MANUFACTURE OF PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN USING RESOL TYPEReport submitted in the partial fulfillment of the A project requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering Submitted By Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR ROLL NO. 07039
DEPARRMENT OF CHEMICAL OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY OSMANIA UNIVERSITY , HYDERABAD-07.
UNIVERSITY OF COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY(AUTONOMOUS) OSMANIA UNIVERSITY,HYDERABAD-500 007 PREPARED A PROJECT REPORT ON MANUFACTURE OF PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE USING RESOL TYPE GENNERAL INSTRUCTIONS (N.B: THIS SHEET SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN THE ORIGINAL PROJECT REPORT)
The report for the allotted project must be handed over to the vice principal ,University College of Technology,OU,on or before 3 PM ,21April 2011,marketed outside as project report (report name) and bearing the candidates name and hall ticket number.
The report may be type written on bond size paper and on sketches and drawings with dimensions must be Xerox copies of originals.The project is to be submitted in duplicate.One copy would be returned to the candidate after the examination.
3. 4. 5. 6.
The students have to present the statues of their progress in the report preparation to the supervisor on any day suggested by the supervisor. The project report should be adjusted in the range 40-60 pages.neatness should be taken into account. Each project report should normally include the following chapters with details indicated (where ever possible). The material balance and energy balance over each process equipment should be presented with necessary calculation consolidated in brief followed by tabular presentations of the balances.
Details of calculations (along with formulae,if any) necessary for the design of the equipment should be shown.All the design specifications of the equipment should be summarized.
All the reference should be indicated in the text with a super script number where ever applicable in continues order from the beginnings to the end of the report. It may be noted that the non adherence to any of the items listed above shell lead to loss of credit in the award of grade. PRINCIPAL
This is to certify that the project entitled MANUFACTURE OF PHENOLFORMALDEHYDE RESINS that is being submitted by Mr B.LAXMAN NAIK & Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR in partial fulfillment for the award of the Bachelor of Technology in Chemical Engineering at the University College of Technology ,Osmania University , Hyderabad,is a record of bonafide work carried out by him at OUCT under my guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this project have not been submitted to any other university or institute for award of any degree.
Asst. Prof.P.RAJAM Project guide , Department of chemical engineering, University College of Technology, Osmania University.
Dr T.Sankarshna Principal, College of Technology, Osmania University.
I am very much grateful to P.RAJAM,Assistant Professer,Department of Chemical Engineering ,University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad, for his kind help and valuable guidance through out this project work. I would also like to thank Dr T.Sankarshna,Principal and Head of Department,Chemical Engineering ,University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad,for his kind support he has shown in my project work. I would also like to thank other staff members of University College of Technology,Osmania University,Hyderabad, for their kind support in materializing this project.
B.LAXMAN NAIK ROLLNO:07016 B.TECH:- 4/4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING & Y.T.REVANTH KUMAR ROLL NO.:07039 B.TECH:- 4/4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
CONTENTSTITLE INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHEMICAL PROPERTIES METHODS OF PRODUCTION PAGE NO. 6-7 8 9 10 10
PROCESS DESCRIPTION MATERIAL BALANCE ENERGY BALANCE REACTION KINETICS REACTOR DESIGN APPLICATIONS AND EXAMPLES COST ESTIMATION PLANT LOCATION AND LAY OUT HEALTH HAZARDS AND TOXICITY INFORMATION FIRST AID AND FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES HANDLING AND STORAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY
11-12 13-15 16-17 18 19-24 25-32 33-36 37-40 41-42 43-44 45-47 48
INTRODUCTIONOn July 13, 1907, Leo H. Baekeland applied for his famous heat and pressure patent for the processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins. This technique made possible the worldwide application of the first wholly synthetic polymer material (only cellulose derivatives were known before). Even from his first patent application of February 18, 1907, it was clear that Baekeland, more than these predecessors, was fully aware of the value of phenolic resins. Before his involvement with phenolic resins Baekeland had worked on photographic problems with the same intensity. His success in developing a fast-copying photographic paper, known throughout the world under the name Velox, gave him the financial independence, which allowed him to build his own research laboratory in his home in Yonkers, New York. There, starting in 1905, he devoted his whole time to the investigation of phenolic resins. However, the first patent covering phenolic resins (as substitute for hard rubber) was granted to A. Smith in 1899. A. Von Bayer found in 1872 while studying phenolic
dyes, that phenol reacting with formaldehyde was converted to a colorless resin. He first noticed that a reddish-brown resinous mass was produced during the reaction of bitter almond oil with pyrogallic acid. However, nothing was done with this resinous material. Ter Meer, A. Claus and E. Trainer continued the experiments. Claus and Trainer obtained a resinous material from 2 mol of phenol and 1 mol of formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid. After the non-converted phenol was distilled off, a soluble resin was obtained with a MP of 100C. However, they also could not think of application for this material and reported disappointedly: It is not possible to crystallize this resinous material. Phenols and formaldehyde are converted to resinous products in the presence of acidic and alkaline catalysts. These may be permanently fusible and soluble in organic solvents or heatcurable depending upon the preparation conditions. Phenolic resins were already being sold as substitutes for shellac, ebonite, horn and celluloid. These are colorable, can be mixed with fillers and under the influence of heat shaped in molds into solid parts.
CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION: MOLECULAR FORMULA: STRUCTURAL FORMULA: C6H5-OH-CH2OH HO-C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-C(=O)-C
Appearance and odour: Odourless,brown in color. Warning properties: Insufficient information available for evaluation, however, since the material is odourless and Irritant properties are unreliable, assume warning properties are poor. Uses and occurrences: PF-resins are usually compression or transfer moulded.They are used for preparing laminates of papers ,fabrics, etc.The dark colour,however,becomes a disadvantage for the resin and hence , for applications such as decorative laminates,the PF resins are used for forming the lower layers.They are used as cast resins , imitation jewelleries, handles, knobs, electric switches, etc.They are used as adhesive for bonding plywood and as binding agent for making grinding wheel out of caborandom particles.presently,phenonlic structural forms are being manufactured which are heat resistance with high impact strenghthly , atc.The cellular forms may have densities arranging from 1-20 lb/ft3 . Phenol is used as a basic feedstock for producing numerous derivatives. The major derivatives and uses are described briefly below. Phenolic resins are the condensation product of phenol or substituted phenols with an aldehyde, such as formaldehyde. The largest use for phenolic resins is in adhesives (for plywood), followed by binders for insulation (fiberglass, mineral wool, etc.), impregnating and laminating agents (for plastic and wood laminates), and molding compounds and foundry resins.
High-Strength Glass Fiber Reinforced Relative Density Melting Temperature Thermo set Processing Range Molding pressure Shrinkage Tensile Strength Compressive Strength Flexural Strength Izod Impact Linear expansion Hardness Rockwell Flammability 1.69-2.0 (Kg/m3) ( 149-193 0 k) (F) C:300-380 I:330-390 I-20 0.001-0.004 7000-18000 16,000-70,000 12,000-60,000 (ft-lb/in) 0.5-18.0 8-21 E54-101 V-0
Boiling Point, Coefficient of Thermal Expansionper Flash Point Specific gravity Water absorption(%weight increases)
C(102 to 107) .0008 F 112 to 160 1.69 to 2 0.12-1.5 0.3 to 1.2(saturated after 24hr)
Specific Heat of Liq cal/gm/C at 25-40C 0.55 to 0.5
CHEMICAL PROPERTIESWhen phenol reacts with formaldehyde in the presence of alkaline catalyst , methyols form, is shown in the following reaction
C6H5 -OH-CH2OH (METHYLOL PHENOL)
Subsequently , methylol-methylol condensation may take place to give resol with an ether linkage (c-0-c)
C6H5-OH-CH2-OH+C6H5-OH-CH2-OH RESOL METHODS OF PRODUCTION: MANUFACTURE OF PF-RESINS USING RESOL TYPE OF RESIN. MANUFACTURE OF PF-RESINS USING NOVALAC TYPE OF RESIN.
PROCESS SELECTION: MANUFACTURE OF PF-RESINS USING RESOL TYPE OF RESIN
PROCESS DESCRIPTION:For the manufacture of one-stage resins, all the necessary ingredients such as , phenol, formaldehyde and catalyst are charged into the reaction kettle and a basic condition is maintained by adding a weak alkali such as CA(OH)2.2H2O or NH4OH.The maolar ratio of phenol to aldehyde is taken as 1:1.25.The temperature for the reaction is about 1600c. The reaction that follows is quite fast,the time taken being usually less than one hour.The reaction products are mostly the di- and tri-methylol phenols having high solubility in w