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19/6/2014 Ronal d Reagan Washington Nati onal Ai rport - Wi k ipedia, the free ency clopedia http://en.wi k ipedia.org/wi k i/Ronal d Reagan Washington Nati onal Airport 1/27 Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport IATA: DCA – ICAO: KDCA – FAA LID: DCA Summary Airport type Public Owner Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Operator Metropolitan Washington Airports Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport  (IATA: DCA , ICAO: KDCA, FAA LID: DCA ) is a public airport 3 miles (4.8 km) south of downtown Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia. [2]  It is the commercial airport nea rest to Washington, D.C. For decades it was ca lled Washington National Airport; it was renamed in 1998 to ho n or form er U .S. Preside nt Ron ald Reagan . The Metropolitan Washingt on A irports Authority (MWAA) operates the airport with close oversight by the federal government due to its proximity to the national capital. Reagan National is a hub f or US Airways, Reagan National's largest carrier. US Airways Shuttle has near-hourly air shuttle flights to New York LaGuardia Airport and Logan International Airport in Boston , and Del ta Air Lines' Delta Shuttle has near-hourly air shutt le flights to La Guardia. Other than 40 slot exemptions, flights into and out of DCA are not allowed to exceed 1,250 statute miles in any direction non stop, i n an effort to s end air traffic to the lar ger but m ore distant Washington Dulles International Airport. In 2010 the airport served about 18.1 million passengers. [5] Coordi nates : 38°5108N 077°0216 W

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Ronald Reagan

Washington National Airport

IATA: DCA – ICAO: KDCA – FAA LID: DCA

Summary

Airport type Public

Owner Metropolitan Washington Airports

Authority

Operator Metropolitan Washington Airports

Ronald Reagan Washington National AirportFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (IATA:

DCA, ICAO: KDCA, FAA LID: DCA) is a public airport 3

miles (4.8 km) south of downtown Washington, D.C., in

Arlington County, Virginia.[2] It is the commercial airport

nearest to Washington, D.C. For decades it was called

Washington National Airport; it was renamed in 1998 to

honor former U.S. President Ronald Reagan. The

Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA)

operates the airport with close oversight by the federal

government due to its proximity to the national capital.

Reagan National is a hub f or US Airways, Reagan National's

largest carrier. US Airways Shuttle has near-hourly air 

shuttle flights to New York LaGuardia Airport and Logan

International Airport in Boston, and Delta Air Lines' Delta

Shuttle has near-hourly air shuttle flights to LaGuardia.

Other than 40 slot exemptions, flights into and out of DCA

are not allowed to exceed 1,250 statute miles in any direction

nonstop, in an effort to send air traffic to the larger but more

distant Washington Dulles International Airport. In 2010 the

airport served about 18.1 million passengers.[5]

Coordinates: 38°51′08″N 077°02′16″W

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Authority

Serves Washington Metropolitan Area

Location Arlington County, Virginia

Hub for US Airways[1]

Elevation AMSL 15 ft / 5 m

Coordinates 38°51′08″N 077°02′16″W

Website http://mwaa.com/reagan/reagan.htm

Maps

FAA airport diagram

Reagan National only has United States immigration and

customs facilities for corporate jet traffic; the only

international flights allowed to land at DCA are those from

airports with U.S. Customs and Border Protection

 preclearance facilities. Other international passenger flights

must use Dulles or Baltimore/Washington InternationalAirport.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Expansion

1.2 Transfer of control and renaming

1.3 Construction of current terminal buildings

2 Operations

2.1 Tightened security and safety concerns

2.2 The "River Visual" approach

2.3 Perimeter restrictions

3 Terminals

3.1 Terminal A

3.2 Terminals B and C

4 Airlines and destinations

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Location within Virginia

Runways

Direction Length Surface

ft m

1/19 7,169 2,094 Asphalt

4/22 4,911 1,497 Asphalt

15/33 5,204 1,586 Asphalt

Source: Federal Aviation Administration[2]

Washington National Airport

Terminal and South Hangar

Line

U.S. National Register of 

Historic Places

Virginia Landmarks Register 

Location Thomas

4.1 Passenger service

5 Traffic and statistics

6 Ground transportation

6.1 Rail

6.2 Bus

6.3 Taxi

6.4 Airport Shuttle

6.5 Roads

6.6 Bicycle

7 Abingdon Plantation Historical Site8 Incidents and accidents

8.1 Eastern Air Lines Flight 537

8.2 Air Florida Flight 90

9 See also

10 References

11 External links

History

DCA

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Ave.,

Arlington,

Virginia

Area 18.1 acres

(7.3 ha)

Built 1941

Architectural style Moderne

Governing body Federal

NRHP Reference # 97001111[3]

VLR # 000-0045

Significant dates

Added to NRHP September 

12, 1997

Designated VLR  June 27,

1995[4]

Terminal building in July

1941, shortly after it opened.

