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RISC - RISC/RISC4_Manual.pdf · PDF fileRISC Manual Version 4.0 ii • RISC allows for pathway, compound and receptor additivity • The fate and transport models in RISC can be used

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Text of RISC - RISC/RISC4_Manual.pdf · PDF fileRISC Manual Version 4.0 ii • RISC allows for...

  • RISC4Users Manual

    Lynn R. SpenceSpence Engineering

    Pleasanton, California

    Terry WaldenBP Oil International

    Sunbury, UK

    Developers:

    October, 2001

  • i

    FORWARD

    BACKGROUND

    In 1993, BP made a business decision in the U.S. to develop a standardized approach

    for conducting soil and groundwater risk assessments across all downstream

    activities (service stations through refineries). The rationale was that the company

    needed to ensure that the latest thinking on fate and transport, exposure, statistical

    analyses and toxicological criteria were adopted and applied uniformly its businesses.

    It would also help ensure that BP spoke with a consistent voice when approaching

    regulators and the community on this vital issue.

    Eventually it became clear that a software package containing embedded fate and

    transport models with intuitive user inputs offered the most convenient and flexible

    means of implementing this objective. This would enable the process to be readily

    standardized, communicated and transferred, while still allowing a risk application to

    be individually tailored to the regulatory regime of the particular business or country.

    By developing the code in-house, BP would also be able to rapidly adopt new

    algorithms or approaches (e.g. indoor air models), thus keeping the process evergreen.

    Versions 1.0 and 2.0 of the code were released in January, 1994 and August, 1995,

    respectively, with the former pre-dating the publication of the ASTM standard Risk-

    Based Corrective Action Applied at Petroleum Release Sites, commonly known as

    RBCA. Version 3.0, released in September, 1997, was a major upgrade that allowed

    back-calculations to be performed, i.e. soil and groundwater clean-up targets to be

    calculated for an input value of acceptable risk.

    While similar to the RBCA Toolkit marketed by Groundwater Services Inc., RISC is

    more functional, flexible and user-friendly. The major differences are:

    RISC has a more intuitive graphical interface

  • RISC Manual Version 4.0

    ii

    RISC allows for pathway, compound and receptor additivity

    The fate and transport models in RISC can be used in the presence of phase-separated product

    There is a vadose zone model in RISC

    The groundwater models are transient

    Probabilistic (Monte Carlo) exposure capabilities are provided in RISC

    RISC includes a critical pathway - indoor showering - missing in the Toolkit

    VERSION 4.0 NEW FEATURES

    Version 4.0 of RISC has new features that give it even greater flexibility in assessing

    risk for the following scenarios:

    Irrigation pathways, i.e. water used for gardening but not for indoor usage

    Vegetables grown in contaminated soil

    Two new vapor models , where the vapors are allowed to biodegrade duringtransport through the unsaturated zone

    Models for surface water and sediment contamination from impactedgroundwater and direct comparison with relevant national standards for thesemedia

    The use of groundwater MCLs (maximum concentration levels) and surfacewater concentrations in addition to acceptable risk levels as the criteria forback-calculating clean-up targets

    The ability to calculate a site-specific target level (SSTL) for a TPH mixtureusing the site-specific measured concentrations of the TPH fractions detectedin the soil

    It is felt that Version 4.0 provides the latest and most complete package for calculating

    risk to human health and surface water. This version has been peer-reviewed by

    Arcadis, Geraghty and Miller in Cambridge, UK. Their review is included in

    Appendix R.

  • Forward

    iii

    RISC DISTRIBUTION AND HELP DESK

    BP is distributing the software and manual to all its U.S. and international affiliates

    who, in turn, are free to transfer it without charge to their regulators and risk

    consultants. The software is not proprietary however, and can be purchased and

    downloaded by third parties over the Internet at the web site,

    www.groundwatersoftware.com, for $450 (USD). Additional charges will apply if

    the recipient wants the Internet provider to supply a hard copy of the manual.

    All recipients of the software should periodically check the web site,

    www.bprisc.com, to download upgrades related to bug fixes or minor improvements

    to the code. The downloads on this web site are functional only to existing software

    users.

    Finally, any problems with the manual or software, including questionable output or

    data interpretation issues, should be directed to the software developer, Lynn Spence.

    Her details are as follows:

    Phone: 925-462-3124

    Fax: 925-846-3152

    E-mail: lynnspence@bprisc.com

    Address: Lynn Spence

    239 Main Street, Suite E

    Pleasanton, CA 94566

    USA

  • v

    Table of Contents

    FORWARD

    BACKGROUND

    VERSION 4.0 NEW FEATURES

    RISC DISTRIBUTION AND HELP DESK

    1.0OVERVIEW AND GETTING STARTED

    1.1 INTRODUCTION1.1.1 Background

    1.1.2 Uses of this Software

    1.1.3 Overview of Features

    1.1.4 Organization and Scope of this Report

    1.2 GETTING STARTED1.2.1 Hardware and Software Requirements

    1.2.2 Installation Instructions

    1.2.3 General Instructions (How to Use RISC)

    2.0DATA AND ANALYSIS TOOLS

    2.1 RBCA TIER 1 SPREADSHEET2.1.1 Tier 1 Applications

    2.1.2 Tier 2 Applications

    2.1.3 How to Use

    2.2 SURFACE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    3.0CHOOSE CHEMICALS OF CONCERN

    3.1 CHOOSE CHEMICALS

    3.2 VIEW CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    3.3 ADD NEW CHEMICAL TO DATABASE

    3.4 REMOVE CHEMICAL FROM DATABASE

    3.5 RESTORING THE ORIGINAL CHEMICAL DATABASE

  • RISC Manual Version 4.0

    vi

    4.0CHOOSE EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

    4.1 HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURE PATHWAYS4.1.1 Select Contaminated Media and Fate and Transport Models

