed: Careful exercise to regain muscle strength and motion Possible hydrotherapy Heat treatments Physical therapy Immobilization. (2010).
IMMOBILIZATION Risks Traction: Bedrest can lead to bedsores (decubitus ulcers) and skin infection Can lead to build up of fluid or infection in lungs (pneumonia) UTI Casts, splints, and braces: Decreased muscle tone Muscle shrinkage (atrophy) If immobilization doesnt fit properly (too tight) can lead to loss of circulation Excessive pressure over a nerve can cause irritation or possible damage If fits too loose, or breaks or malfunctions it can lead to deformity Immobilization. (2010).
A CCIDENT AND INCIDENT REPORTS Also referred to as Unusual Occurrence Reports All incidents must be reported no matter if the victim is a patient, visitor, or staff member. Even minor accidents should be reported. Things that should be on the report: WHO? The name of victim and person reporting WHAT? What happened? WHERE? Location of the incident and injury on the victim WHEN? The date and time of the accident or unusual occurrence Corrective actions or treatment administered **It is very important to be as specific as possible when reporting and incident (McGill University. (2009, January).
D ISEASE T RANSMISSION Direct Contact- an infected person touching a non- infected person Fomites/Indirect Contact- non-infected person touching an object that has been infected Airborne Contamination- spread by dust containing droplet nuclei Droplet Contamination- involves contact with the mucous membranes when a person coughs, sneezes, or speaks Vehicle Transmission- spread of infectious agents through food, water, blood, and drugs Vector Transmission- occurs when an insect whose body is infected with the disease infects a new host (Dionne, 2002)
I NFECTIOUS D ISEASES HIV AIDS Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E Tuberculosis MRSA Smallpox HPV STDs Dionne, S. I. (2002)
P REVENTING D ISEASE T RANSMISSION S TANDARD P RECAUTIONS Wash hands Wear gloves Wear a protective gown Wear a mask Place needles and sharps in designated disposal container Dionne, S. I. (