Photograph by Jack Delano.

Terminal building from the

tarmac in July, 1941.

Hoover Field, near the present site of the Pentagon, was the first major terminal to

 be developed in the Capital area, opening its doors in 1926. The facility's single

runway was crossed by a street; guards had to

stop automobile traffic during takeoffs and

landings. The following year Washington

Airport, another privately operated field, beganservice next door.[6] In 1930 the Depression

caused the two terminals to merge to form

Washington–Hoover Airport. Bordered on the

east by U.S. Route 1, with its accompanying high-

tension electrical wires, and obstructed by a high

smokestack on one approach and a dump nearby,

the field was inadequate.

Although the need for a better airport was

acknowledged in 37 studies conducted between

1926 and 1938,[6] there was a statutory

 prohibition against federal development of 

airports. When Congress lifted the prohibition in

1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt made a recess appropriation of $15 millionto build National Airport by reallocating funds from other purposes. Construction

of Washington National Airport began in 1940–41 by a company led by John

McShain. Congress challenged the legality of FDR's recess appropriation, but

construction of the new airport continued.[7]

The airport is southwest of Washington, D.C. The western part of the airport was once within a large Virginia

 plantation, a remnant of which is now inside a historic site located near the airport's Metrorail station (see

Abingdon (plantation) for history). The eastern part of the airport was constructed in the District of Columbia on and

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Reagan Washington sign

near mudflats that were within the tidal Potomac River near Gravelly Point, about 4 statute miles (6.4 km) from the

United States Capitol, using landfill dredged from the Potomac.

The airport opened June 16, 1941.[6] In 1945 Congress passed a law that established the airport was legally within

Virginia but under the jurisdiction of the federal government;[6] on July 1 of that year, the airport's weather station

 became the official point for Washington, D.C.'s weather observations and records by the National Weather 

Service.[8]

The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 316 weekday departures: 95 Eastern (plus six a week to/from South

America), 77 American, 61 Capital, 23 National, 17 TWA, 10 United, 10 Delta, 6 Allegheny, 6 Braniff, 5 Piedmont,

3 Northeast and 3 Northwest. Jet flights began in April 1966 (727-200s were not allowed until 1970).[9]

Service to the airport's Metro station began in 1977.[10]

The Washington National Airport Terminal and South Hangar Line were listed on the National Register of Historic

Places in 1997.[3][11]

Expansion

The runway layout has changed little, except for the 1956 closure of a fourth,east–west runway now used for taxiing and aircraft parking. The terminal

 building was supplemented by the North Terminal in 1958; the two were

connected in 1961. A United Airlines holdroom complex was built in 1965, and

a facility for American Airlines was completed in 1968. A commuter terminal

was constructed in 1970.[6] In March 2012 the main 1/19 runway was

lengthened 300 ft to add FAA compliant runway safety areas. [12]

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Despite the expansions, efforts have been made to restrict the growth of the airport. The advent of jet aircraft as

well as traffic growth led Congress to pass the Washington Airport Act of 1950, which resulted in the opening of 

Dulles Airport in 1962. Concerns about aviation noise led to noise restrictions even before jet service began in

1966. To reduce congestion and drive traffic to alternative airports, the FAA imposed landing slot and perimeter 

restrictions on National and four other high-density airports in 1969.

Transfer of control and renaming

In 1984 Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole appointed a commission to study transferring National and

Dulles Airports from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to a local entity, which could use airport revenues

to finance improvements.[7] The commission recommended that one multi-state agency administer both Dulles and

 National, over the alternative of having Virginia control Dulles and the District of Columbia control National.[7] In

1987 Congress, through legislation,[13] transferred control of the airport from the FAA to the new MetropolitanWashington Airports Authority with the Authority's decisions being subject to a Congressional review panel. The

constitutionality of the review panel was later challenged in the Supreme Court and the Court has twice declared the

oversight panel unconstitutional.[14] Even after this decision, however, Congress has continued to intervene in the

management of the airports.[15]

On February 6, 1998 President Bill Clinton signed legislation

[16]

 changing the airport's name from Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, to honor the former president on his 87th

 birthday.[17] The legislation, passed by Congress in 1998, was drafted against the wishes of MWAA officials and

 political leaders in Northern Virginia and Washington, D.C.[18][19] Opponents of the renaming argued that a large

federal office building had already been named for Reagan (the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade

Center) and that the airport was already named for a United States President (George Washington).[19] The bill

expressly stated that it did not require the expenditure of any funds to accomplish the name change; however,

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DCA control tower and new terminal C

regional, state and federal authorities were later required to change highway and transit signs at their own additional

expense as new signs were made.[20][21] To this day air traffic controlers in the airport's tower use the call sign

"Washington Tower" or less frequently "National Tower". Pilots who call "Reagan Tower" are quickly corrected.

