Research on the Development and Promotion of Emergent Literacy Skills in Young Children

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Research on the Development and Promotion of Emergent Literacy Skills in Young Children Christopher J. Lonigan, Ph.D. Florida State University Florida Center for Reading Research. Supported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD/MH38880, HD36067, HD36509) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>Research on the Development and Promotion of Emergent Literacy Skills in Young Children</p><p>Christopher J. Lonigan, Ph.D.Florida State UniversityFlorida Center for Reading Research</p></li><li><p>Supported by</p><p>National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD/MH38880, HD36067, HD36509)</p><p>Administration for Children and Families (90YF0023)</p></li><li><p>What is Emergent Literacy?</p></li><li><p>Emergent Literacy</p><p> Emergent literacy involves the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are developmental precursors to conventional forms of reading and writing (Whitehurst &amp; Lonigan, 1998).</p></li><li><p>Emergent Literacy</p><p> Emergent literacy skills are the basic building blocks for learning to read and write.</p></li><li><p>Emergent Literacy</p><p> Emergent literacy skills begin developing in early infancy and early childhood through participation with adults in meaningful activities involving talking and print.</p></li><li><p>Emergent LiteracyThere are three domains of emergent literacy skills that are related to later (conventional) reading and writing. Oral Language Phonological Processing Print Knowledge</p></li><li><p>Emergent Literacy</p><p> These three skills are the foundation for how easily, quickly, and well children learn to read and write once they begin kindergarten and first grade.</p></li><li><p>Emergent Literacy</p><p> Research shows that these three skills, measured when children are in preschool, predict how well the children will be reading in the first grade.</p></li><li><p>Oral Language Skills</p></li><li><p>Oral Language SkillsVocabulary KnowledgeSyntactic KnowledgeNarrative Understanding</p></li><li><p>Oral Language SkillsKnowing words is key to learning to read.</p><p>Reading is a different way of communicating.</p><p>Difficult to learn to read words if you do not know words (i.e., what they mean; what they represent).</p></li><li><p>Oral Language SkillsMore complex oral language skills are most important later in the process of learning to read. They help children understand what is being read.</p></li><li><p>Print Knowledge</p></li><li><p>Print KnowledgeUnderstanding that it is the print that reflects the words and not other parts of books, like the pictures or the spaces between words.</p><p>Understanding that there are 26 different letters in English and that letters can look different and still be the same letter, as is the case for upper and lower case letters (or different print styles).</p></li><li><p>Print KnowledgeChildren need to learn that there are different sounds associated with each letter.</p><p>This task is difficult because sometimes each letter can represent multiple sounds (e.g., g and s), or the same sound can be associated with different letters (e.g., c and k)!</p></li><li><p>Phonological Processing Skills</p></li><li><p>Phonological Processing SkillsAlphabetic languages represent language at the phoneme level (i.e., letters typically correspond to phonemes in words).</p><p>Almost all poor readers have a problem with phonological processing.</p></li><li><p>Phonological Processing SkillsPhonological AccessPhonological MemoryPhonological Sensitivity</p></li><li><p>Phonological Processing Skills Better phonological memory--the ability to hold sound-based information in immediate memory--may increase the likelihood that the phonemes associated with the letters of a word can be maintained in memory while decoding, freeing more cognitive resources for decoding and comprehension.</p></li><li><p>Phonological Processing Skills Better phonological access--the retrieval of sound-based codes from memory--may increase the ease of retrieval of phonological codes associated with letters, word segments, and whole words from memory, making it more likely that they can be used in decoding.</p></li><li><p>Phonological Processing Skills Better phonological sensitivity (i.e., the ability to apprehend and/or manipulate smaller and smaller units of sound) facilitates the connection between letters and the sounds they represent in words.</p></li><li><p> Phonological Processing Skills Almost all research on phonological processing skills in preschool children has examined phonological sensitivity.