Kristen Davidson Jennifer Edwards Alyssa Heggen Danhua Kong Lauren LaFayette Brian Maloney Jennifer Richards. Resources and Tools that School Counselors use for Career Counseling. Self-Directed Search. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Resources and Tools that School Counselors use for Career CounselingKristen DavidsonJennifer EdwardsAlyssa HeggenDanhua Kong
Lauren LaFayetteBrian MaloneyJennifer Richards
-Age group title?-Cultural considerations?1Self-Directed SearchSelf-directed SearchA self-administered, self-scored, and self-interpreted career counseling tool (Krieshok 1987)Developed as a research instrument to validate Hollands theory; yields Holland types (Sharf, 2006)Use subsets such as aspirations and competencies to measure ones similarity to the six Holland types (Miller, 1997)Strategies for implementationThe Self-Directed Search can be a helpful tool for guidance counselorsMost appropriate for use with high schoolers, versions adapted for middle schoolers25% of students taking the Self-Directed Search make errors in scoring the instrument, 10% of those are serious=trained proctor should be available to assist students (Miller, 1997)Str4Strategies for implementationIncoming freshmen, freshmen orientationOffer it during the first few weeks of school to willing students during study hall, break, or lunchPsychology, Home economics, or technology classIn conjunction with FAFSA meetings, parent meetingsJoin forces with athletic teams and organizationsValidity of the Self-Directed SearchThe degree to which a persons expressed interests relate to their inventory resultsHigh rates of validity are between 48-64% (depending on sex and age)1977, a group of high school freshmen took the inventory40%/men, 66% womenEventual occupation or field of entry was the predicted variableValidity is comparable to other inventories in its class (Krieshok, 1987)
Reliability of the Self-Directed SearchOConnell at the University of Maryland facilitated a study to determine test-retest reliability65 subjects were administered the SDS during freshman orientation and 7-10 months laterResults showed little change in codeUnreliability= individuals scoring their own booklets is a source of unrealiability
Cultural Implications27 million people world wideOther versions formed: Canadian, Spanish, ChineseEdition for those with limited reading skillsSharf, 2006Kuder and COPSCalifornia Occupational Preference SystemCOPS, CAPS, COPESCareer ClustersScience TechnologyOutdoor BusinessClerical CommunicationArts ServiceResults from inventories matched with career clusters
COPS 168 items 20 min, CAPS 50 mins, COPES 20-30 min10Kuder Career Search with Person MatchDr. Frederic Kuder6 career clustersOutdoor/MechanicalScience/TechnicalArts/CommunicationSocial/Personal ServicesSales/ManagementBusiness OperationsStudent interests = interest profiles of people in different occupationsStrategies for ImplementationPurpose and UseDesigned to assist in career decision-making process1st step - provides information for future career explorationMatch inventory results with career clustersExplore occupations within career clustersShould not be sole source of informationBest PracticesOnce in middle schoolTwice in high schoolFrequency and RangeCOPSBroad rangeCOPS, COPS P, COPS II, COPS R, COPS PICFrequency19,000 per year norm base7th -12th English KCS with Person MatchRangeMiddle school to adultMore effective with ageFrequencyKCS with Person MatchTotal ~2 millionSecondary 1.3 million
Validity & ReliabilityCOPSKnapp, Knapp, & Knapp-Lee, 198560 to 74% accurate for prediction of career choice or college majorKnapp, Knapp, & Buttafuoco , 197845% same highest for 2 successive years~80% same two highest93% same for top three KCS with Person MatchZytowski & Laing, 197851% employed in predicted occuptationCompared89% match top three in COPS and KCS(EDITS)1,091 participants in first study
14Narrative Career Counseling With StudentsNarrative Career CounselingBased on the principle that life events and experiences can be organized into stories that can lead to effective change.Narrative career counseling links the past, present, and future through a narrative form (Thomas & Gibbons, 2009).The student is the expert in the session and is the author and the main character of her career story (Eppler, Olsen, & Hidano, 2009).Narrative career counseling aligns with the American School Counselor Associations (ASCA) standards in the promotion of career competencies (American School Counselor Association, 2003).