Construction of current terminal buildings

With the addition of more flights and limited space in the aging main terminal, the airport

 began an extensive renovation and expansion in the 1990s. Hangar 11 on the northern end

of the airport was converted into The USAir Interim Terminal, designed by Joseph C.

Giuliani, FAIA. Soon after an addition for Delta Air Lines was added in 1989 and was

later converted to Authority offices. These projects allowed for the relocation of several

gates in the main terminal until the new $450 million terminal complex became

operational. On July 27, 1997, the new terminal complex, consisting of terminals B and Cand two parking garages, opened. Argentine architect César Pelli designed the new

terminals of the airport. The USAir Interim Terminal closed immediately after the opening

and was converted back into a hangar. One pier of the main terminal (now Terminal A),

which mainly housed American Airlines and Pan Am, was demolished; the other pier, originally designed for 

 Northwest/TWA remains operational today as gates 1–9.

Until 1999, Runways 1/19 and 4/22 were designated 18/36 and 3/21.

Operations

Tightened security and safety concerns

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A Boeing 757-223 operated

 by American Airlines on one

of the runways in March

1995; it was used on the

flight that crashed into the

Pentagon on September 11,

2001

Given Reagan National Airport's proximity to the city and high-security facilities,

Reagan National has extra security precautions required by the Washington Air 

Defense Identification Zone that have been in place since the airport began

operations.[23]

Prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, the notable security measure was thesouthbound approach into the airport. Most of central Washington D.C. is

 prohibited airspace up to 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Due to this restriction, pilots

approaching from the north follow the path of the Potomac River and turn just

 before landing. This approach is known as the River Visual . Similarly, flights

taking off to the north are required to climb quickly and turn left to avoid the

Washington Monument or flight over the White House.[23][24]

After the attacks, the airport was closed for several weeks, and security was

tightened when it reopened. Increased security measures included:

A ban on aircraft with more than 156 seats (lifted in April 2002)[25]

A ban on the "River Visual" approach (lifted in April 2002) [25]

A requirement that, 30 minutes prior to landing or following takeoff, passengers were required to remain

seated; if anyone stood up, the aircraft was to be diverted to Washington Dulles International Airport under 

military escort and the person standing would be detained and questioned by federal law enforcement officials

(lifted in July 2005)[26]

A ban on general aviation (lifted in October 2005, subject to the restrictions below)[27]

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Many pilots[22] regard the

"River Visual" approach asone of the more interesting in

the United States.

A U.S. Airways A319 on

final approach for National as

seen from the Arlington

Memorial Bridge.

On October 18, 2005, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport was reopened

to general aviation on a limited basis (48 operations per day) and under 

restrictions: passenger and crew manifests must be submitted to the Transportation

Security Administration 24 hours in advance, and all planes must pass through one

of 27 "gateway airports" where re-inspections of aircraft, passengers, and baggage

take place. An armed security officer must be on board before departing a gatewayairport.[28]

On March 23, 2011, the air traffic control supervisor on duty reportedly fell asleep

during the night shift. Two aircraft on approach to the airport were unable to

contact anyone in the control tower and landed unassisted.[29]

The "River Visual" approach

Reagan National Airport has noise restrictions that are some of the most restrictive

in the country.[30] Pilots are required to use the "River Visual" approach (used for 

runway 19), which follows the Potomac River, and is only possible with a ceiling

of at least 3,500 feet (1,100 m) and visibility of 3 statute miles (4.8 km) or 

more.[31] There are lights on the Key Bridge, Theodore Roosevelt Bridge,

Arlington Memorial Bridge, and the George Mason Memorial Bridge to aid pilotsfollowing the river. Aircraft using the approach can be observed from various

 parks on the river's west bank. Passengers on the left side of an airplane can see the

Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Jefferson Memorial, the World War II

Memorial, Georgetown University, the National Mall, and the White House.

Passengers on the right side can see CIA headquarters, Arlington National

Cemetery, the Pentagon, and the United States Air Force Memorial.

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An American Airlines MD-80 flying the

River Visual approach by the Lincoln

Memorial.

When visibility and ceiling are below minimums for the River Visual and southerly winds restrict northbound

runway operations, aircraft fly an offset localizer or GPS approach to Runway 19, again involving a final turn

moments before touchdown, or they fly a VOR or GPS approach to either of the shorter Runways 15 and 22, which

are marginally long enough for airline jets.

Perimeter restrictions

Reagan National Airport is subject to a federally mandated perimeter 

limitation and may not accommodate nonstop flights to or from cities

 beyond 1,250-statute-mile (2,010 km), with limited exceptions. The U.S.