</p></li><li><p>Phonological Sensitivity</p></li><li><p>Phonological Sensitivity... involves understanding that words are made up of smaller sounds, like...</p><p>syllables (i.e., the natural breaks in spoken words, like but er fly in the word butterfly)phonemes (i.e., the smallest speech sounds; sounds typically depicted by letters; e.g., the sound of the letter B, is the first phoneme in the word bat)</p></li><li><p>Phonological Sensitivity</p><p>Understanding that words are made up of smaller sounds helps children break the code between written language (the letters) and spoken language (the sounds).</p></li><li><p>Phonological SensitivityDeveloping phonological sensitivity is hard!</p><p>Phonemes do not really exist!</p><p>We co-articulate the phonemes in words when we speak.</p></li><li><p>Development of Phonological Sensitivity</p></li><li><p>Development of Phonological SensitivityPhonological sensitivity develops in a progressive fashion with sensitivity to smaller and smaller units of sound across the preschool period</p></li><li><p>The significance of preschool phonological sensitivity</p></li><li><p>Significance of Preschool Phonological SensitivityOne-year longitudinal study of 100 4- and 5-year-old children from higher SES backgrounds (Lonigan et al., 2000).</p><p>All children completed phonological sensitivity measures, tests of oral language, tests of print awareness, and other emergent literacy measures (e.g., concepts about print) in preschool and 12-months later.</p></li><li><p>Significance of Preschool Phonological SensitivityZero-order Correlations between Time 1 Emergent Literacy Skills and Time 2 Emergent Literacy and Reading Skills for Older Sample</p><p>Time 2 Variables</p><p>Phonological Sensitivity</p><p>Letter Knowledge</p><p>Reading</p><p>Concepts of Print</p><p> Phonological Sensitivity</p><p> 1.00***</p><p> .48***</p><p> .60***</p><p> .44***</p><p> Environmental Print</p><p> .59***</p><p> .42***</p><p> .51**</p><p> .18</p><p> Letter Knowledge</p><p> .64***</p><p> .80***</p><p> .51***</p><p> .37**</p><p> Concepts of Print</p><p> .60***</p><p> .35***</p><p> .40***</p><p> .62***</p></li><li><p>Development of Phonological Sensitivity</p><p>Children at Risk for Reading Difficulties</p></li><li><p>Development of Phonological SensitivitySES Differences in Phonological Sensitivity</p><p>Cross-sectional study comparing the performance of 250 children from higher income families to 170 children from lower income families.</p><p>Children were between two- and five-years of age.</p></li><li><p>SES Differences in Phonological SensitivityChildren completed tests of phonological sensitivity that assessed their ability to detect, blend, or elide words, syllables, onset-rimes, or phonemes.</p><p>Children also completed several oral language measures (e.g., PPVT, EOWPVT).</p></li><li><p>SES Differences in Phonological Sensitivity</p><p>Because of significant differences on the oral language measures, analyses examined language-corrected scores on the phonological sensitivity measures.</p></li><li><p>SES Differences in Phonological SensitivityChildren from lower SES backgrounds have significantly less well developed phonological sensitivity.</p><p>Children from lower SES backgrounds experience significantly less growth in these skills during the preschool years compared to their higher SES counterparts.</p></li><li><p>Growth and Stability of Preschool Emergent Literacy Skills in At-Risk Children</p></li><li><p>Growth and Stability of Emergent Literacy in At-Risk Preschool ChildrenOne-year longitudinal study of 325 3- to 5-year-olds attending Head Start.</p><p>Children completed assessments of phonological processing skills (sensitivity, access, memory), print awareness, and oral language three times during the Head Start year.</p></li><li><p>PhonologicalSensitivitySeptember</p><p>PhonologicalSensitivityJanuary</p><p>PhonologicalSensitivityMay</p><p>.95.90.82Stability of Phonological Sensitivity Across the Head Start YearGrowth and Stability of Emergent Literacy in At-Risk Preschool Children</p></li><li><p>Growth and Stability of Emergent Literacy in At-Risk Preschool ChildrenChildren from lower SES backgrounds are at risk of later reading difficulties because of overall slower development of emergent literacy skills and the high degree of stability of these skills.</p><p>In the absence of effective intervention, children from lower SES backgrounds are unlikely to arrive at school ready to benefit from reading instruction.