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Rubik's Cube Solver

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Text of Rubik's Cube Solver

  • ll is guorcnl,eed io work.No motter how bodly your cube is scrombled, this solu-tion provides every stepfrom beginnirrg to end to restoreit to solid colors on oll 6 foces. Every step is provided in oneosy-to-follow sequence. The solution does not involveoiml'ess moves, noi is it necessory thol the cube be holfsolved to begin moking moves.ll offers cleor qnd sleady progress.The solution siorts wiih the top foce (whbh you choose)ond proceeds steodily to the bottom foce. This solutionhos been designed so thoi very little of the previouslycompleted portion of the cube need be disturbed toproceed. ln other words, ofter you hove completed onefoce, you will need to disturb very little of it to continue,ond then only tempororily.

    ln generol, no more thqntwo previouslyplocedcubeswillbe more thon one move owoyfrom their proper position.h is, however, very importont to the solution lhot youreolize (ond occept) the foct ihot temporory disruptionof hord-won progress is necebsory. lndeed, it is proboblythe most difficult ospect of solvirg the cube for thefirst time,

    ll pesenb few qnd uneomplicoteddeclsions.At some of the steps in the solution. it is necessory tomoke decisions in order to proceed to the correct nextstep This solution hos been designed so thot these deci-sions ore os few ond uncompicofed os possible, Whensuch decisions ore necessory, illustrotions ore frequenflyused to focilitofe understondirg. You willhove to moichthe pottern of colors thot occur on your cube to one ofseverolillustroted potterns in order to decide on the nextstep.

    ll qllows lor etror.The sequences of rnoves ore designed so thot if youmode on error (such os turning o foce the wrong woy.qetting lost in o sequence of moves, or even dropplngthe cube in the midst of o sequence) you willonly hoveto retreot one siep insteod of storting over. lt is veryfrustroting to discover oi the lost step of o solution thqtthe cube is os bodly scrombled os it wos when youstorted. Conecting on error is mode eosy becouse solittle of the previously completed ports of the cube oredisturbed. This book provides sequences of moves thotore designed to deolwith the most common errors.ll fecrlures eqsylo'memorizesequences ol moves.It is possible to solve cny storting orrorgement of thecube by o few similor sequences of moves, lt is eosy toget used to these moves. They consist of similor sets of 3to 5 foce turns ihot ore done repeotedly'The required moves ore set in bold fqce ond oredesignoted with o double osterisk (") throughout. Thismokes memorizing the solution simpler. (lmpress yourfriends!)

    ll is independenl d color.This solution is not coded by the colors of the foces. tt willtherefore work no mcrtter whot the 6 colors ore on yourcube ond how they ore distribuied on the 6 foces. ltwould be nice to present o solutkrn thot reod: 'Turn theoronge foce, then turn the red foce," etc. However, thereore vbrious monufocturers of these cubes. ond they dlchoose either different colors for the 6 foces or differentdistributions of these cobrs. (For exom$e, oronge is notnext to yellow on ofl cubes,) There ore 30 different woysof distributing 6 colors on the 6 foces of o cube.

    tIEtui"**--

  • Solutions thot use colors (ord they do exist) con onlywork for o specific colorirg of the cube' The nototionscheme used in this book is independent of color ond willwork for ony colorirg ond ony mcnufocturer's cube.

    On the other hond. this solution dces not use the fewestnumber of moves possible, lt wcs intentionolly designedfor clority oncl involves the ieost number of uncompli-coied decisions rcther thon the fewesf number ofmoves. There qre mony stoges of which reducing thenurnber of moves is possible, ond these ore given cs shorlcuts. Nevertheless, with proclice, it is possible to solve rcn-dorn orrongemenis of cubes in under 3 minutes.

    lf you would like c few hints before trying to soive o cubeproblem, recd only pqges 2l to 23.

    Now enjoy your imoending victr:ry over thct infernolcubel

    ABOUT THE RUBIK'S GUBE:A bdel hisloryThis fbscinoiing puzzle wos designed brl Erno Rubik, onorchitect ond teocher in Budopest, Hungory lt wos op-porently designed independently by Terutoshi lshige, onengineer in Jopon. Both opplied for potents in themiO-tgZOs. Professor Rubik designed the cube os on oidto his students in recognizing spotiol relotionships in threedimensions.

    lf you hove olreody experimented with solving the puzzle,you moy wish you could follow the movements in threedimensions more eosily. lt is chollenging, to soy the leost,to estoblish the relotive positions of the smollcubes ofteronly 2 turns of different foces.

    The cubes were first monufoctured in Hungqry ondbecome ovoiloble in Europe in 1978. lt is only recently thotthey hove now ochieved their substontiol worldwidepopulority (mony millions soldl), They hove been widelyovoiloble in the United Stotes only since ]980. lt seemsthot these cubes were olmost os common os ornomentsduring the l98O holidoy seoson.

    IO

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  • How does il workilThe ingenious mechonism thot ollows oll 6 foces of thecube to rotote is so simpe one is tempted to osk, "Whydidn't lthink of it?'The difficulty is, of course, in figuring itoui for the first time.