Department of Transportation has issued "beyond-perimeter slot

exemptions" which allow specified carriers to operate 20 daily round-

trip flights to cities outside the perimeter. The current exemptions are:

Airlines Destinations

Alaska Airlines8 slots operating as 2x Seattle, 1x Los Angeles, 1xPortland, OR 

AmericanAirlines

4 slots operating as 2x Los Angeles

Delta Air Lines 4 slots operating as 2x Salt Lake CityFrontier Airlines 6 slots operating as 3x Denver 

JetBlue Airways 2 slots operating as 1x San Juan

SouthwestAirlines

2 slots operating as 1x Austin

United Airlines 4 slots operating as 1x Denver, 1x San Francisco

US Airways 8 slots operating as 3x Phoenix, 1x Las Vegas

Virgin America 2 slots operating as 1x San Francisco

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In 1999, Senator John McCain of Arizona introduced legislation to remove the 1,250-statute-mile (2,010 km)

restriction,[32] infuriating some local residents concerned about noise and traffic from increased service by larger,

long-haul aircraft. McCain argued that the move would improve competition, while some congressional staffers

thought he was supporting the interests of Phoenix, Arizona-based America West Airlines (AWA).[33] In the end the

restriction was not lifted, but the FAA was permitted to add additional exemptions, which went not to AWA but to

competitor Alaska Airlines. America West (now US Airways, which is itself now a part of American AirlinesGroup) later gained additional exemptions for non-stop flights to Phoenix in 2004.

Originally the airport had no perimeter rule; from 1954 to 1960, airlines scheduled nonstop flights to California on

 piston-engine airliners.[34][35] Scheduled jet airliners were not allowed at all until April 1966; the perimeter rule

arrived with them, and apparently applied only to them. The initial perimeter was 650 statute miles (1,050 km),

except that airports under 1,000 statute miles (1,600 km) that had scheduled nonstops in 1965 were allowed to

retain them. This meant Minneapolis–Saint Paul was allowed nonstop jet flights but Kansas City, New Orleans, andFort Lauderdale were not. In 1981 the perimeter became a flat 1,000 statute miles (1,600 km); it expanded to 1,250

statute miles (2,010 km), enough to encompass Houston, in 1986–87.

In May 2012, the U.S. Department of Transportation granted new perimeter exemptions for: Alaska Airlines for 

service to Portland, Ore.; JetBlue Airways for San Juan, Puerto Rico; Southwest Airlines for Austin, Texas; and

Virgin America for San Francisco. Additionally, "the new law also allowed four large carriers already serving

Reagan National to exchange a total of eight slots for flights within the perimeter for an equal number of slotexemptions to permit nonstop flights beyond the perimeter. As a result, American Airlines traded one round-trip

flight to Dallas–Fort Worth for a flight to Los Angeles, Delta Air Lines traded one round-trip flight to New York– 

LaGuardia Airport for a flight to Salt Lake City, United Airlines traded one round-trip flight to Chicago–O'Hare for 

a flight to San Francisco, and US Airways traded one round-trip flight to Dallas–Fort Worth for a flight to San

Diego."[36]

Terminals

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The main hall connecting

Terminals B and C.

Terminal A

Terminal A opened in 1941 and was expanded in 1955 to accommodate more

 passengers and airlines. The exterior of this terminal has been restored its original

architecture, with the airside facade restored in 2004 and the landside facade

restored in 2008.[37] The terminal is currently undergoing a $37 million renovationthat will modernize the airport’s look by bringing in brighter lighting, more

windows and new flooring. The project is expected to be completed by the end of 

2013.[38]

Terminals B and C

Terminals B and C opened in 1997, replacing a collection of airline-specific terminals built during the 1960s. Thenew terminals were designed by architect Cesar Pelli and house 35 gates.

Airlines and destinations

Passenger service

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Destination map

Airlines Destinations Terminal

Air CanadaExpress

Montréal–Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto–Pearson A

AirTran Airwaysoperated bySouthwest Airlines

Atlanta (ends November 1, 2014), Fort Myers (ends August 9, 2014), Milwaukee (ends November 1, 2014)

A

Alaska Airlines Los Angeles, Portland (OR), Seattle/Tacoma B (Pier 1)

American Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New York-JFK B (Pier 2)

American Eagle Chicago–O'Hare, Nashville, New York–JFK, St. Louis B (Pier 2)

Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Salt Lake City B (Pier 1)

Delta ConnectionCincinnati, Detroit, Lexington, Madison, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York– JFK, Omaha

B (Pier 1)

Delta Shuttle New York–LaGuardia B (Pier 1)

Frontier Airlines Denver A

JetBlue Airways

Boston, Charleston (SC), Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, Nassau, Orlando, San Juan, Tampa

Seasonal: Fort Myers (begins December 18, 2014),[39] West Palm Beach (begins

December 18, 2014)[40]

A1

 

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This is a view of the airport from the

north, showing terminals B and C. It was

taken from Gravelly Point, a popular 

 park where people can watch planes take

off or land.