</p></li><li><p>Interventions for children at risk for later reading problems</p><p>Dialogic Reading StudiesPhonological Sensitivity InterventionsCombined Intervention</p></li><li><p>Dialogic ReadingDialogic reading is a shared-reading intervention designed to promote the development of oral language skills.</p><p>Dialogic reading involves several changes in the way adults typically read books to children.</p><p>Central to these changes is a shift in roles. During typical shared-reading, the adult reads and the child listens...</p></li><li><p>Dialogic dialogic reading the child learns to become the storyteller. The adult assumes the role of an active listenerAsking questionsAdding informationPrompting the child to increase the sophistication of descriptions of the material in the picture book</p></li><li><p>Dialogic ReadingChildren's responses to the book are encouraged through praise and repetition, and more sophisticated responses are encouraged by expansions of the child's utterances and by more challenging questions from the adult reading partner.</p></li><li><p>Dialogic Reading</p><p>Studies conducted with children from lower SES families demonstrate that teachers, parents, or community volunteers can produce substantial positive changes in children's language.</p></li><li><p>Dialogic ReadingA large scale longitudinal study of the use of dialogic reading over a year of a Head Start program for 4-year-olds showed large effects on oral language skills at the end of Head Start that were maintained through the end of kindergarten.</p></li><li><p>Phonological Sensitivity InterventionsMost phonological sensitivity interventions have been conducted with children at the beginning stages of learning to read.</p><p>A small but growing body of research suggests that preschool phonological awareness interventions can increase childrens skills in this area and improve the childrens later reading skills.</p></li><li><p>CAI in Head Start45 children attending Head Start were randomly assigned to receive either a CAI phonological sensitivity intervention or nothing in addition to the standard Head Start curriculum.</p><p>Children in the CAI group received daily 15 minute sessions for about 10 weeks.</p><p>All children pre- and posttested on measures of phonological sensitivity, print awareness, and oral language. </p></li><li><p>CAI in Head StartCAI activities provided instruction and practice in rhyme, blending, and segmentation of sounds in words.</p><p>CAI program used an adventure game context.</p><p>Research assistants worked with the children to provide instructional and technical support.</p></li><li><p>Significant Pre- to Posttest Difference Scores for Head Start CAI Study</p></li><li><p>Comprehensive Pre-Literacy InterventionInterventions targeting separate emergent literacy skills (oral language, phonological sensitivity) can be effective.Data suggest, however, that emergent literacy skills are relatively modularlong-term dialogic reading effects do not extend to decoding.phonological processing and print awareness skills--and not oral language--predict early decoding.</p></li><li><p>Comprehensive Pre-Literacy InterventionPreventative Intervention for Children At-Risk for Reading DifficultiesComparison to determine optimal combinations of emergent literacy intervention.Examination of the additive effects of combined interventions.Using small group activities.</p></li><li><p>Comprehensive Pre-Literacy Intervention</p><p>Initial Outcomes in Three Emergent Literacy Domains</p></li><li><p>Summary</p></li><li><p>SummaryChildrens emergent literacy skills are strong predictors of how quickly, easily, and well children will acquire conventional literacy skills.</p><p>Childrens oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge skills are important developmental domains for reading.</p></li><li><p>SummaryChildrens emergent literacy skills are highly stable--indicating that children who start behind are likely to stay behind.</p><p>Many children from lower SES backgrounds are at significant risk for difficulties learning to read because of their lower level of emergent literacy skills.</p></li><li><p>SummaryThere are effective interventions for improving childrens emergent literacy skills.</p><p>Emergent literacy skills are modular. It is likely that effective intervention will need to address performance in all three areas (oral language, phonological processing, print awareness).</p></li><li><p>Summary</p><p>Educational strategies using these intervention techniques can be used to help children at-risk for reading problems become ready to read -- and ready to learn.</p></li><li><p>--</p></li></ul>


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