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A Project Report On College Attendance System based on Facial Recognition Submitted to Amity University, Uttar Pradesh

In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology In Computer Science & Engineering By Rohan Khurana Under the guidance of Ms. Divya Sharma Department of Computer Science & Engineering Amity School of Engineering & Technology Amity University, Noida Uttar Pradesh April, 2012

DECLARATION I, Rohan Khurana, student of Bachelor of Technology (Computer Science & Engineering) hereby declare that the project titled College Attendance System based on Facial Recognition which is submitted by me to Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science & Engineering, has not been previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title or recognition.

Place: Noida Date: 30th April 2012 Rohan Khurana



On the basis of declaration submitted by Rohan Khurana, student of B. Tech (Computer Science & Engineering), I hereby certify that the project titled College Attendance System based on Facial Recognition which is submitted to Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science & Engineering, is an original contribution with existing knowledge and faithful record of work carried out by him/them under my guidance and supervision.

To the best of my knowledge this work has not been submitted in part or full for any Degree or Diploma to this University or elsewhere.

Noida Date

(Ms. Divya Sharma) Department of Computer Science and Engineering Amity School of Engineering and Technology Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT College Attendance System based on Facial Recognition is a biometrics oriented project aimed at presenting some concepts from various computer science disciplines with a programming approach. An effort has been made to present this material in a very lucid manner followed by scrutinized observation to every step of the source code so implemented. I take this opportunity to express my deep regards to respected Ms. Divya Sharma, Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, A.S.E.T, AUUP. I am indebted to her for providing me the necessary counselling and support. I am deeply indebted to our mentor Miss. Divya Sharma for encroachment upon her time. I would like to express a heartfelt gratitude for her insight, expertise and energy contributed greatly to this project. In addition to this I acknowledge my debt of gratitude to the numerous authors whose great masterly work I have consulted during the preparation of this project. Last but not the least; I would like to thank my parents for their sound counselling and cheerful support. I hope that this project on College Attendance System based on Facial Recognition in the present form caters to the needs of all concerned.

Rohan Khurana



This research aims at providing a system to automatically record the students attendance during lecture hours in a hall or room using facial recognition technology instead of the traditional manual methods. The objective behind this research is to thoroughly study the field if pattern recognition (facial recognition) which is very important and is used in various applications like identification and detection.


CONTENTS Declaration Certificate Acknowledgements Abstract Contents CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study 1.2 Problem Definition 1.3 Proposed Scope and Enhancement CHAPTER 2 Literature Review and Prior Research 2.1 Biometric Recognition 2.1.1 Emergence 2.1.2 Advantages 2.1.3 Types 2.1.4 Modules of a Biometric System 2.2 Facial Recognition 2.2.1 Automatic Facial Recognition Process Flow 2.2.2 Facial Recognition Techniques 2.2.3 Limitations of Face Recognition Technologies CHAPTER 3 Materials and Methodology 3.1 System Development Requirements 3.1.1 Hardware 3.1.2 Software 3.1.3 Internet Connection 3.2 System Analysis and Design 3.2.1 Logical Data Flow (DFD) 3.2.2 Data Structures 3.2.3 Database Design(ERD)vi

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CHAPTER 4 Implementation 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Colour Based Techniques 4.2.1 Description 4.2.2 Problems Faced 4.2.3 Limitations 4.2.4 Recommendations 4.2.5 Flow Chart 4.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.3.1 Description 4.3.2 PCA based Face Recognition Algorithm 4.3.3 Calculation of Eigenfaces with PCA 4.3.4 Classifying Images 4.3.5 Input and Output 4.3.6 MATLAB Implementation 4.3.7 Database Implementation CHAPTER 5 Discussion of Result CHAPTER 6 Presentation of Result 6.1 The Basic User Interface 6.2 Average Face Output 6.3 Recognition Output CHAPTER 7 Conclusions CHAPTER 8 Future Prospects CHAPTER 9 References

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1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the study The rapid development in the field of pattern recognition and its uses in different areas e.g. (signature recognition, facial recognition), arises the importance of the utilization of this technology in different areas in large organizations. This is mainly because these applications help the top-management take decisions that improve the performance and effectiveness of the organization. On the other hand, for an organization to be effective, it needs accurate and fast means of recording the performance of the people inside this organization. Biometric recognition has the potential to become an irreplaceable part of many identification systems used for evaluating the performance of those people working within the organization. Although biometric technologies are being applied in many fields it has not yet delivered its promise of guaranteeing automatic human recognition. This research is the first of its kind to attempt to provide an automated attendance system that recognizes students using face recognition technology through an image/video stream to record their attendance in lectures or sections and evaluating their performance accordingly. 1.2 Problem definition Every time a lecture or laboratory starts, the lecturer delays the lecture to record students attendance. This is a lengthy process and takes a lot of time and effort, especially if it is a lecture with a huge number of students. It also causes a lot of disturbance and interruption when an exam is held. Moreover the attendance sheet is subjected to damage and loss while being passed on between different students or teaching staff. And when the number of students enrolled in a certain course is huge, the lecturers tend to call a couple of student names at random which is not a fair student evaluation process either. Finally, these attendance records are used by the staff to monitor the students attendance rates. This process could be easy and effective with a small number of students but on the other hand, dealing with the records of a large number of students often leads to human errors.


1.3 Proposed scope and enhancement This project proposes solutions to all the above mentioned problems by providing an automated attendance system for all the students that attend a certain lecture, laboratory or exam at its specific time, thus saving time, effort and reducing distractions and disturbance. Another advantage concerning exams, is when the invigilator or the advisor accidentally loses an exam paper or the student lies about attending the exam, there will be a record of the students attendance for the exam at that time, thus protecting both lecturers and students rights. In addition, an automated performance evaluation would provide more accurate and reliable results avoiding human error.


2. Literature review and prior research I have studied the literature available in the fields of pattern recognition and biometric systems with a focus on facial recognition. In addition, a study of previous attendance systems and its atomization attempts was conducted to examine the similar previous systems. The literature is divided into two main parts; the first part examines the different biometric characteristics and systems. In the second part, an in-depth study on facial recognition is conducted for it is the technology to be used by our proposed project. 2.1 Biometric recognition: There are three different types of authentication: something you know, such as passwords, something you have, such as badges or cards, and finally something you are, which mainly depends on biometrics and physical traits. Each of these three authentication methods has its advantages and disadvantages, and each is considered appropriate for certain types of application. Among there three types, scientists and researchers consider biometric recognition systems as high-level security systems. They define the biometric term as the science, involving the statistical analysis of biological characteristics. Biometric recognition generally matches a live digital image of a portion from a certain physical body part with a previously recorded image of that same portion; whether it is in identification mode where one-to-many comparisons take place, or verification (authentication) mode where one-to-one comparisons occur. 2.1.1 Emergence For thousands of years, humans have used biometrics and physical characteristics such as face and voice to identify other human beings for a wide variety of purposes, ranging from simple business interactions to

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