^1 Moving to Terminal B in Summer 2014[41]

Traffic and statistics

In 2013, Reagan National Airport handled 20,415,085 passengers, whichwas a new record.[42] US Airways has the largest share of traffic at the

airport, accounting for 19.97% as of June 2012. Delta Air Lines, the

second largest, accounts for 13.00% of traffic, with American Airlines in

third at 12.71%.[43]

Busiest Domestic Routes from DCA (April 2013 – March 2014)[43]

Rank Airport Passengers Carriers

1 Atlanta, Georgia 788,000 AirTran, Delta

2 Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois 702,000 American, United

3 Boston, Massachusetts 677,000 JetBlue, US Airways

4 New York (LaGuardia), NewYork 

427,000 Delta, US Airways

5 Orlando, Florida 411,000 AirTran, JetBlue, USAirways

6 Miami, Florida 398,000 American

7 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 388,000 American

8 Charlotte, North Carolina 297,000 US Airways

9Minneapolis/St. Paul,Minnesota

280,000Delta, Sun Country, USAirways

10 Detroit, Michigan 274,000 Delta, US Airways

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Largest Airlines at DCA (December

2013)[44]

Rank Airline Passengers

1 US Airways 712,164

2 American Airlines 230,887

3 Delta Air Lines 225,056

4 United Airlines 144,240

5 JetBlue 112,555

6 Southwest Airlines1 92,683

7 Frontier Airlines 38,559

8 Alaska Airlines 35,548

9 Air Canada 19,202

10 Sun Country Airlines 9,290

 Notes

^1 Includes AirTran Airways

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Traffic by calendar year[5]

Passengers

Change

from

previous

year

Aircraft

operations

Cargo

(pounds)[45]

2002 12,881,601 2.89% 215,691 12,925,992

2003 14,223,123 10.41% 250,802 12,732,373

2004 15,944,542 12.10% 268,576 11,182,022

2005 17,847,884 11.94% 276,056 8,751,702

2006 18,550,785 3.94% 276,419 7,963,107

2007 18,679,343 0.69% 275,433 5,544,936

2008 18,028,287 3.49% 277,298 7,321,546

2009 17,577,359 2.50% 272,146 12,811,229

2010 18,118,713 3.08% 271,097 14,506,056

2011 18,823,094 3.89% 281,770 13,802,787

2012 19,655,440 4.42% 288,176 13,138,554

2013[42] 20,415,085 3.90% 292,648 4,193,190

Ground transportation

Rail

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The airport is served by aMetro stop, and has shuttle

 buses connecting to Terminal

A.

A view of one of the terminals of the airport from the Metro

The Ronand Reagan Washington National Airport station on the Washington Metro, serving the Yellow and Blue

lines, is located on an elevated outdoor platform station adjacent to Terminals B and C. An elevated pedestrian

walkway connects the station directly to the concourse levels of Terminals B and C. An underground pedestrian

walkway and shuttle services provide access to Terminal A.

Bus

Metrobus provides service on weekend mornings before the Metro station opens or 

during any disruptions to regular Metro service.

Taxi

Taxicab services are available at the Ground Transportation area of all terminal

 buildings. Taxicabs that serve the airport are required to be licensed and are

regulated by either Washington, D.C. or Virginia local governments.

Airport Shuttle

Shared-ride shuttle services are available from

several providers including SuperShuttle and Supreme

Shuttle.

Roads

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is

located on the George Washington Memorial Parkway, and connected to U.S. Route 1 by the Airport Viaduct (State

Route 233). Interstate 395 is just north of DCA, and is accessible by the G.W. Parkway and U.S. Route 1.[46]

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Airport-operated parking garage facilities as well as economy lots are available adjacent to or near the various

airport terminals.

Bicycle

The airport is accessible by bicycle (and foot) from the Mt. Vernon Trail as well as the sidewalk along the airportaccess road leading from [Jefferson Davis Highway]. A total of 48 bike parking spots are available across six

separate bike racks.[47]

Abingdon Plantation Historical Site

A part of the airport is located on the former site of the 18th and 19th century Abingdon plantation, which was

associated with the prominent Alexander, Custis, Stuart, and Hunter families.[48] In 1998, MWAA opened a

historical display around the restored remnants of two Abingdon buildings and placed artifacts collected from the

site in an exhibit hall in Terminal A.[49][50] The Abingdon site is located on a knoll between parking Garage A and

Garage B/C, near the south end of the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Metrorail station.[49][51][52][53]

Incidents and accidents

Eastern Air Lines Flight 537

On November 1, 1949, a mid-air collision between an Eastern Air Lines passenger aircraft and a P-38 Lightning

military plane took the lives of 55 passengers. The sole survivor was the Bolivian ace pilot of the fighter plane,

Erick Rios Bridoux.[54]

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Air Florida Flight 90

wreckage being

removed from the

Potomac River 

(January 19, 1982)

Bridoux's plane had taken off from National just 10 minutes earlier and was in contact with the tower during a brief 

test flight. The Eastern Air Lines DC-4 was on approach from the south when the nimble and much faster P-38

 banked and plunged right into the passenger plane. Both aircraft dropped into the Potomac River.

