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Renewable feedstocks. Thursday 29th October 2009. PLATFORM CHEMICALS. Adapted from Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, ed. Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008. Chemicals from Crude oil. Brassica. Animal feed. Food. Biofuels. Artemisia. Oil. Wheat (straw). Artemisinin. Animal feed. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Renewable feedstocks

  • Renewable feedstocksThursday 29th October 2009

  • PLATFORM CHEMICALS

  • Adapted from Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, ed. Clark, J.; Deswarte, F. Wiley, 2008

  • Chemicals from Crude oil

  • BrassicaArtemisiaAnimal feedBiofuelsFoodWheat (straw)Animal feedLignocelluloseFood

  • PHENOLICS FROM ARTEMESIA

  • FlavonesFunctionalizing Flavones

  • Monomers for polyester formation

  • Monomers for polyether formationMonomers for methacrylate formation

  • PHENOLICS FROM WASTE STRAW

  • Lignin is a major component of plant cell wallsLignin-degradingmicrobesBacterialaromaticdegraders

  • Fluorescent Assay for Lignin DegradationTim Bugg, Paper Submitted to Molecular Biosystems

  • Large Scale Extraction1.5 kg (wet) of P.chrysosporium-degraded straw was extracted using 20 L reactor12 L of water and 8 L of THF used to extract strawTHF was used due to combination of interesting peaks from LTQ analysis and mass recovered in previous trials

    *

    ExtractMass (g)Percentage of total (wet)Percentage of total (dry)Aqueous156.8810.6%38.6%Organic14.50.98%3.57%Dry Straw235.315.9%57.9%Water content-72.7%-

  • HPLC traces with timeDegrader Pseudomonas putidaNon-degrader Bacillus subtilisshows no change

  • GC-MS data for small scale lignocellulose degradation trials GC-MS total ion chromatogram with EI ionisation for Rhodococcus RHA1 incubated with wheat straw lignocellulose for 7 days at 30 oC.Mass spectrum of peak at RT 7.02 min, assigned to monosilylated derivative of ketone (1), m/z 268 (M-SiMe3)+, 253 (M-SiMe3-CH3)+.

  • Aromatic metabolites identified (so far)

    CompoundLC-MSRetention time (min)LC-MSm/zGC-MSRetention time (min)GC-MSm/z(silylated)Observed with..1

    4.29235 MK+7.02268 M+253 -CH3P. Putida 6hr, 1d, 3dRhodococcus RHA1 2hr, 4hrMiscanthus & wheat straw2

    4.56209 MNa+225 MK+7.71243 M+228 -CH3P. Putida (straw) 7dRhodococcus RHA1Miscanthus 1d, straw 2d3

    5.25195 MH+5.27251 M-CH3P. Putida 6hrRhodococcus RHA1 2hr, 6hrMiscanthus only45.76251 MK+6.03341 M-CH3P. Putida 6hrRhodococcus RHA1 4hr, 6hrMiscanthus only5

    9.09169 MH+Rhodococcus RHA1 6hrMiscanthus only

  • Ferulic acid.379 papers in 2008-9 on biological activity alone1 per 1gAnti-oxidantActive breast cancer, liver cancerActive ingredient in anti-ageing creams / plumping creamsCarboxy vanillic acid.0 papers in 2008-9

    Potential use as fine chemical building block.Vanillic acid precursor.Diacid for use in polyesters and polyamides

  • Other potential major degradation products-yet to be fully identified from wheat strawDerivative of Gallic acid.Anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-oxidant. Gallic acid is used in dyes and inks. No current market.Potential in poly-ethers, -ester or -urethanesVanillic acid precursor?Diacid for use in polyesters and polyamides

  • OIL FROM BRASSICA

  • 00 CanolaHigh ErucicHigh OleicNatural profiles of some rapeseed oils now available

  • Polyurethanes (polymers)

  • Vegetable Oils as Polymer Feedstocks (monomers)Rapeseed oilEuphorbia oilJuteHemp

    CompositetypeFibre volume(%)Tensile strength(MPa)Youngs Modulus(GPa)Composite density(Kg/m3)Impact strength(kJ/m2)HEMP/ EUPH21.0522.91 (1.06)2.31649.5518.81(2.17)HEMP / RAPE19.9238.84 (2.21)3.40697.099.25(1.21)JUTE / EUPH23.7755.52(2.60)4.26658.5910.60(2.27)JUTE / RAPE23.7446.38(3.37)3.89704.9313.70(1.95)

  • WAX FROM WASTE STRAW

  • Wax Extraction - Results

    It would appear that a higher content is made available by degradation, but it is unknown to the origin of the material.

    Straw TypeProcessingExtracted mass / mg% dry mass extractedUntreatedNone801.84UntreatedWater240.55UntreatedChopped1001.77P. Chrysosporium None3107.40P. Chrysosporium Water400.96P. Chrysosporium Chopped230 5.35

  • Tungstan mediated fatty acid functionalisation: J. Appl. Poly. Science, In Prep

  • Future work

  • Future workExpand to renewable Waste Products further down manufacturing line.e.g. food industry, ConfectionaryUse outputs to make demonstrator pieces for media and industrial dissemination

  • Electrospinning LigninFiller in biocomposite structuresMay promote resin / matrix adhesion between for natural fibresFuture workUse in electrospun nanofibresSolutions not ideal for electrospinningPotential to be co-spun with other polymers (e.g. PVOH)Degradation products may have beneficial anti-oxidant properties which can be incorporated

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