16ResearchNarrative career counseling has been found to work well with students, as it allows them to be the experts in their own lives (Thomas & Gibbons, 2009)Research has also shown that narrative career counseling works well with students dealing with parental divorce.Adolescents from divorced families have poorer academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes that their peers from intact families (Thomas & Gibbons, 2009)Strategies for ImplementationBrott's "storied approach (Thomas & Gibbons, 2009):Co-Construction Process, Construction Process, Deconstruction ProcessBiblionarrative technique (Eppler et al., 2009):a combination of oral and written story that can be revised together throughout academic yearDisplaced communication (Eppler at al., 2009): focus on activities and materials with which students are comfortable and engage the student in indirect communication to discover their storyThe use of stories (Eppler et al., 2009): promotes reading skills while creating discussion on career exploration
Age group/gradesChildren: Using stories encourages rapport building because the childrens own choices of words are used and the counselor collaborates with the child (Eppler et al., 2009)Adolescents: First, adolescents have a strong desire for autonomy. Narrative career counseling requires the adolescent to be the primary author and actor.Second, adolescents believe that their thoughts, beliefs, and attitudes are more accurate than others' interpretations. Finally, adolescents are resistant to interventions that may be interpreted as personal criticism (Thomas & Gibbons, 2009).
Validity and reliabilityNarrative career counseling is fairly new to the career counseling field, so there is a limited amount of empirical support for this approach.This approach may be difficult for beginning counselors because of the lack of structured techniques and the lack of specific inventories. (McIlveen & Patton, 2007)Cultural ImplicationsBenefits of Narrative career counseling:Clients tell their life and career stories from the context of their experiences, allowing the client context and worldview to be integrated (Toporek & Flamer, 2009). Effective with marginalized groups where storytelling and narration are historically valued (Toporek & Flamer, 2009).School counselors using narrative counseling must be sensitive to the differences in counseling adolescents versus adults.Some adolescent students may not have moved into Piaget's formal-operational stage, which typically begins around sixth grade at age 11 or 12 (Thomas & Gibbons, 2009).
DiscoverDISCOVERResearch-based assessments: career-relevant interests, abilities, and job values World-of-Work Map organizes occupations into six clusters, parallel to Holland's HexagonComprehensive, developmental guidance process: identify strengths and needs, make good career decisions, and build a plan based on their personal profilesComplete, current databases: occupations, college majors, schools and training institutions, financial aid/scholarships, and military optionsDevelop good job-seeking skills:effective resumes, cover letters, job applications, and interviewing skillsServes persons from middle school through adulthood(http://www.act.org/discover/)
ResearchThe DISCOVER World-of-Work Map: An extension of John Holland's hexagon (26career areas)How interests, abilities, and job values relate to each other and to career optionsProvides a simple yet comprehensive overview of the work worldEncourage users to explore families of related occupations before moving on to specific occupationsInterest inventory: Not occupational titles or specific job duties Assess basic interests while minimizing the effects of sex-role connotationsResults are visually linked to career options via the World-of-Work MapAbility inventory: 15 abilities (6-10) , important work-relevant abilities-----sales, leadership, organization, and manual dexterityJob values inventory: Uses the World-of-Work Map to link work values (e.g., authority, public contact, physical activity) to career options and to interests and abilities.Research Support for DISCOVER Assessment Components summarizes a small part of the research supporting DISCOVER assessmentsStrategies for implementationPsycho-educationGroup career counselingIndividual career counseling
age groups/gradesPeople in Grade 6 or higher:Grade6 click on Occupational tab, then By the World-of-Work MapGrade 6-7: take the Interest InventoryGrade 8: take the Interest and Abilities InventoriesGrade 9 or above: take Interest, Abilities, and Values Inventories (Supers career developmental theory) Used for High schoolFour-year collegeTwo year collegeProfessional/graduate schoolCareer/technical trainingMilitary serviceImmediate employment ( Osborne, W., 1997)
Validity and reliabilityBased on more than 20 empirical investigations conducted by counselors and researchers over the past two decades, DISCOVER is effective:Help individuals make career decisionsClients who have specific career development needsOther kinds of career counselingIncrease an individuals:Career decidedness and occupational certaintyCareer maturityLevel of career development: Supers career developmental theoryCareer decision-making self-efficacyVocational identityCareer exploration behavior