Air Florida Flight 90

On the af ternoon of January 13, 1982,[55] following a period of exceptionally cold weather and a morning of 

 blizzard conditions, Air Florida Flight 90 crashed after waiting forty-nine minutes on a

taxiway and taking off with ice and snow on the wings. The Boeing 737 aircraft failed to

gain altitude. Less than 1 statute mile (1.6 km) from the end of the runway, the airplane

struck the 14th Street Bridge complex, shearing the tops off vehicles stuck in traffic before

 plunging through the 1-inch-thick (25 mm) ice covering the Potomac River. Rescue

responses were greatly hampered by the weather and traffic. Due to heroic action on the part of motorists, a United States Park Service police helicopter crew, and one of the

 plane's passengers who later perished, five occupants of the downed plane survived. The

other 74  people who had been aboard died, as well as four occupants of vehicles on the

 bridge. Pr esident Reagan cited motorist Lenny Skutnik in his State of the Union Address a

few week s later.

See also

References

1. ^ US Airways Declares National Airport a Hub at Senate Hearing (http://www.thestreet.com/story/11874226/1/us-

air ways-declares-national-airport-a-hub-at-senate-hearing.html?cm_ven=RSSFeed). TheStreet (2013-03-20). Retrieved on

2013-08-16.2. ^ a b FAA Air ort Master Record for DCA htt ://www. cr1.com/5010web/air ort.cfm?Site=DCA Form 5010

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. . . .

(http://www.gcr1.com/5010web/Rpt_5010.asp?au=PU&o=PU&faasite=03001.*A&fn=DCA) PDF)

3. ^ a b "National Register Information System" (http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html). National Register of 

 Hi st oric Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.

4. ^ "Virginia Landmarks Register" (http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/register_counties_cities.htm). Virginia Department

of Historic Resources. Retrieved 05-12-2013.

5. ^ a b "Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) Air Traffic Statistics"

(http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/1279.htm). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.

6. ^ a b c d  e "History" (http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/1277.htm). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011.

Retr ieved 2011-03-24.

7. ^ a b c Feaver, Douglas B. (July 16, 1997). "Years of Deal-Making Enabled Change From 'Disgrace' to Showplace"

(http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/airport/history.htm). Washington Post . Retrieved 2009-

12-20.

8. ^ htt p://threadex.rcc-acis.org

9. ^  Aviation Daily 26 Feb 1971 p314

10. ^ "History of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport" (http://www.metwashairports.com/2455.htm). Metropolitan

Washington Airports Authority. 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24.

11. ^ Car ol Hooper, Elizabeth Lampl, and Judith Robinson (April 1994). "National Register of Historic PlacesInventory/Nomination: Washington National Airport Terminal and South Hangar Line"

(http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Counties/Arlington/000-

0045 _W.National_Airport_Terminal_1997_Final_Nomination.pdf). and Accompanying photo

(http://www.dhr.virginia.gov/registers/Counties/Arlington/Washington_Reagan_Airport.htm)

12. ^ R unway Projects (http://www.metwashairports.com/reagan/3925.htm). Metwashairports.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-

16.13. ^ "Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986", Public Law No. 99-500, Section 6001

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan_Washington_National_Airport 22/27

14. ^ METROPOLITAN WASHINGTON AIRPORTS AUTHORITY v. CITIZENS FOR THE ABATEMENT OF

AIR CRAFT NOISE, INC., 501 U.S. 252 (1991).

15. ^ This can be seen by Congress's continued use of legislation to limit the number of flights at National Airport, as well as

expanding the perimeter and number of exemptions for flights outside that limit.

16. ^ "Pu blic Law No. 105-154, "To rename the Washington National Airport located in the District of Columbia and Virginia

as the `Ronald Reagan National Airport'"" (http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d105:s.01575:). January 27, 1998.

17. ^ "It's Reagan Airport now" (http://news.google.com/newspapers?

id=K 6cgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=6WgFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4387,3903666&dq=ronald+reagan+washington+national+airport+clinto

n&hl=en). McCook Daily Gazette (Archived by Google News Archive). Associated Press. February 7, 1998.