    It oppeors thot otlthe smoll cubes con move obout infoct, however, only the cubes on the corners ond edgesoctuolly move. The center cubes ore fixed ond con onlyrotote in ploce, This is the key to understonding ihemechonism,

    ROTATE TOP FACEI/8 TURN TOIAKE APART

    EDGE CUBEWTH TAB

    CORNER CUBEWITH TAB

    ROUI{DED TABS OF CUBESRIDE ALONG CURVED TRACK

    FORMED BY BACKS OF OTHERCUBES IN EACH PLANE.

    PRESSURE EXERTED BY EACIIHOLDS NEIGHBORINGCUBES IN PLACE. THIS

    RESPONSIBILITY IS SHIFTEDTO THE NEXT ADJACENT CUBE

    WHEN CHANGING PLANES.IT'S INGENIOUSI

    PEEKING INTOTHE CUBE

    CENTER CUBESARE FIXED ANDONLY ROTATEIN PLACE

    Eoch center cube is on the end of on oxle' lhe cornerond edge cubes ore not ottoched to onything ondmove obout the center cubes'

    You moy osk, "Why doesn't it just foll oporf?" ln foct. it conbe token oport quiie eosily' Simply turn ore foce on+'eighth turn ond either pullout one of the edgecubes ontn6t foce or pry it out with o screwdriver. tt lelps to pullthe foce you'tuired owoy fiom the rest of the cube' Theremoining cubes con now be eosily removed to reveolthe centrol meclsrisrn.

    The cube does not foll oport by itself becouse the edgeorxJ corner cubes hclcl eoch other in ploce in oremorkoble feot of cooperotionl lf you toke tle cubeoport this woy, be sure to put it bock together wtth solidcbbrs on oll6 foces, Otherwise. you moy rsver be ott'eto solve the puzzle unless you toke the cube oport ogoin'

    1312

    6a---.a

  • Cube bqsicsThe cube consists of 6 fixed cubes, one in the center ofeoch foce, 8 movoble cubes on the corners (cornercubes) ond 12 movoble cubes on eoch edge (edgecubes). The corner ond edge cubes ore moved oroundby rototing the 6 foces.

    Any corner cube ccn move to ony corner posiiion, ondony edge cube con move to ony edge position by o se-quence of foce rototions,

    lbwever, eoch movoble eube belorrep in only ore bcc'tion. For exonrpb, the yelbw/whlte @e cube (mycube fus ore with these colors) belorg on the edgebetween the ye$ow ond uhite fqces,The color of o foce is deflned by the color of the fixedcenter cube on thot foce. The yell,ow/ororge/whitecorner cube belongs on the corner joinirg the yelloworore, ond white foces.

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    _15

  • A cube is soid to be ploced or positioled correctly whenit is on the cornerbi-edge w6eiSllTelongs' tt mov'ho*euer, be ptoced correitty ond not be oriented cor-t

    "tfy n cube is soid to be oiiented conectly when it is

    positioned correctly ono me coi6Fmotch those of theEoiocent center cubes. This is the desired finol situotion.Wnen oll cubes ore positioned ond oriented conectly'the Puzzle is solved. -

    r.I

    The methocidescribed in this book seporctes thg pr,oPr.ti oipfocing onO orienting the.2O movoble cubes into: s steps- eocnLitne 5 steps-involves the plocement ondoGni"tion ot a ci#s' ni ony of the 5 steps' cubes thotnoo. O."n ploced ond oriented in previous steps oreonly tempororily disturbed''

    Thereisnoconcernoboutcubesinloterstepsuntilthotti"p it reocneO. tvtoreover, eoch cube in the first 3 sets is

    ' + 6r"E*l onO orienteO individuolly' ln reolity' then' the.prob-ie* is broken upinto 12much smollerproblemsof plocingonO'oti*nting iidividuot cubes' lt is onlv fgr tnqlgs]-Z 1e^!of 4 cubes t6ot more thon I cube must be poceo ono

    + orientedsimultoneouslY'

    CORRECTLY POSITIONEDAND ORIENTED

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    CORNERS: CORRECTLY POSITIONEDBUT INCORRECTLY ORIENTED

    CORRECTLY POSITIONEDAND ORIENTED

    For exomple, the cubes on the iefi show correctly posi-iCn"O

    "Cg* snd corner cubes that ore inconectly

    "ri""t"O. TXe cubes on the right show these edge ond

    corner cubes. correctly positioned ond correctlyoriented.

    t6

    EDGES: CORRECTLY POSITIONEDBUT INCORRECTLY ORISNTFD

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    .4

  • suMilAnY oF $OturpltA summory of tl'egrererclstrctegyof the 5 sleps f&ws:l. Cf,oose your fovorite c& of the 6. plqce qnd orient

    the 4 edgs cubes on the foce with yor.r fcnrortte otthe center.

    2. Hoce snd orient the 4 corner cubes on the top foce.3. Roce ond orient the 4 sideedge cubes of the middle

    loyer. All 12 cubes ploced in steps l-3 ore ploced ondoriented individuolly, The top two{hirds of the cube isnow complete.

    4 Hoce ond orient the 4 corner cubes on the bottomfoce.

    5. Hoce cnd orient the 4 edge cubes on the bottomfoce.

    ln eoch of the 5 steps, there ore generolly these 2substeps:

    l. noce the cube(s) in the proper position,2. Orient the cu

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