    4.1.2 Select Exposure Pathways

    4.2 ECOLOGICAL/WATER QUALITY

    5.0DETERMINE RECEPTOR POINT CONCENTRATIONS

    5.1 USER-SPECIFIED CONCENTRATIONS5.1.1 Single Value

    5.1.2 Monte Carlo Distributions

    5.1.3 Sample Data Base

    5.2 FATE AND TRANSPORT MODELS

    6.0DESCRIBE THE RECEPTORS

    6.1 HUMAN HEALTH6.1.1 Step 4a: Choose Receptor and Analysis Type

    6.1.2 Step4b: Enter Exposure Data

    6.2 ECOLOGICAL/WATER QUALITY

    7.0CALCULATE RISK

    7.1 DESCRIPTION OF EACH INTAKE ROUTE7.1.1 Ingestion of Soil

    7.1.2 Dermal Contact with Soil

    7.1.3 Ingestion of Groundwater

    7.1.4 Dermal Intake in the Shower

    7.1.5 Inhalation in the Shower

    7.1.6 Inhalation of Outdoor Air

    7.1.7 Inhalation of Indoor Air

    7.1.8 Ingestion of Surface Water

    7.1.9 Dermal Contact With Surface Water

    7.1.10 Ingestion of Home-Grown Vegetables Grown in Contaminated Soil

    7.1.11 Ingestion of Home-Grown Vegetables Irrigated With Groundwater

    7.1.12 Ingestion of Irrigation Water

    7.1.13 Dermal Intake with Irrigation Water

    7.1.14 Inhalation of Irrigation Water Spray

    7.2 CALCULATION OF CARCINOGENIC RISK

  • Table of Contents

    vii

    7.3 CALCULATION OF HAZARD INDEX

    8.0CALCULATE CLEAN-UP LEVELS

    8.1 SET-UP THE SIMULATION

    8.2 "RULES" USED IN THE BACK-CALCULATION

    8.3 DESCRIPTION OF METHOD USED TO CALCULATE CLEAN-UP LEVELS8.3.1 Direct Pathways

    8.3.2 Pathways Using Fate and Transport Models

    8.3.3 Equations Used to Calculate Target Receptor Point Concentrations

    8.4 RESULTS OF THE CLEAN-UP LEVEL CALCULATION

    9.0 RESULTS

    9.1 DETERMINISTIC OUTPUT

    9.2 MONTE CARLO OUTPUT9.2.1 Monte Carlo Tables

    9.2.2 Monte Carlo Charts

    9.3 TRANSFERRING TABLES AND CHARTS TO OTHER APPLICATIONS

    10.0 EXAMPLE RISK ASSESSMENT SCENARIOS

    10.1 EXAMPLE 1: FORMER GAS STATION REDEVELOPED WITH SINGLEFAMILY HOUSING

    10.2 EXAMPLE 2: IRRIGATION AND VOLITILIZATION FROMGROUNDWATER

    10.3 EXAMPLE 3: SURFACE WATER ECOLOGICAL RISK

    11.0 CHEMICAL DATABASE

    11.1 PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL PROPERTIES11.1.1 Density

    11.1.2 Vapor Pressure (saturated)

    11.1.3 Solubility

    11.1.4 Henrys Law Coefficient

    11.1.5 Log Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient (log Kow)

    11.1.6 Organic Carbon Partition Coefficient (Koc)

    11.1.7 Inorganic Partition Coefficient (Kd)

    11.1.8 Diffusion Coefficients in Air and Water

  • RISC Manual Version 4.0

    viii

    11.1.9 Degradation Rates

    11.1.10 Vegetable Uptake Factor

    11.2 TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES11.2.1 USEPA Carcinogenic Classification

    11.2.2 Toxicity Parameters

    11.2.3 Inhalation Conversion Factors

    11.2.4 Absorption Adjustment Factors (AAFs)

    11.2.5 Skin Permeability Coefficient

    11.3 TECHNICAL DETAILS OF THE CHEMICAL DATABASE11.3.1 Chemical Database Format

    11.3.2 Restoring the Original Chemical Database

    12.0 REFERENCES

  • Table of Contents

    ix

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 2-1. Summary of the Sheets in the Tier 1 Spreadsheet

    Table 4-1. Exposure Pathways Associated With Receptor Media

    Table 5-1. Soil Properties Database

    Table 5-2. List of Fate and Transport Models and Source Terms Required for Each Model

    Table 6-1. Default Receptor Types and Exposure Routes

    Table 6-2. Intake Parameters for Adult Residents (page 1 of 2)

    Table 6-2. Intake Parameters for Adult Residents (page 2 of 2)

    Table 6-3. Intake Parameters for Child Residents (page 1 of 2)

    Table 6-3. Intake Parameters for Child Residents (page 2 of 2)

    Table 6-4. Intake Parameters for Wo

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