18. ^ Alvarez, Lizette (February 4, 1998). "G.O.P. Tries to Wrap Up an Airport for Reagan"

(http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?

res=9905E5DA163DF937A35751C0A96E958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2). The New York Times.

19. ^ a b "Congress Votes for Reagan Airport" (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-

srv/local/longterm/library/airport/overview5.htm). Washington Post . February 5, 1998. p. A01. Retrieved 2009-12-20.

20. ^ "Hansen in road sign rage over lack of Reagan airport markers" (http://www.deseretnews.com/article/634405/Hansen-

in-road-sign-rage-over-lack-of-Reagan-airport-markers.html). Deseret News. June 7, 1998.

21. ^ Zachary M. Shrag (2006). The Great Society Subway: A History of the Washington Metro

(http://books.google.com/books?id=vDQI-

02wk i0C&pg=PA258&lpg=PA258&dq=wmata+required+reagan+name+change+signs&source=bl&ots=JBhYPYZWh1&

sig=3 pkNlp0X3y6WJ5AoJ77RNhQ2mbc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xeCcT8eRO-

esiQLzrsBf&ved=0CCsQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=wmata%20required%20reagan%20name%20change%20signs&f=f 

alse). JHU Press. p. 258.

22. ^ "Why you should NEVER fly into Washington National Airport" (http://jethead.wordpress.com/2011/12/24/why-you-

should-never-fly-into-washington-national-airport/).  JetHead's Blog . 2011-12-24. Retrieved 2012-05-23.

 

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. ecur ty- estr cte rspace ttp: www. aa.gov news act_s eets news_story.c m news = . e era

Aviation Administration. December 13, 2005. Retrieved July 15, 2009.

24. ^ "eCFR-Code of Federal Regulations" (http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?

gp=&SID=a34480103c9ffb0f2f987b4e9dbe8e10&n=14y2.0.1.3.11&r=PART&ty=HTML#14:2.0.1.3.11.19). U.S.

Government Printing Office. Retrieved 2014-05-05.

25. ^ a b "Secretary Mineta Announces Beginning of Security Screening Program; BWI First to Deploy Federal Screening

Personnel" (http://www.tsa.gov/press/releases/2002/press_release_0051.shtm). Transportation Security Administration.

2002-04-24. Retrieved 2007-03-26.

26. ^ "TSA Suspends 30-Minute Rule for Reagan National Airport"

(http://www.tsa.gov/press/releases/2005/press_release_0607.shtm). Transportation Security Administration. 2005-07-14.

Retr ieved 2007-03-26.

27. ^ "TSA Opens Ronald Reagan Washington Airport to General Aviation Operations"

(http://www.tsa.gov/press/releases/2005/press_release_0627.shtm). Transportation Security Administration. 2005-10-18.

Retr ieved 2007-03-26.

28. ^ "R estoration of General Aviation at Washington Reagan National Airport" (http://archive.today/yBvx). Transportation

Secur ity Administration. Retrieved 2011-03-24.

29. ^ " "Uncontrolled airport" situation at Washington National" (http://www.eturbonews.com/21941/air-traffic-controller-

slee ping-planes-land-without-help). eTurboNews. Retrieved 25 March 2011.30. ^ "Aircraft Noise Procedures and Guidelines at Reagan National Airport" (http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/2544.htm).

Metr opolitan Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved February 21, 2010.

31. ^ Garrison, Kevin (1993). Congested Airspace: A Pilot's Guide (Command Decisions Ser.)

(http://books.google.com/books?

id=1wHJd7_3wqEC&q=%22River+Visual+approach%22&dq=%22River+Visual+approach%22). Riverside, Conn:

Belvoir Publications. p. 157. ISBN 1-879620-13-8.

32. ^ Si press, Alan (November 11, 1999). "More Flights Unlikely Now At National"

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(http://search.proquest.com/docview/408563593/13BE2100B116D9C419D/11?accountid=46320). The Washington Post .

 p. B1.

33. ^ Si press, Alan (March 5, 1999). "3 Senators Gain From Airport Bill" (http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1999-03-

05/news/9903040602_1_national-airlines-reagan-national-airport-nonstop-flights). The Washington Post 

(SunSentinel.com).

34. ^ htt p://www.timetableimages.com/ttimages/complete/aa58/aa58-03.jpg

35. ^ htt p://www.timetableimages.com/ttimages/complete/tw59/tw59-04.jpg

36. ^ DOT Selects Four Cities to Receive New Nonstop Service to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport | Department

of Tr ansportation (http://www.dot.gov/briefing-room/dot-selects-four-cities-receive-new-nonstop-service-ronald-reagan-

washington-national). Dot.gov (2012-05-14). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.

37. ^ "History of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport" (http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/1277.htm). Metropolitan

Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved August 29, 2013.

