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Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

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Page 1: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Rhetorical Criticism

Metaphorical CritiqueSocial Movement CritiqueFantasy-Theme Critique

Page 2: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Metaphor

• From Greek:– meta -- “over”– phereras -- “to carry”

• To carry aspects of one thing over to another thing.

• A metaphor joins two symbols normally regarded as belonging to different classes of experience.

Page 3: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

The tenor and the vehicle• tenor: the topic or subject being

explained• vehicle: the mechanism or lens through

which the topic is viewed.– A new crop of students

entered the classroom. – The teacher planted ideas

in their fertile, young minds.

• tenor – education, teaching and learning

• vehicle – farming

I. A. RichardsPhilosopher

Language and Literary Theory

(1893 1979)

Page 5: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Metaphoric Deviousness

• Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) saw metaphor as frustrating the process of communication.– One of his four abuses of speech used to

“deceive others.”

• Archbishop of Dublin, Richard Whately (1787-1863 ) said metaphor departs “from the plain and strictly appropriate Style.”

•Kenneth Burke

Page 6: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Robert L. Ivie Professor of Rhetoric and Public Culture

Department of Communication and Culture Indiana University, Bloomington.

WEBSITE

Michael Osborn University of Memphis

biography

George Lakoffprofessor of linguistics

University of California, Berkeley Senior Fellow at the Rockridge Institute

WEBSITE

Mark L. Johnson Knight Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Department of Philosophy University of Oregon

WEBSITE

Page 7: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Metaphor Forming Reality• We experience reality through

language• Metaphor is a basic way we construct

reality as we trade symbols– Argument is War

• “He attacked my argument”• “I demolished her argument”• “She won the argument”• “I shot his argument down”

– Argumentation is a Dance• “Our balanced arguments revealed the truth”

Page 8: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Metaphorical Criticism

• Burke - Metaphor plays a crucial role in the discovery and description of truth.– “metaphor tells us something about one

character as considered from the point-of-view of another character”

• Lakoff & Johnson – Metaphor is instrumental and persuasive in everyday thought.

• Ivie & Osborn – Developed metaphor into a structured method of critique.

Page 9: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Selecting Metaphorical Artifacts

• All language has metaphorical aspects

• Select artifacts that contain explicit metaphors

• Symbolism• Art

Metaphor by Rachael A. Riley

Page 10: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Analyzing the Artifact

1. Examine artifact for a general sense of its dimensions and context.– Spend time; get the big picture; know the

context2. Isolate the metaphors in the artifact.

– Explicit and implied metaphors3. Sort metaphors into groups according to

vehicle and tenor.– Look for patterns; focus; themes. What are the

vehicles? How do they relate?4. Discover an explanation for the artifact.

– Use the principles of frequency and intensity to discover significance.

Page 11: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Formulate a Research Question or

Thesis

Write the Essay

Page 12: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Social Movement Critique

Moving Beyond Individuals & Events to History and Groups

Page 13: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Diverse Methods

• The Rhetoric created by members of social movements

• Analyze multiplicity through space and time• Leland Griffin (1952)

– The rhetoric moves through phases: • “Inception,” “development,” & “consummation”

– Two forms:• “Pro” movements to create a world view or institution. • “Anti” movements to arouse people to destroy and

reject an idea or establishment.

Page 14: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique
Page 15: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Fantasy-Theme Criticism

Provides insight into the shared worldview of groups

Page 16: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Ernest G. Bormann

University of Minnesota Currently Professor

Emeritus Department of

Speech-Communication College of Liberal Arts.

Fantasy Theme Analysis is based in

Symbolic Conversion Theory

Page 17: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Symbolic Conversion Theory

• The central formula of the Symbolic Conversion Theory is a process discovered in the study of small group meetings. The discovery occurred as the result of a member making an imaginative comment which suddenly sparked more excited comments, often laughter, and a complete change of the tension and climate in the group. This process resulted in an increase in group cohesion. This process became known as the dynamic sharing of a group “fantasy “

Page 18: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Creates Shared Realities

• Individuals’ meanings for symbols converge to create a shared reality, a community consciousness.

• Consensus and agreement occurs on subjective meanings.

• Community is created to share common experience and build mutual understanding.

• They jointly experience the same emotions.

• They begin to interpret their shared experiences in the same way.

Page 19: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Convergence and Fantasy Theme

• Propaganda campaigns• Advertising campaigns• Social, political and religious groups

and movements• Secret societies• Cultures and sub-cultures• Cults

Page 20: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

The Basic Unit of Analysis of Social Convergence & Fantasy

• The Fantasy Theme– “fantasy” is not used here in the popular

sense.– Rather it is “the creative and

imaginative interpretation of events.”– Fantasy themes are words, phrases, and

statements that • interpret the past, • envision the future,• Or depict current events that are removed in

time and space from the group.

Page 21: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Fantasy Themes tell stories about the groups experience

that create reality.• Characters, actions, and settings

removed in space and time from the group.

• Fantasy Themes are dramatic, artistic and organized.

• Fantasy Themes make sense out of chaotic events.

• Shared Fantasies provide good reasons for arguments.

Page 22: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Three types of Fantasy Themes

• The themes are the elements of drama:– Setting themes

• Statements that depict where and describe where the action takes place.

– Character themes• Describe the actors and agents of the drama and their

characteristics.

– Action themes• Called plotlines that deal with the actions in the drama.

• The motives of a group lie in the Rhetorical Vision created by the Fantasy Themes.

Page 23: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Rhetorical Vision

• A “unified putting together of the various shared fantasies.”

• The settings, characters, and actions work together to form a symbolic drama, a coherent interpretation of reality.

• People who share a rhetorical vision constitute a Rhetorical Community.– They will cheer and emulate their heroes – They will react with antipathy and despise their

villians.– They will agree on what is evidence, how to

build a case and refute arguments.– The substance of the vision propels the

individuals and their community

Page 24: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Selecting Artifacts for Fantasy Theme Analysis

• Evidence that Symbolic Convergence has occurred.

• That people have shared fantasy themes and a rhetorical vision.

• An advertisement, song, book, or film may show evidence of symbolic convergence.

• Political speeches, comedy monologues, religious sermons can be fantasy themes that divulge rhetorical visions.

Page 25: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Analyzing the Artifact(s)

• Code the artifact for fantasy themes:– Sentence-by-sentence, image-by-image

identify setting, character and action.

• Look for patterns• Construct a rhetorical vision from the

patterns that appear.– There may be more than one.– Together the visions may reveal additional

patterns of a larger vision or reality.

• The construction of a world view.

Page 26: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Formulate a Research Question or

Thesis

Write the Essay

Page 27: Rhetorical Criticism Metaphorical Critique Social Movement Critique Fantasy-Theme Critique

Works Cited

• Presentation content adapted from:Sonja Foss Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice, 3rd Ed. Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, Illinois: 2004

• Artwork by: Rachael A. Riley, Metaphor, Elwood Gallery,http://elfwood.lysator.liu.se/art/r/a/rachaelar/rachaelar.html