38. ^ Ar atani, Lori (August 27, 2013). "Reagan National’s Terminal A is Getting $37M Facelift"

(http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/reagan-national-terminal-a-gets-37m-

facelift/2013/08/27/5ff44076-f3e5-11e2-9434-60440856fadf_story.html). The Washington Post . Retrieved August 29,

2013.

39. ^ htt p://finance.yahoo.com/news/jetblue-continues-expand-ronald-reagan-140000846.html

40. ^ htt p://finance.yahoo.com/news/jetblue-continues-expand-ronald-reagan-140000846.html

41. ^  New Airline Locations Announced for Reagan National (http://www.mwaa.com/6902.htm). Mwaa.com (2014-03-19).

Retr ieved on 2014-04-28.

42. ^ a b "Air Traffic Statistics: December 2013" (http://www.metwashairports.com/file/Tab_5.2-140219.pdf). Metropolitan

Washington Airports Authority. Retrieved 20 February 2014.

43. ^ a b "Washington, DC: Ronald Reagan Washington National (DCA)" (http://www.transtats.bts.gov/airports.asp?

 pn=1&Airport=DCA). Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved November 2013.

 

/ / f

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. p: www.me was a rpor s.com e ec_ _ .

45. ^ Total cargo (Freight, Express, & Mail).

46. ^ Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (2011). "Directions to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

(DCA)" (http://mwaa.com/reagan/1281.htm). Reagan National Airport (http://mwaa.com/reagan/reagan.htm). Retrieved

2011-10-21.

47. ^ "Washington National Airport Pedestrian/Bike Access" (http://www.crystalcity.org/_files/docs/dcabikemap.pdf). Crystal 

Cit  y Business Improvement District . Retrieved 4 June 2014.

48. ^ Templeman, Eleanor Lee (1959). Arlington Heritage: Vignettes of a Virginia County  (http://books.google.com/books?

id=FBQ8AAAAMAAJ). New York: Avenel Books, a division of Crown Publishers, Inc. pp. 12–13.

49. ^ a b Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (November 12, 1998). "Historic Site At Airport Open to Travelers And

Pu blic"

(http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20081120051853/http://www.metwashairports.com/news_publications/newsroom/press_r eleases/1998/historic_site_at_airport). Archived from the original

(http://www.metwashairports.com/news_publications/newsroom/press_releases/1998/historic_site_at_airport) on 2008-11-

20. R etrieved 2008-03-04.

50. ^ Sipress, Alan (1998-11-11). "At National Airport, A Historic Destination"

(http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/35869785.html?

FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Nov+11%2C+1998&author=Alan+Sipress&desc=At+National+Airport%2C+A+Historic+Destination%3B+On+Acre+Nestled+Between+Parking+Garages+Are+Restored+Ruins+of+Colonial+Plantation).

The Washington Post  (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company). pp. B1, B7.

51. ^ "Parking Map" (http://www.metwashairports.com/image/dca_parking_map.jpg). DCA Terminal Map

(ht tp: //www.metwashairports.com/reagan/DCA_Terminal_Map.htm). Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority

(http://www.metwashairports.com/). June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-16.

52. ^ Cressey, Pamela J. (2002). Walk and Bike the Alexandria Heritage Trail: A Guide to Exploring a Virginia Town's

 Hidd en Past  (http://books.google.com/books?id=E--KzyINwCMC). Capital Books. pp. 16–17. ISBN 1-892123-89-4.

19/6/2014 R ld R W hi t N ti l Ai t Wiki di th f l di

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 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical

Research Agency.

External links

Of ficial website (http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/reagan.htm)

Air  port Map (http://www.metwashairports.com/image/dca_parking_map.jpg) Metropolitan Washington

Air  ports Authority. June 2011

FAA Airport Diagram (http://aeronav.faa.gov/d-tpp/1406/00443AD.PDF) (PDF), effective May 29, 2014FAA Terminal Procedures for DCA (http://aeronav.faa.gov/digital_tpp_search.asp?

fldIdent=DCA&fld_ident_type=FAA&ver=1406&eff=05-29-2014&end=06-26-2014&submit1=Search),

eff ective May 29, 2014

Resources for this airport:

AirNav airport information for KDCA (http://www.airnav.com/airport/KDCA)

Retr ieved 2011-06-16.

53. ^ Coordinates of Abingdon Plantation historical site: 38°51′4.8″N 77°2′40.2″W

54. ^ "Planes Collide Near National Airport Killing 55; D.C. Loses Home Rule Advocate"

(http://ghostsofdc.org/2012/02/27/planes-collide-near-national-airport-killing-55-d-c-loses-home-rule-advocate/). Retrieved

2012-06-02.

55. ^  "We're Going Down, Larry" (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,925270,00.html). Time 119 (007): 21.

Fe br uary 15, 1982. Retrieved 2011-03-24.

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